试译Dare to Dream(敢于做梦)

楼主:怡红院院士 时间:2006-07-22 14:54:00 浙江 点击:3595 回复:8
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Dare to Dream
  敢于做梦
  
  What happens in your head at night, new science reveals, is more important than you think.
  新的科学研究发现,夜晚你头脑里所发生的一切,比你所想的要重要的多。
  
  By Michael J. Weiss 文/ 迈·J·威斯
  From Reader's Digest 原载《读者文摘》
  February 2006 200六年第二期
  
  Why Do We Dream?
  我们为什么做梦?
  
  Our dreams may affect our lives (and vice versa) more than we ever realized, says groundbreaking new research. For 11 years, a 58-year-old anthropologist kept a journal of nearly 5,000 dreams. By analyzing color patterns in the dreams, Arizona-based researcher Robert Hoss could accurately predict certain things about the man's emotional state. Hoss correctly identified two separate years when the man experienced crises in his life. The anthropologist confirmed that in 1997 he had clashed with a colleague over a management issue, and in 2003 he'd had a falling out with a friend that left deep emotional scars.
  新近的研究报告指出,我们的梦会影响我们的生活(反之亦然),这比我们所认识的要多得多。58岁的人类学家将一份近5000人所做之梦的记录保存了10年之久。经过分析这些梦的颜色的类型,亚利桑那州的研究员罗伯特·霍斯能精确地预测入梦者的一些情感状况。霍斯正确地界定了两个彼此独立的时期——当他经历了他一生中的危机时。这名人类学家证实,在1997年,他和同事因管理问题不和;在2003年,他和一位朋友吵翻并留下了很深的情感伤痕。
  How was Hoss able to gauge the dreamer's turmoil? "The clues were in the colors," he says. The anthropologist's dominant dream hues were reds and blacks, which spiked during difficult times. "Even without knowing the events in his life," Hoss observes, "we accurately determined the emotional states based on those colors in his dreams."
  霍斯怎能测量入梦者纷繁复杂的情感呢?“线索就在颜色里,”他说。这位人类学家的梦境主色调是红与黑——处于困境时,就会出现这些。“即使不知道他生命里的这些情况,”霍斯观察到,“但基于其梦境的颜色,我们便能准确测定其情感状况。”
  Hoss is among a growing group of researchers who, thanks to cutting-edge medical technology and innovative psychological research, are beginning to decipher the secrets hidden in our dreams and the role dreaming plays in our lives. A look at some of their latest discoveries can give us new insights into the language of dreams and help us make the most of our time asleep.
  霍斯是一个不断成长的研究团队中的一员,通过借鉴尖端的医学技术和不断创新的心理研究,这个研究团队开始破解隐藏于我们梦中的秘密以及梦在我们生活中所扮演的角色。回顾一下他们最近的研究成果,会让我们对梦境分析的语言有一些全新的了解,也可以使我们睡得更好。
  Dreams are a way for the subconscious to communicate with the conscious mind. Dreaming of something you're worried about, researchers say, is the brain's way of helping you rehearse for a disaster in case it occurs. Dreaming of a challenge, like giving a presentation at work or playing sports, can enhance your performance. And cognitive neuroscientists have discovered that dreams and the rapid eye movement (REM) that happens while you're dreaming are linked to our ability to learn and remember.
  梦是一种沟通潜意识与意识的方式。研究者指出,梦到你所忧虑的某事物,是大脑帮助你的一种方式——排演某种万一会发生的灾难。梦到挑战,比如在工作中或运动中,会提高你的表现。认识神经学家已经发现,梦和你入梦时的快速眼动(REM),与我们的学习、记忆能力是相联系的。
  Dreaming is a "mood regulatory system," says Rosalind Cartwright, PhD, chairman of the psychology department at Rush University Medical Center in Chicago. She's found that dreams help people work through the day's emotional quandaries. "It's like having a built-in therapist," says Cartwright. While we sleep, dreams compare new emotional experience to old memories, creating plaid-like patterns of old images laid on top of new ones. As she puts it, "You may wake up and think, What was Uncle Harry doing in my dream? I haven't seen him for 50 years. But the old and new images are emotionally related." It's the job of the conscious mind to figure out the relationship.
   梦是一个“情绪调整系统”,芝加哥拉什大学(Rush University)医疗中心的心理科主任罗莎琳德·卡特赖特博士说。她已经发现,梦帮助人们处理白天的情绪困境。“它就像有了一个临床医学家在你体内一样,”卡特赖特说。当我们睡觉时,梦将新的情感体验和旧的记忆进行对比,在新的体验上创建旧图像的格子模型。就像她说的一样,“你会醒来,并想,哈里大叔在我梦里做了什么?我已经有50年没有看见他了。然而旧的图像和新的记忆在情感上是相联系的。” 意识的主要工作就是认定两者之间的关系。
  In fact, dream emotions can help real therapists treat patients undergoing traumatic life events. In a new study of 30 recently divorced adults, Cartwright tracked their dreams over a five-month period, measuring their feelings toward their ex-spouses. She discovered that those who were angriest at the spouse while dreaming had the best chance of successfully coping with divorce. "If their dreams were bland," Cartwright says, "they hadn't started to work through their emotions and deal with the divorce." For therapists, this finding will help determine whether divorced men or women need counseling or have already dreamed their troubles away.
   事实上,梦境情感能帮助现实中的临床医学家治疗那些经历过意外事件创伤的病患。卡特赖特在一份最新的研究报告中对近30%的离婚人士的梦追踪了5个月,测量了他们对其前配偶的情感。她发现,当这些人梦到有机会能成功地应付离婚时,他们对其配偶非常的生气。“如果他们的梦是乏味的,”卡特赖特说,“他们的情感无法很好地开始工作,并处理离婚。”对这些临床医学家而言,这些发现有助于决定那些离婚人士是否需要咨询服务或已经梦到他们的困境。
  
  One Interpretation Doesn't Fit All
  一个并不周密的解释
  
  No device lets researchers probe the content of dreams while we sleep, but scientists are finding new ways to interpret dreams once we've awakened. Forget Freud's notion that dreams contain images with universal meanings (e.g., cigar=penis). A new generation of psychologists insists that dream symbols differ depending on the dreamer. In a recent study, University of Ottawa psychology professor Joseph De Koninck asked 13 volunteers to make two lists: one of details recalled from recent dreams, and another of recent events in their waking lives. When analysts were asked to match which volunteer experienced which dream, they failed. De Koninck's conclusion: Each person understands his or her dreams better than anyone else -- including traditional psychoanalysts. In a dream, sometimes a cigar is just a cigar -- or almost anything else.
   当我们入睡时,尽管没有一个好的设备可以让研究者探究我们梦中的内容,但是科学家正在尝试新的方法来解释梦,一旦我们醒来时。忘记弗洛伊德的说法,梦将图像与普遍意义相联系(如,雪茄=阳物)。新一代的心理学家坚信,梦境象征因入梦者而异。渥太华大学心理学教授约瑟夫·德·科尼克在一项新近的研究中让13名志愿者罗列两个清单:一个回忆最近梦中的细节,一是陈述最近所经历的事情。当分析者谈到对志愿者的经历与其梦境进行匹配时,他们失败了。德·科尼克的结论是:每个人比其他人更知道自己的梦——包括传统的心理分析学家。在梦中,雪茄有时只是一根雪茄——或者是一些别的什么东西。
  "There's just no evidence of universal dream symbols," says De Koninck. "My advice is to throw away your dream dictionary if you really want to interpret your dreams."
   “没有关于梦境普遍象征意义的证据,”德·科尼克说,“我的建议是,如果你真想解释你的梦,扔掉那些释梦的词典。”
  Today, psychologists are applying modern technology to probe the content of dreams. Hoss uses a computer-based approach called content analysis to interpret the colors in dreams. More than 80 percent of people dream in color, he says, though only a quarter of them recall the shades the next morning. To collect data, he analyzed nearly 24,000 dreams, catalogued in two databases at the University of California, Santa Cruz, and Bridgewater State College in Massachusetts. His study suggested that specific colors represent particular emotions (for example, red means action, excitement and desire; blue equals calmness, tranquility and harmony; black connotes fear, anxiety and intimidation).
   今天,心理学家正在运用现代科学技术来探测梦的内容。霍斯用一个基于电脑的所谓内容分析方法来解释梦境的颜色。超过80%的人的梦有颜色,他说,尽管只是让其中的四分之一在次日早晨回忆梦中图景。他搜集数据,分析了将近24,000个梦,并在加利福尼亚大学的圣塔克鲁斯(Santa Cruz)、麻省的布利基沃特学院(Bridgewater State College)建立了两个数据库目录。他的研究表明,特殊的颜色表示特殊的情感(例如,红色意味着行动、兴奋、欲求;蓝色代表着平和、宁静、和谐;黑色表示恐惧、焦虑、胁迫)。
  But, as with symbols and action, one size doesn't fit all when it comes to interpretation. Every dreamer draws on a different palette to reflect personal associations. "Using color is your brain's way of painting your dreams with your emotion," says Hoss, who just published his results in Dream Language (Innersource, 2005).
   但是,即使有这些象征和行为,一种类型并不能解释所有的现象。每一个入梦者在其调色板上所涂抹的颜色反映着其个人的联想。“用颜色来描绘你的梦中情感是大脑的一种工作方式。”霍斯如此说,他已将他的研究结果发表在“梦语言”(Dream Language)一书中。
  Some researchers scoff at the need for computers or even therapists to interpret dreams. Psychologist Gayle Delaney, PhD, founding president of the International Association for the Study of Dreams, believes that dreamers themselves are the best interpreters of their time in dreamland. She supports a "dream interview" technique, which asks people to answer a series of straightforward questions in order to gain insights into their recollections. From her office in San Francisco, Delaney uses this process to help single people analyze and better understand their romantic relationships through their dreams.
  一些研究者看不起用电脑来释梦的行为,甚至瞧不起那些临床医学家的作为。国际梦研究协会的首任 ,心理学家盖勒·德莱尼博士相信入梦者是自己最好的释梦者。她支持“梦后谈话”技术,即要求人们直截了当地回答一系列问题以洞察他们的回忆。通过其在旧金山的办公室,她用这个方法来帮助单身的人们分析或更好地理解其恋爱关系。
  Delaney tells of one client who dreamed of her new boyfriend swimming in the ocean. Above the water, he looked like an adorable seal, but below the water he was a vicious shark. When asked about her boyfriend's personality, the woman conceded that he had a violent streak -- a fact she consciously tried to ignore. "It was clear that this woman had misgivings about a darker side to her boyfriend," says Delaney. "The dreaming mind is more insightful about the people in your life than your waking mind." The woman broke up with her boyfriend soon afterward.
   德莱尼讲述了一个客户梦到了她的新男朋友在海中游泳。在水面上,他看起来像一只可爱的海豹;但是在水下,他看起来却像一只凶恶的鲨鱼。当她被问及她男朋友的个性时,她承认他有强烈的裸奔倾向——她有意识地想忘记这事。“很明显,她担心其男友的另一面。”德莱尼说,“人们在睡梦中的情感比清醒时更加富有洞察力。”不久以后,这位女性和她的男友分手了。
  
  What Dreams Can Do for You
  梦能为我们做什么
  
  Psychologists have long known that people can solve their problems at work and home by "sleeping on it." The challenge has always been to train yourself to dream up the solutions. Deirdre Barrett, PhD, an assistant psychology professor at Harvard Medical School and editor of the journal Dreaming, advises individuals to ponder questions just before falling asleep (Should I take this job? Should I marry that guy?) and then let the subconscious provide the answers. "I've known artists looking for inspiration who simply dream up a future show of their art and wake up with plenty of new painting ideas," says Barrett. "More and more people are learning these techniques to control their dreams."
   心理学家已经熟知人们会通过“睡一觉再说”的方式来解决工作和家庭中的问题。这总是能让你在想出一个解决方案。哈佛大学医学院心理学助理教授兼《梦》杂志编辑迪尔德丽·巴雷特博士认为,人们恰好是在入睡前思考问题(我要做这份工作吗?我要嫁给那小子吗?),然后让潜意识给出答案。“我知道艺术家怎么寻找灵感,他们只不过是在梦中勾画出其艺术作品的大致轮廓,但醒来时却有着很多的艺术创意。”巴雷特说,“越来越多的人们正学习这些技术以掌控他们的梦。”
  Some researchers believe that you can guide your dreams while you're sleeping. In recent years, Stephen LaBerge, PhD, has pioneered a way of directing the sleeping mind through "lucid dreaming," in which a sleeping person realizes he or she is dreaming while it is happening. Lucid dreamers can experience fantasy adventures -- like flying to the moon, traveling through time or making love on a beach -- while being fully aware that they're dreaming. "It's like a poor man's Tahiti," says LaBerge, a psychophysiologist who directs the Lucidity Institute in Palo Alto, California. "Just being in a lucid dream is a turn-on for people."
   一些研究者相信,当你入睡时你能够指导你的梦。最近几年,斯蒂芬·拉伯格博士已经探索出一种通过“清晰之梦”来指导睡眠中的情感,即入睡者意识到他/她正在做梦,这时这种情况便发生了。清晰的入梦者能有白日梦的经历——像飞向月宫,穿越时空旅行,或在沙滩上交欢——然而他们能完全意识到自己正在做梦。“这有点像穷人的塔希提岛,”拉伯格说,他是加州帕洛·阿尔托(Palo Alto)领导“清晰之梦”学会的一名心理生理学家。“做一个清晰之梦对人们非常的有好处。”
  According to LaBerge, lucid dreamers can use the experience for a variety of purposes: problem solving, developing creative ideas and healing. Patricia Keelin, a 55-year-old graphic cartographer from northern California, has used lucid dreaming for everything from talking to her long-dead father to gorging on sweets. "Chocolate always tastes better in a lucid dream because you don't have to worry about the calories," she says. A weak swimmer in her waking life, she often likes to go skin diving when she realizes she's having a lucid dream, diving to the bottom of the dream ocean without worrying about breathing (or her swimming skills). "It's exhilarating," she says. "Lucid dreaming is great because it's free and available to everybody."
   经过拉伯格的努力,清晰的入梦者能将他们的经验用于各种用途:解决问题,发展创意,康复治疗等。帕特里夏·基林,一位来自北卡罗来纳州55岁的制图师,已经将清晰之梦应用于各个方面,无论是与死去多年的父亲进行交谈还是狼吞虎咽地吃糖果。“巧克力在清晰之梦中尝起来总是比平常要好得多,因为你不必担心热量的问题。”她说。在清醒时,她是一种很差劲的游泳者,但当她意识到自己正在做清晰之梦时却非常喜欢轻装潜水,潜入梦中的海底,不用担心呼吸问题(或游泳技巧)。“真的很令人开心,”她说,“清晰的梦真的很不错,因为它对每一个人来说都是非常自由而且可行的。”
  Well, not entirely free. Although everyone has the potential to dream lucidly, it rarely happens routinely without special training or temperament. The Lucidity Institute operates instructional workshops and retreats to spread the gospel. LaBerge has even developed a $500 device -- called the NovaDreamer (novadreamer.com) -- which helps individuals become participants in their dreams. Once the sleep-mask-like device recognizes the wearer is experiencing REM sleep characteristic of dreaming, it emits a flashing red light that is designed to seep into the person's dream. "It's like being at the opera and realizing the flashing lights at intermission mean the opera is about to start again," says LaBerge. "The cue says that you're dreaming so you can open yourself up to any kind of experience you want. After all, it's your dream."
   其实,它并不是完全地自由。尽管每个人有做清晰之梦的潜能,但如果没有受过特殊的训练和性情,它却很少发生。“清晰之梦”学会运营训练机构,开展福音传播。拉伯格已经研发出一个价位为500美元的机器——所谓的新梦人(NovaDreamer)——它能帮助人们变成自己梦的参与者。一旦这个机器察觉到机器的使用者正在经历入梦时的快速眼动,它会发出一种闪烁的红光,这光是为了其能渗进梦境而设计的。“它就像在看戏一样,意识到这些不断闪烁的光意味着戏剧即将重新开始。”拉伯格说,“这些暗示你正在做梦,所以你能让自己体验各种你所想的东西。毕竟,那只是你的梦。”
  Indeed, your dreams are like private movies where you are the star, director and writer all at once. And as the latest research indicates, you are also the most insightful movie critic -- without the need of a couch. The best interpreter of your dreams is you.
   确实,你的梦就像是你的私人电影,你在影片中身兼主演、导演、编剧于一身。最近的研究表明,你也是最有洞察力的电影批评家——不需要去迎合。你的梦的最好释梦者就是你!
  
  
  

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作者:luxiaan 时间:2006-07-22 16:06:19 新西兰
  楼主译的不错
作者:千金散尽 时间:2006-07-22 18:19:25 荷兰
  嗯,楼主翻科普文章比翻的诗歌/电影对白强点儿。
作者:Alando 时间:2006-07-24 16:23:30 浙江
  好文章!
作者:catchup 时间:2006-07-24 16:27:06 新加坡
  How about the nightmare?
作者:lovelyrose 时间:2006-07-24 16:44:53 新西兰
  yeah,what about the nightmare?
作者:秋风中的探戈 时间:2006-07-24 21:44:47 上海
  hoho~~~
作者:Harry1028 时间:2006-07-24 22:48:14 广东
  作者:千金散尽 回复日期:2006-7-22 18:19:25 
    嗯,楼主翻科普文章比翻的诗歌/电影对白强点儿。
  ======
  同意。那个电影对白怎么看也是个搞笑帖子,呵呵。
楼主怡红院院士 时间:2006-07-28 08:05:37 浙江
  Upgrade Your Dreams
  美梦小贴士
  
  What can you do to recall your dreams more often and interpret them more clearly? The experts offer these tips:
  你能经常回忆起你的梦并且很清楚地解释他们吗?专家为你提供如下小贴士:
  1. Incubate an idea. Before you go to sleep, consciously think about a topic or a person you'd like to dream about. Pose a question that's troubling you and see how your dream responds to it.
  1、酝酿念头。在你入睡前,有意识地回想一个主题,或一个你想梦到的人。为自己制造一个困扰自己的问题,然后看看你的梦对其有何反应。
  2. Keep track. Next to your bed, place a pad and pen, or a tape recorder or laptop, to record your dreams as soon as you wake up.
  2、沿迹追踪。在你的床榻边,放一本小便笺、一支笔,或一台录音机、手提电脑,一旦醒来,你就可以将其记录下来。
  3. Try to awaken naturally, without the help of an alarm clock or barking dog that can disrupt your dream cycle. If your schedule doesn't allow you to sleep in during the week, begin your dream journal on a weekend or during a vacation.
  3、自然醒来。不要让闹钟或小狗惊扰你的清梦。如果你的作息表不允许你睡过头,你可以在周末或假期如法炮制。
  4. Wake up slowly. For the first moment after you awaken, lie still and keep your eyes closed, because your dream may be connected to your body position while you slept. Try to recollect the dream and then store it in your memory by giving it a name like "Late for an Exam" or "My Date with Ashley Judd." When you rise, immediately write down as many images, feelings and impressions as you can.
  4、悠悠醒来。你醒来时,继续躺着,并合着双眼,因为你的梦可能和你睡眠时的姿势有关。试图回忆你的梦,然后将其在脑海中保存下来,并可给其取一个诸如“考试迟到”、“与埃施理·贾德的约会”的名字。当你起床后,马上尽你所能写下这些图景、感觉和印象。
  5. Connect the dots. To better interpret your dreams, try to make connections between your recalled dreams and recent events. Do you recognize people from the present or past? Can you detect any themes from the dream? Look for patterns over several dreams that might help explain an individual dream.
  5、寻找联系。为更好地解释你的梦,试着在你所回忆的梦与最近的事件之间寻找联系。从现在或过去的情形看,你认识这些人么?从这个梦里,你能察觉出什么隐含的主题么?在多个梦中寻找并建立类型,会帮助你解释某一个梦。
  6. Change the outcome. If you have recurring nightmares that make it difficult to sleep, try to change the endings. Once you awaken from a bad dream, visualize a change in the action to create a more positive outcome. If you are trapped, try to fly. In your dream, you can do what you want!
  6、修正结果。如果你老是做恶梦,且无法成眠,试着修正这些结果。一旦你从一个噩梦中醒来,将其赋予一个更加积极的结果并具象化。如果你在梦中被捕,不妨将其改成自由飞翔。在你的梦中,你可以随你所愿。
  7. Be patient. It may take days or weeks before you're able to recall your dreams in detail, but the experts advise to keep practicing. Dream memories are fragile, and trying to recall all the plot twists and turns on consecutive nights seems to have a cumulative effect.
  7、保持耐心。在你能详细地回忆起你的梦之前,这可能会花去你几天或几周的时间,但是专家建议,继续保持下去。梦的记忆是零碎的,试图连续几个晚上回忆所有迂回曲折的情节以获得渐进的效果。
  
  

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