英美习俗- -(转载)

楼主:逍遥崩溃 时间:2007-05-04 20:11:00 点击:858 回复:7
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英美习俗- -
  语言是文化的载体,是人们日常交际的工具。由于受地域和历史的影响,各个国家和地区的人们在思维方式和行为习惯方面都有所不同,这就形成了不同的文化习俗。俗话说“入乡随俗”(Do as Romans do.),无论是英语学习者还是从事英语工作的人,都必须了解一些英美国家的习俗和日常用语。相反,只是死记硬背某些表达形式、硬抠语法规则或望文生意,那只会弄巧成拙。为了帮助中学英语教师和学生更好地学习SEFC新教材,掌握英语的实质和精髓,下面将与新教材有关的英美习俗和日常用语作简要归纳。
  一、见面与告别
  问候:当相互熟悉的人见面之后,总免不了相互问候。中国人最常用的客套语是“吃过饭了吗? ”这样说的意图只是打招呼,至于“吃饭与否”并不重要。但如果你对英美人说:“Have you had your meal?”他们会以为你想邀请他吃饭,或觉得你太关心“吃饭”。西方人见面只说:“hello,hi”或“good morning”等即可。如果想多说几句,可谈天气、交通情况或共同感兴趣的问题。英美人很尊重别人的隐私,尤其对年轻女士,所以现在出现了Ms(女士,不论婚否)。如果一见面就问“年龄多大”,“结婚与否”,“工资多少”是很不礼貌的。
  日常用语:
  1.Glad to meet you. 2.Haven't seen you for some time?
  3.Good morning/afternoon/evening.
  4.How are you? Very well,thank you. 5.How do you do?
  谈天气:初次和英美人接触,最好的话题莫过于谈天气。由于英国天气变化无常,英国人尤其喜欢谈天气。人们在谈论天气时,往往不仅仅说一下天气的状况,而且还要加入一些个人的感受和评论。其实,英美人很少为谈天气而谈天气,而是利用谈天气来引出其它话题。
  日常用语:
  1.What's the weather like today? It's fine/cloudy/windy/rainy.
  2.Does it rain very much here? 3.It looks as if it's going to rain.
  4.What's the temperature today?
  介绍:无论是自我介绍还是把第三者介绍给对方,总少不了要称呼别人。在英美国家中,直呼其名或直言其事是不礼貌的,常把称谓或职称、头衔放在前,如Mr…,Mrs…,Miss…,Professor…,Doctor…,Captain…;一般情况,先把年幼、地位低者介绍给年长、位尊者;在主宾之间,先介绍宾客。此外,英美崇尚“Lady first”如被介绍的双方有一方是女性,通常先把男士介绍给女士。
  日常用语:
  1.This is Mr/Mrs/Miss/Comrade… 2.May I introduce sb./myself to…
  3.I'd like to meet… 4.I've heard so much about you.
  道别:中国人告别时常说“我已经浪费了你很多时间…I've wasted a lot of your time .”而英美传统与中国有所不同。如果一个人想离开,而又不想打断大伙及主人的兴致,那么就应趁别人谈话停顿时,有礼貌地对主人说:“Well,I am afraid I must be leaving now.”如果是用完餐要离开,还应说:“Thank you for your good dinner.”另外外国人没有远送的习惯,不像中国人那样,送出一段距离表示客气,同时客人再三要求主人留步。
  日常用语:
  1.Good night, have a happy dream. 2.I'd like to say goodbye to you all.
  3.Glad to meet you. 4.Hope to meet you again.
  二、预约和邀请
  预约主要指看病或事务性的约会。在西方国家办一件事、见一个人,常常要事先约好。对陌生人作正式或事务性的访问时,预约十分重要,一般先用信件、电话或亲自前去约定。因为在现代高节奏的生活中,各人都有自己的时间表,不速之客的来访往往使主人感到无所适从 ,不得不改变原计划。如果约好之后,又因故不能赴约,一定要尽早通知对方并另行约定时间。
  日常用语:
  1.Will you be free this afternoon? 2.How about tomorrow morning?
  3.Shall we meet at…? 4.Does it suit you?
  5.Any time is all right. 6.Can we make it a little earlier/later?
  邀请:西方人邀请别人,特别是关系不很亲近的人,往往要提前一段时间提出,以便对方作好准备。发出邀请,可以用书面形式,也可以用口头形式。措辞要根据被邀请人与你的关系远近而定,对亲近、熟悉的人可以随便一些。当你被邀请时,因有事不去,应向对方说明理由,以免对方误以为你不愿意和他交往。
  日常用语:
  1.Will you come to…? 2.Would you like to…?
  3.I'd like to invite you to… 4.Are you free this afternoon?
  5.May I expect to see you at four? 6.Do try to come.
  三、表示感谢与表达歉意
  感谢:在英美国家中“Thank you”二字用得非常普遍,只要别人帮了自己的忙或自己打搅了别人,都要道声“Thank you”。即使是夫妻之间或兄弟、姐妹之间也常用。不像中国人那样,好像很亲近的人之间说声“谢谢”倒有点见外了。在公共场合别人回答你的问路后, 你得说声“谢谢”;别人夸你的衣服、首饰漂亮,你应表示感谢,而不应显得不好意思或表示反对意见;一位男士夸奖一位女士漂亮,这位女士不用脸红,也不应猜疑对方,而应大大方方地说:“Thank you”。若是参加朋友聚会或赴宴临别时,也不要忘记说声感谢之类的客气话。
  日常用语:
  1.Thanks a lot. 2.It's very thoughtful of you.
  3.It's very kind of you. 4.No trouble at all.
  5.Don't mention it. 6.That's all right.
  7.You are welcome.
  道歉:在日常生活中,人们难免有这样那样的过失。因此“对不起”(sorry)或“请原谅”( Excuse me)就成为不可缺少的日常用语,恰当地使用这些日常用语可以化解矛盾,使人与人 之间的关系更和协。在英语中“sorry”一词用得较多。但值得注意的是,无论是向人道歉还是回答他人的道歉,都要注意语言和表情的一致性,不要让人觉得口是心非。
  日常用语:
  1.Oh,I beg your pardon. 2.I'm sorry that…
  3.Forgive me for being late. 4.I apologize for my mistake.
  5.I didn't mean to hurt you. 6.Don't mention it.
  7.Not at all. 8.Never mind.
   四、询问与答复
  人们在日常生活中,有些不明白或不知道的事,总免不了要向别人询问。例如,询问对方对某事某物的看法或观点、问路、问日期、时间等。在充满竞争的西方社会里,人们的时间观念很强,说话、做事不喜欢拐弯摸角,而喜欢直截了当。问话时发音要清楚,开门见山地提出问题。问路或问时间时,常在前边用上“Excuse me”。向别人询问时要注意选择适当的时机,在别人忙着或心情不好时去打搅别人,很可能得不到满意的回答。另外西方人的空间意识较强,当陌生人离他们太近时,他们会觉得不自在,甚至觉得是一种威胁。因此询问时要与对方保持一定距离。
  1.问路:
  (1)Excuse me.Can you tell me the way to…?
  (2)How can I get …
  (3)Go down this street.
  (4)Turn right/left at the first/second crossing.
  (5)It's about…
  (6)Go straight ahead till you see…
  2.询问时间或日期:
  (1)What day is it today?
  (2)What's the date today?
  (3)What time is it?
  (4)Excuse me,what time is it by your watch?
  (5)It's Monday /Tuesday,etc.
  (6)It's time for…
  3.询问看法:人们对各种事物的看法和见解不尽相同。如果表示赞同或喜欢时,可以直截了当地回答说,“Yes,of course.”“I’m interested in…;They are wonderful或I prefer…”等。但要表达不同意和不喜欢时,就要注意语气,切忌太直,以免挫伤他人感情 。有时也可以转移话题,这样既可以向对方表达不喜欢的意思,又给对方以台阶。
  (1)What do you think of…
  (2)What's your opinion of…
  (3)How do you
  (4)That's true.
  (5)That's a good idea.
  (6)I'm sorry,I'm afraid I can't agree with you.
  (7)I quite like/enjoy…
  (8)I'm afraid I'm not fond of…
  五、娱乐、饮食、保健
  娱乐:英美是典型的资本主义国家。人们的思想比较开放,生活节奏也比较快。紧张的工作之余,人们总喜欢采取多种不同的方式娱乐,除了周末及节假日的旅游,人们在工作之余还经常出入酒巴间、歌舞厅,但小孩、未成年人一般不许进酒巴间。不过,西方人和中国人一样,晚上最重要的娱乐项目就是看电视。尤其是美国,拥有1.5亿台电视机,平均不到两人一台。美国人对电视的热情是其它国家无法比拟的;美国的电视节目也如美国社会,五花八门、良莠不齐。有反映文学、历史、科技、艺术等题材的片子,也有宣扬打斗、酗酒、凶杀、色情等的所谓“刺激性”节目。
  与看电视有关的日常用语:
  1.Is there anything worth watching on another channel?
  2.I think there is a …on.
  3.Do you know what comes next?
  4.Let me look in the TV Guide first.
  5.Please turn it up/down.
  饮食:西方有句格言:We eat to live,not live to eat.因此,西方人在饮食方面非常注意营养搭配,注意食物中脂肪、胆固醇的含量。而我们中国人讲究色、香、味俱全,平常吃饭更注重味道的好坏。西方人由于工作繁忙,他们主张吃好,但吃得简单。平时吃饭只有一两个菜,请客时也不过三四个菜。这和中国人有所不同,中国人请客时总要花很多时间去准备很多菜。西方人做客时,习惯上应把主人准备的饭菜全吃掉,显得客人很喜欢吃主人的饭菜。如果准备的饭菜太多,反而让客人感到难为情。另外,吃饭时主人不宜一味地劝客人多吃,或把菜夹到客人的盘子里。
  日常用语:
  1.What would you like to have?
  2.Would you like sth.to eat/drink?
  3.Help youself to some…
  4.Thank you,I've had enough.
  5.No,thanks./Just a little,please.
  6.I'm full,thank you.
  保健:英美人非常注重身体健康,在分别时总爱说一句:“Take care of yourself.”英美国家医疗保健条件很好,有许多私人诊所、公共诊所、医院和医疗急救中心。很多英美人都有自己的家庭医生,家庭医生对所负责的人的健康了如指掌,可以及时发现这些人的一些病症。在西方,到医院就诊时,必须对医生陈述你的病症,让医生作出判断,不能自己点药。 如果你自作主张,医生会认为你不尊重他。另外,关心别人健康时也要注意西方人的习惯。不要像我们那样常说:“你要当心啊,小病不治会成大病的”或“Put on more clothes.” 看望病人也不宜送太多礼物,西方人习惯送病人鲜花或慰问卡片。
  询问健康和看病求医日常用语:
  1.You look a bit pale.
  2.I hope you get well(better) soon.
  3.I haven't been feeling well recently.
  4.Have a good rest.
  5.There is sth.wrong with…
  6.I've got a cough/headache.
  7.I feel terrible/bad.
  8.I've got a pain here.
  9.Take this medicine three times a day.
  10.It's nothing serious.
  六、借书与购物
  英美都是发达国家,国内有许多大型图书馆和商店。在图书馆,你可以通过问讯台或电脑查找书籍。在图书馆内阅览要求保持安静、爱护图书,并禁止吸烟或吃东西。商店中除了有规模大,装饰豪华的连锁店(Chain shops)和一些集团公司外,还有一些超级市场以及规模适中的杂货店和小型的夫妻店等。在英美国家,人们每周工作5天,商店则营业6天或5天半, 除唐人街(China Town)的商店外,星期日都休假。人们把周末当成购物日,开车上街购足一周所需的日用品和食品。
  图书馆和商店服务员日常用语:
  1.Can I help you?
  2.What can I do for you?
  3.Is there anything that I can do for you?
  图书馆顾客用语:
  1.What are the opening and closing hours of the library?
  2.Does the library open on weekends?
  3.How long can I keep it?
  4.I want to keep it for another two weeks.
  5.I'd like to renew the book for another week.
  商店顾客用语:
  I.want/I'd like…
  2.How much is it?/What's the price of…?
  3.That's too expensive/too much,I'm afraid.
  4.What colour/size/kind do you want?
  5.Show me some others.
  
  

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作者:spaces1213 时间:2007-05-05 08:01:18
  good
  
作者:frontierhlj 时间:2007-05-05 08:36:48
  good
作者:清香下午茶 时间:2007-05-05 10:45:38
  不错哦!!!呵呵 好文章!
楼主逍遥崩溃 时间:2007-07-05 21:49:32
  多看几遍有好处
作者:鑫森淼火炎焱 时间:2015-02-16 09:12:54
  Glad To See You
  I am happy that you're here, GTSY (Internet chat slang)

  pleased to meet you
  nice to make your acquaintance (used when two people meet for the first time)

  good morning


  Noun
  1. a conventional expression of greeting or farewell
  (synonym) morning
  (hypernym) greeting, salutation

  good morning
  hello, hi, good day "We said, ""Good morning, Miss Keele,"" as we entered the room."

  good morning
  morning!; hello!, good day!, goodbye!


  good mornin'
  morning!; hello! , good day! , goodbye!

  good evening
  interj. expression of greeting used in the evening

  Greeting
  Greeting is an act of communication in which human beings intentionally make their presence known to each other, to show attention to, and to suggest a type of relationship (usually cordial) or social status (formal or informal) between individuals or groups of people coming in contact with each other. Greetings sometimes are used just prior to a conversation or to greet in passing, such as on a sidewalk or trail. While greeting customs are highly culture and situation-specific and may change within a culture depending on social status and relationship, they exist in all known human cultures. Greetings can be expressed both audibly and physically, and often involve a combination of the two. This topic excludes military and ceremonial salutes but includes rituals other than gestures. A greeting can also be expressed in written communications, such as letters and emails.

  good afternoon


  Noun
  1. a conventional expression of greeting or farewell
  (synonym) afternoon
  (hypernym) greeting, salutation


  good afternoon
  hello, hi, good day "Answer the phone this way: ""Good afternoon, Ko speaking."""

  good afternoon
  hello, good day, goodbye
作者:鑫森淼火炎焱 时间:2015-02-16 09:18:35
  how are you
  how is it going, what's new, what's happening

  how are you?
  How is it going? How do you do?

  very well
  excellently; great, fine, very good

  very well

  Adverb
  1. quite well; "she doesn't feel first-rate today"
  (synonym) first-rate
  2. sentence-initial expression of agreement
  (synonym) fine, alright, all right, OK

  thank you


  Noun
  1. a conversational expression of gratitude
  (hypernym) thanks

  thank you
  n. polite expression of gratitude, expression of thankfulness or gratefulness

  thank you!
  many thanks!

  how-do-you-do


  Noun
  1. an awkward situation; "that's a fine how-d'ye-do"
  (synonym) how-d'ye-do
  (hypernym) situation
  2. an expression of greeting; "every morning they exchanged polite hellos"
  (synonym) hello, hullo, hi, howdy
  (hypernym) greeting, salutation

  how do you do
  hello, nice to meet you, good day, howdy """Mr. Grant, I'm Ken Blair, the new bank manager."" ""How do you do, Mr. Blair."""

  how do you do
  how are you?, what's new?


  how do you do?
  How are you? How is it going?
作者:闲得蛋和腚疼 时间:2019-01-30 11:04:13
  很好,marked

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