@姜文宣： 2018-02-02 17:14:32 评论
Henry Ford II (1969)
I haven't got anything against open competition. If they can build a better car and sell it for less money,
let 'em do it. But what burns me up is that I can't go into Japan. We can't build, we can't sell, we can't service,
we can't do a damn thing over there ... I think this country ought to have the guts to stand up to unfair competition.
Chronology of US auto manufacturer history in Japan
1902 - 1920: Japanese entrepreneurs build prototypes, but no vehicle production facilities established.
1905: Ford exports its first vehicles to Japan in a private sale
1909: Ford begins selling imported cars in Japan.
1915: Yanase begins sale of Buick and Cadillac models in Japan for General Motors.
1926: General Motors (Japan) Ltd. is established.
1927: Dodge Brothers begins sales of cars in Japan.
General Motors begins assembly of cars and light trucks in Osaka.
Ford installs Asia's first automatic conveyor assembly line at
Koyasu, which allows car and truck production of 10,000 units
per year, making Ford the top auto producer in Japan.
1930: Chrysler cars assembled in Yokohama
1933: Nissan starts production
1935: Ford purchases 91 acres of reclaimed land at Tsurumi,
Yokohama, in order to develop a steel mill and fabricate
components for vehicles assembled at the Koyasu plant. However,
plans do not proceed because the Japanese Government does not
approve the permits needed.
After the Ford expansion is prevented, the Japanese Government
passes the Automotive Manufacturing Industries Law. The purpose
of the law is to protect the domestic auto industry, provide
favorable tax treatment and incentives for Japanese
manufacturers, and to impose restrictions on foreign
manufacturers. Besides prohibiting Ford's expansion, the law
also limited GM-Japan production to less than 10,000 units per
year. Nissan and Toyota are the only Japanese manufacturers
authorized to build vehicles.
1937: Toyota starts production.
1937: Japanese Government begins to strictly curtail operations of foreign manufacturers.
1939: Foreign-owned manufacturers refused production or
assembly operations under Automobile Manufacturing Law.
1941: All assets of U S auto companies taken over by the Japanese
Government in December After Pearl Harbor, all equipment from
Ford's Koyasu plant is moved to Manchuria for
the assembly of military vehicles.
1941 - 1945 World War II
1945: Occupation General Headquarters (GHQ) approves
production of trucks by domestic manufacturers on September 25.
1946: Domestic truck production begins.
1948: Ford resumes imports under a license system.
1949: GHQ lifts restrictions on passenger car production
Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Control Law enacted This law
required any citizen who acquired foreign exchange through trade
to relinquish it to a government account. MITI administered the
law, so it was possible for the agency to allocate capital to
industries it considered to be most important to Japan's economy
The system was removed in 1964, but then replaced by a quota
system which lasted into the late 1970s.
Chrysler re-enters Japan, represented by independent
GM establishes a local sales office in Japan.
1950: Limited sales of imports allowed for specific
applications (taxis, etc.)
1951: Japanese Government regains sovereignty and states that
no foreign assemblers may enter Japan without a six-year plan for
domestic manufacturing. Lack of clear policy on the treatment of
royalties and lack of guarantee beyond six years discourages
Ford from renewing activities in Japan.
1953: Imports account for nearly 60% of total registrations in
Japan (By comparison, by 1960 import share dipped to1% and did
not reach 2% until 1988 -- today it is about 5%).
1954: Concerned about Japan's $260 million trade deficit, the
Japanese Government puts strict controls on all imports..
1955: MlTI restricts allocation of currency for auto imports
and places: restraints on the sale of used American
vehicles in Japan
Japan levies a 40% tariff on imported cars.
1962: MITI claims imports create unfair damage to the Japanese industry
1967: "Unofficial" quotas established on engine imports
Government of Japan announces regulations that limit foreign ownership to no more than 7% of the stock of any existing Japanese company, among other restrictions.
U.S. Commerce Secretary Trowbridge calls for specific, high level negotiations to liberalize import and investment restrictions in the automotive sector, in light of Japan's emergence as the world's second largest producer of vehicles. Although Japan agrees to talks in December after much negotiation, at the last minute they announce that the head of
JAMA will lead the talks, with Japanese Government officials
acting only as observers, thus removing the Japanese Government
from being in a position to directly answer U S Government
demands. No substantive action results from the talks
1968: Japan refuses Borg Warner entry to Japan as a major
investor Borg Warner is only allowed minority investor access
and forced to release its patents to Japanese competitors.
1969: Toyota advises the government that acceptance of foreign
capital within the Japanese auto industry must be stopped
1974: Japan exports more vehicles than any other country. MITI
claims Japan still needs protection.
1975: First talks between U S. industry and Japanese Government on
certification and homologation barriers to U.S imports.
1979: Ford purchases equity in Mazda.
1981: Autorama, a Mazda-operated distribution chain, is
established to handle Ford-badged products.
1982: GM decides to handle all sales through single distributor
1984: Japanese Government establishes preferred handling
procedures for low-volume imports.
1988: Chrysler Japan Sales Ltd. formed as a joint venture with
J. Osawa Co. to handle import sales.
1989: Changes in Japanese tax code. Commodity tax abolished, and
replaced with an across the board consumption tax of 6% on all
cars with engines displacement above 550 cc.
1992: 6% consumption tax reduced to 4.5%, instead of 3%
reduction promised by Japanese Government.