楼主:软的果冻 时间:2006-10-07 02:48:00 点击:1133 回复:19
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  Paris Journal
  Smoking No Longer Très Chic in France
  Many business owners in France have said that their profits would decline if a smoking ban takes effect. (此为配图解释,图略)
  Published: October 6, 2006
  PARIS, Oct. 5 — Jean-Paul Sartre smoked. So did Colette, Cocteau, Camus and Coco Chanel.
  One of the most memorable scenes in French films is Jean-Paul Belmondo lifting his head, dragging on a cigarette and rubbing his thumb back and forth across his lips in “Breathless.” (He smokes about two dozen times in the movie.)
  There is something about smoking that seems very French.
  But as in other European countries, smoking in public increasingly has fallen out of favor here. This week, after a five-month governmental inquiry, a parliamentary committee approved a proposal to ban smoking in public areas.
  Under the measure, cafes, hotels, restaurants, discos and casinos could designate spaces for smoking only if they could be “hermetically sealed areas, furnished with air-extraction systems and subject to extremely rigorous health norms.”
  Prime Minister Dominique de Villepin said he would decide quickly how to proceed on the matter. “The French people would not understand if we do not make a decision” in the face of the research, he told members of Parliament on Monday.
  But not everyone here agrees. To diehard smokers and many tobacconists and bar and restaurant owners, the campaign reflects the loss of a core French value — the rights of the individual.
  “I see this as a personal attack,” said André Santini, a center-right member of Parliament from a Paris suburb and compulsive cigar smoker, who posed for photographers this week in the tobacco kiosk in the National Assembly building. “What disturbs me is the ayatollahs you meet everywhere. They tell you how you have to make love, how you have to eat.”
  At the end of the year, the kiosk will no longer sell cigarettes, cigars and cigarillos, only candy and newspapers. Just as bad, he said, smoking will eventually be banned in the high-ceilinged corridors of the National Assembly itself.
  “I’ll end my life where I started it — in the men’s room,” said Jean-Pierre Balligand, a lawmaker from eastern France. “I started smoking like every other schoolboy, in the toilets of my junior high school. And that’s where I’ll end up, in the toilets of the National Assembly, while the school principal, Mr. Debré, screams at us for smoking.”
  The “school principal” is Jean-Louis Debré, the president of the National Assembly, who ordered the ban on the sale of tobacco products inside Parliament to “set the example.”
  France’s history with tobacco goes back more than four centuries. Nicotine, after all, is named after Jean Nicot, a 16th century ambassador to Portugal who took tobacco leaves imported from America to Catherine de Medici as a cure for her migraines.
  But France was also in the forefront in the anti-smoking movement in Europe, passing the toughest legislation on the Continent in 1991. Smoking was banned in most public places, including restaurants, except in designated areas. Tobacco products were required to carry health warnings. Cigarette advertising was banned in 1993. But there were loopholes, and application of the law has been uneven. The new measure is even stronger by making it difficult — and expensive — to create separate smoking areas.
  President Jacques Chirac, who at one time smoked up to three packs a day, declared a “war on tobacco” in 2003 and imposed steep tax increases on cigarettes. Today, nearly 80 percent of the French support the idea of a smoking ban in public places.
  Still, about 12 million of the French — about 20 percent of the population — are smokers, according to official government figures, and more than 70,000 people die in France every year from smoking-related illnesses and secondhand smoke.
  Smoking remains particularly prevalent and acceptable among young people. French public high schools routinely allow students to smoke during breaks.
  Maison Prunier, the landmark Art Deco oyster-and-caviar brasserie in Paris, still sells high-end, after-meal cigars to its clientele.
  But even its managers believe that a ban might not be a bad thing. “We serve gourmet meals, so it’s unfortunate that cigars are smoked here,” said Benoít Rade, one of Prunier’s maîtres d’hôtel. “Smoke is a problem for most of our employees, some clients, too. A client can abstain from smoking for one hour or so. It will be much nicer.”
  La Coupole, the vast, classic Paris brasserie whose trademark once was a haze of smoke, imposed a near-total smoking ban on its own initiative last July in anticipation of a government decree.
  The new campaign to ban public smoking follows smoking bans of varying degrees — and varying degrees of opposition — throughout Europe.
  Italy’s ban on smoking in public places last January was met with fierce public resistance, including a campaign for a national referendum to overturn it and the publication by newspapers of lists of smoker-friendly restaurants. One movie theater showed a Mexican film called “Nicotina” and offered free admission for customers who showed up with a pack of cigarettes.
  Many French businessmen predict serious disruption of their businesses and a decline in profits. They certainly (since this is France) would demand compensation.
  “There is going to be considerable damage,” said François Attrazic, the leader of the leading restaurant and hotel owners’ union and a restaurant owner (and occasional smoker). “We haven’t assessed how much it will be because it’s complicated, but we are hearing things from the countries that have bans, and what it shows is a drop of 25 to 30 percent in sales in some establishments.”
  The issue was so divisive that Mr. de Villepin postponed a decision last spring, asking his health minister, Xavier Bertrand, to carry out a “deep evaluation of the different solutions.” Mr. Bertrand, who has long advocated a measure to protect people from secondhand smoke in public, said last week, “My conviction is that it’s necessary to ban tobacco in public places as soon as possible.”
  Once Mr. de Villepin announces his decision, it is expected to be issued as a sort of government-ordered amendment to the existing law. That will prevent the Parliament or a lobbying group from trying to block the ban, which would go into effect sometime before next September.
  Some anti-smoking politicians want to take their campaign further. Charles-Amédée de Courson, a center-right member, last year introduced a proposal in the National Assembly to ban the sale of chocolate cigars, arguing that young people who had consumed them were twice as likely to smoke.
  Yves Contassot, a deputy mayor of Paris, meanwhile, recently floated a proposal to start fining smokers who threw their butts on the street.


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楼主软的果冻 时间:2006-10-07 02:49:09
  10月5日,在法国巴黎——吉恩-保罗·萨特(法国哲学家,1964年诺贝尔文学奖得主),还有科莱特(法国女作家),寇克托(法国作家),加缪(法国小说家,1957年诺贝尔文学奖得主)和夏奈尔(法国Coco Chanel女装品牌的创立者),都是吸烟者。
作者:Joe100000 时间:2006-10-07 09:09:34
作者:Joe100000 时间:2006-10-07 09:11:13
  大概就可以拉!呵呵~欢迎到My Blog have a show or leave a new message.
楼主软的果冻 时间:2006-10-07 12:52:36
  Joe100000,thanks for your reply&thanks for encouraging me.
楼主软的果冻 时间:2006-10-07 19:21:46
  The Times October 07, 2006
  泰晤士报 2006年10月7日
  Why ten cent 'pirate' downloads are causing discord in world trade
  BY TONY HALPIN 托尼·哈平报道
  Row over a music site stands in the way of Russian membership of a global trade body.
  A RUSSIAN music download website stands in the way of the country’s long-cherished ambition of joining the body that governs world trade, it emerged yesterday. The United States has singled out the site, allofmp3.com, as an obstacle to its support for Russian membership of the World Trade Organisation (WTO).
  Susan Schwab, the US Trade Representative, wants Russian authorities to close the site, which America regards as one of the world’s largest online repositories of pirated music.
  But MediaServices, the Moscow company running the service, insisted yesterday that it complied with Russian law on copyright protection and actually helped to prevent piracy. It accused US officials of seeking to protect American online music providers from Russian competition.
  The website, which has 5.5 million subscribers, sells individual songs for between 10 and 20 US cents each, compared with 99 cents at Apple’s iTunes store. Fans of the Beatles, for instance, can download Back in the USSR for a mere 13 cents from a library that contains some 850,000 songs.
  俄这家“侵权”下载音乐网站拥有550万会员,跟Apple’s iTunes商店99美分/首的价格比起来,它的单曲价格在10~20美分之间。比方说,甲壳虫乐队的粉丝,用仅仅13美分就能从约有850000首的歌库里面下载《Back in the USSR》(注:《Back in the USSR》甲壳虫乐队演唱的一首歌曲)。
  The website claimed to have signed up thousands of new customers since Ms Schwab criticised it in Washington on Wednesday. She said: “I have a hard time imagining Russia being a member of the WTO with a website like that operating.”
  Ilya Levitov, a company spokesman, told The Times: “We are getting more than 5,000 new customers a day. The problem for the Americans is not copyright but our business model and our prices, which are killing their business.
   “We sell songs for 15 or 20 cents and they want to keep their CD prices. Of course, the American Government is trying to help their companies to get richer. If we sold songs for $1 there would not be any problem, but you can’t sell music here at that price. It would be the same as two bottles of vodka for one song, and nobody in Russia can afford that.
  “We understand that the Americans don’t like it, but we are not breaking any laws here. We are a Russian company operating in Russia and this is just double standards.”
  The WTO sets the rules for the global trading system and resolves disputes between member states. The organisation, which has 149 members, aims to increase international trade by promoting lower trade barriers.
  Membership negotiations with China took more than 15 years before agreement was reached. Russia first applied to join a predecessor body in 1993, and is the only major economy that is not a WTO member. The US is the last major opponent of its membership.
  Russia had hoped to win US support ahead of the G8 summit in July, but the two governments are still in fraught negotiations on outstanding issues. The dispute has become a major obstacle in the personal relationship between Presidents Putin and Bush.
  Ms Schwab’s comments made clear that intellectual property rights continue to be one of those issues. The download site was set up in 2000 by six computer programmers, who initially developed it for their own use. Mr Levitov said it evolved into a business as its popularity grew.
  Most subscribers are Russian, but it also has a large international following and is claimed to be the second most popular source of downloads in Britain after iTunes. The site displays a licence from the Russian Organisation for Multimedia and Digital Systems (ROMS), an industry group that manages property rights in Russia. Mediaservices said that it paid a percentage from each download sale to ROMS, which then forwarded the fee to the copyright owner.
  However, Western music companies have refused to accept the fee, arguing that ROMS has no right to represent their interests in Russia. The IFPI, the international music industry body, has begun legal action in Moscow against two of the site’s directors, Vadim Mamotin and Denis Kvasov, to halt operations.
  The company is reluctant to discuss its earnings, but Russian Newsweek recently estimated revenues at $30 million a year. Mr Mamotin told the Moscow Times that the music industry was losing more money in free file-sharing networks. “We are offering a model under which people will walk away from piracy,” he said.
楼主软的果冻 时间:2006-10-07 19:25:33
楼主软的果冻 时间:2006-10-08 21:05:57
  The Sunday Times - World
  October 08, 2006 、
  Death of the woman who shamed Moscow
  Mark Franchetti, Moscow
  马克·弗兰斯提 莫斯科报道
  RUSSIA’S most famous investigative reporter, Anna Politkovskaya, was gunned down in the lift of her Moscow apartment block yesterday in an apparent contract killing.
  A fearless opponent of Russia’s wars in Chechnya who once described President Vladimir Putin as a “KGB snoop” and compared him to Stalin, she was shot as she returned home from a shopping trip at 4.30pm. A pistol and four bullets were found near her body.
  She was the most prominent of dozens of Russian journalists murdered in the past 10 years and her death has dealt a serious blow to the country’s reputation.
  Mikhail Gorbachev, the former president, said: “It’s a strike against all the democratic independent press, a terrible crime against the entire country, against all of us.”
  Last night police were hunting a young man who was caught on a video camera in the hall of the apartment block wearing a black baseball cap. Officers said the killer, whose face is not visible on the footage, followed Politkovskaya inside as she unloaded the shopping from her car, and killed her with two shots to the chest and head.
  Politkovskaya, 48 and divorced with a son and a daughter, was one of the few Russian journalists who dared to write critically about widespread human rights abuses in Chechnya. She won international acclaim for her reports but was hated by many in Russia’s security forces.
  I met Politkovskaya on many occasions to discuss Chechnya. Bespectacled and deeply serious, she resembled a strict schoolteacher rather than a glamorous war reporter inured to intimidation and flying bullets.
  She was profoundly affected by the victims of war and seemed haunted by their suffering. To her, reporting was far more than a job — she saw it as a moral obligation.
  Unlike most reporters, she often crossed the line between journalism and personal involvement. At the height of the bombing of Chechnya, she once bravely negotiated the safe passage of dozens of elderly civilians trapped in Grozny, the Chechen capital.
  She had received numerous threats and two years ago was apparently poisoned on her way to Beslan during the school siege that ended with more than 300 deaths.
  “I am not on a crusade,” she once told me. “But I feel that someone has to write about what is happening in our country. In Chechnya unspeakable war crimes have been committed but hardly anyone has the guts to write about it. I don’t want my son to grow up in a country which allows such things to happen.”
  Vitaly Yaroshevsky, deputy editor of Novaya Gazeta, her newspaper, said there was no doubt she had been killed because of her work. “This is a professional murder,” he said. “Her reporting made her many enemies.”
  In an interview two years ago she stated prophetically: “I’m absolutely sure that risk is a usual part of my job — of the job of a Russian journalist — and I cannot stop because it is my duty.”
  Politkovskaya, who was born in New York while her Soviet Ukrainian parents were working as diplomats at the United Nations, became renowned for her courageous campaigning after the fall of communism.
  Dirty War, her book on the conflict in Chechnya, provoked fury in the security forces. In Dirty Russia, another book, she claimed Putin was rolling back democracy and clamping down on media freedom.
  She had been especially critical of his backing of Ramzan Kadyrov, the pro-Russian Chechen prime minister, whose forces she accused of a wave of kidnappings and extra-judicial killings.
  Yaroshevsky said Politkovskaya had recently written many articles on Kadyrov, who is widely expected to become president of Chechnya. She had been due to publish her next story on his regime tomorrow. “She was writing that in Chechnya a bandit state is being created. She wrote that political opponents of the regime are being persecuted,” said her editor.
  At the height of the war in Chechnya, Politkovskaya was detained by Russian security forces for three days. She was held in a pit without food and water and endured a mock execution.
  In 2001, she fled to Vienna for several months after receiving e-mail threats alleging that a Russian police officer she had accused of committing atrocities against civilians was intent on revenge Oleg Panfilov, director of the Moscow-based Centre for Journalism in Extreme Situations, said that a few months ago unknown assailants had tried to break into a car being driven by her daughter, Vera.
  At a time when most of Russia’s press has been muzzled by the Kremlin, Politkovskaya was a relatively rare dissenting voice.
  She delivered regular warnings that the country was drifting back to a Soviet-style dictatorship. She also wrote critically about the arrest and trial of Mikhail Khodorkovsky, the oil tycoon jailed after falling out with the Kremlin.
  Her dedication led to the breakdown of her marriage. She returned home from Chechnya one day to hear her husband tell her: “I can’t take this any more.”
  Alexei Malashenko, a political commentator who knew her well, said last night: “This is a political murder. She uncovered the truth no matter how powerful the people she wrote about are. If the state killed her, we don’t need such a state. If someone else silenced her, it’s a matter of honour for the state to track down her killers.”

楼主软的果冻 时间:2006-10-09 23:58:36
楼主软的果冻 时间:2006-10-12 00:08:41
  US population hits 300 million, but is it sustainable?
  The population of the United States will pass 300 million today, or tomorrow. No one knows exactly where, no one know precisely when. It is a milestone for sure but is this a cause for celebration or anxiety?
  Some American commentators are already saying the landmark is a chance to note the US is perhaps the only country in the developed world where the economy is being bolstered by a population that is growing at a discernable rate. But many experts say passing the 300 million milestone should be a wake-up call that demands a reappraisal of the extraordinary, unparalleled rate of consumption by the world's largest economy and its third largest by population.
  As an economic model for the rest of the world to follow - in particular the rapidly developing economies of China and India - it is unsustainable, they say.
  On a global scale the average US citizen uses far more than his or her fair share of the planet's resources - consuming more than four times the worldwide average of energy, almost three times as much water and producing more than twice the average amount of rubbish and five times the amount of carbon dioxide, a major contributor to global warming. The US - with five per cent of the world's population - uses 23 per cent of its energy, 15 per cent of its meat and 28 per cent of its paper. Additional population will mean more people seeking a share of those often-limited resources.
  It may be that America's citizen number 300,000,000 will be an undocumented migrant, born to undocumented parents somewhere in the South or the West, where population growth is the fastest. Almost one-third of America's annual population growth of between 0.9 per cent and 1 per cent is the result of immigration - much of it illegal.
  "America is the only industrialised nation in the world experiencing significant population growth," Victoria Markham, the director of the Centre for Environment and Population (CEP), says in a new report. "The nation's relatively high rates of population growth, natural resource consumption and pollution combine to create the largest environmental impact, felt both within the nation and around the world." She adds: " The US has become a 'super-size' nation, with lifestyles reflected in super-sized appetites for food, houses, land and resource consumption. 'More of more' seems to characterize modern-day America - more people than any generation before us experienced, more natural resources being utilized to support everyday life and more major impacts on the natural systems that support life on earth."
  Some commentators believe this growth has a modest impact on the nation's resources and can bring many benefits. Greg Easterbrook, a fellow at the Brookings Institution, a Washington-based, independent research and policy institute, recently wrote: "What should not worry us about continuing US population growth ... is the question of whether we can handle it - we can," he said.
  Lester Brown, the director of the Earth Policy Institute, an environmental group also based in Washington, said: "In times past, reaching such a demographic milestone might have been a cause for celebration - in 2006 it is not. Population growth is the ever-expanding denominator that gives each person a shrinking share of the resource pie. It contributes to water shortages, cropland conversion to non-farm uses, traffic congestion, more garbage, overfishing, crowding in national parks, a growing dependence on imported oil and other conditions that diminish the quality of our daily lives."
  Mr Brown said there was also a global perspective to America's rapacious model of consumption. In addition to foreign policy decisions at least influenced by a desire to secure diminishing resources, he said the US was setting an example to the developing world that was unsustainable. "We used to think of the developing countries as places that did not consume very much ... But it is starting to change and they are beginning to behave like us and heading for income levels like us," he said.
  If China's economy continued to grow at 8 per cent a year, Mr Brown said, income levels in that country would equal the 2004 US level by 2031, by which time China's population would stand at 1.45 billion.
  If current consumption rates were multiplied to take into account its population growth, China's paper consumption would be double the current total world production of paper and its vehicle fleet would be 1.1 billion; the world's current total fleet is 800 million.
  "What China is teaching us is that the Western economic model is not going to work for China and if it will not work for China it will not work for India and in the long-term ... it will not work for us as well," he said.
  It was in 1915 that the US population reached 100 million. Fifty-two years later, in 1967, it reached 200 million. It has taken just 39 more years for the milestone of 300 million to be achieved.
  1915: US population reaches 100 million
  The population of America hit the 100-million mark in 1915, two years before President Woodrow Wilson would enter the First World War. Americans were stunned by the sinking of the British liner, 'Lusitania', enthralled by Charlie Chaplin and arguing about immigration. "There is here a great melting pot in which we must compound a precious metal," said Wilson, as a million European immigrants poured into the US each year.
  The 'great white hope' Jess Willard beat black boxing champion Jack Johnson in a dubious bout in Havana; Marines were dispatched to Haiti after a mob killed its president and the Ku Klux Klan was reestablished as a 'benevolent' organisation.
  1967: US passes 200 million
  By 1967, when the US population hit 200m, the US was up to its neck in the Vietnam War, Muhammad Ali was stripped of his world heavyweight title for refusing the draft, dozens were killed in race riots in Detroit, and San Francisco was beguiled by the Summer of Love.
  Eugene McCarthy said he would run for president, the 25th Amendment to the Constitution was passed allowing for a transfer of power to the vice-president if the president was incapacitated and three Apollo astronauts burned to death during a simulation at Cape Canaveral. The millionth telephone was installed in the US. Hit films included The Graduate, In the Heat of the Night and Bonnie and Clyde.
楼主软的果冻 时间:2006-10-12 00:10:25
  Supersize nation: how America is eating the world
  300m Expected population of the United States by the end of this week
  75 Life expectancy for men in the US. Women are expected to live until 80
  63 Life expectancy for men in the developing world. Women are expected to live until 67
  395m Projected population of the US by 2050
  1,682m3 US annual water consumption per capita
  633m3 The world's annual water consumption per capita
  545m3 The developing world's annual water withdrawals per capita
  5lbs Amount of waste each US resident produces per day. That compares with about 3lbs per person per day in Europe, and about 0.9-1.3lbs per person a day in the developing world
  $39,710 US Gross National Income per head, 2004
  $8,540 World's GNI per head
  $4,450 Developing world's GNI per head
  19.8 US carbon dioxide emissions per capita, in metric tonnes
  3.9 World's carbon dioxide emissions per head, in tonnes
  1.8 Developing world's carbon dioxide emissions per head, in tonnes
  58bn Number of burgers consumed by Americans every year
  54m Number of Americans who are obese
  300,000 Deaths per year related to obesity
  678lbs US annual paper consumption per head
  115lbs The corresponding figure for the world
  44lbs The figure for the developing world
  204m number of vehicles on US roads
  37% Percentage of the total cars in the world on America's roads
  1 in 7 Barrels of world oil supply used by US drivers
  24m Number of Americans who drive SUVs
  7,921 US energy consumption per capita, 2001, expressed in kilograms of oil
  1,631 World's energy consumption per capita, in kilograms of oil
  828 Corresponding figure for the developing world
作者:风吹稻花 时间:2006-10-12 02:07:04
作者:crzhao 时间:2006-10-12 13:01:07
  "Hit films" means "films that are box-office success or iconic"
  "dubious" means 'suspecious" not "incredible"
  "Marine" refers to "marine corp" in particular, though marine corp does need navy to carry them. (in 1986, US send marine to lebanon)
作者:万物皆自然 时间:2006-10-12 13:40:01
   investigative reporter, 研究型记者(意译为专业记者)
作者:gwyhm 时间:2006-10-12 15:36:11
楼主软的果冻 时间:2006-10-12 16:33:53
作者:王荣欣 时间:2006-10-14 11:41:28
楼主软的果冻 时间:2006-10-15 11:00:53
楼主软的果冻 时间:2006-10-18 05:44:16
楼主软的果冻 时间:2006-10-28 03:42:44