医学博士英语(转载)

楼主:Pomelo 时间:2003-05-12 11:50:00 点击:3108 回复:12
脱水 打赏 看楼主 设置

字体:

边距:

背景:

还原:


  
  
  
  医学博士英语
  =========================================================================================================
  
  A(airway).B(breathing).C(circulation) 初步复苏三步骤
  
  Abdominal bulge 腹部膨隆
  
  Abdominal hernia 腹部疝
  
  Abdominal wall varicosis 腹壁静脉曲张
  
  Abdomnocentesis 腹腔穿刺术
  
  Absorption fever 吸收热
  
  Accessory nasal sinuses 鼻窦
  
  Acoustic neurioma 听神经瘤
  
  Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)爱滋病
  
  Acquired syphilis 获得性梅毒
  
  Acromegaly facies 肢端肥大症面容
  
  Acropachy 杵状指
  
  Acrosclerosis 肢端硬化症
  
  Activate partial thromboplastin time (APTT) 活化部分凝血酶原时间
  
  Active position 自动体位
  
  Acute abdomen 急腹症
  
  Acute angle-closure glaucoma 急性闭角型青光眼
  
  Acute catarrhal conjunctivitis 急性卡他性结膜炎
  
  Acute embolism of superior mesenteric artery急性肠系膜上动脉栓塞
  
  Acute general (diffuse) peritonitis 急性弥漫性腹膜炎
  
  Acute glomerulonephritis 急性肾小球肾炎
  
  Acute ileus 急性肠梗阻
  
  Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy(AIDP)急性炎症性脱髓鞘性多发性神经病
  
  Acute lymphoblast leukemia 急性淋巴细胞性白血病
  
  Acute obstructive suppurative cholangitis急性梗阻性化脓性胆管炎
  
  Acute pancreatitis 急性胰腺炎
  
  Acute phase changes 急性期改变
  
  Acute poliomyelitis 急性脊髓前角灰质炎
  
  Acute poststreptoeoccal glomerulonephritis急性链球菌感染后肾小球肾炎
  
  Acute pyogenic cholangitis 急性化脓性胆管炎
  
  Acute strangulated intestinal obstruction急性肠梗阻(绞窄性)
  
  Acute suppurative myelitis 急性化脓性脊髓炎
  
  Acute suppurative otitis media 急性化脓性中耳炎
  
  Acute tonsillitis 急性扁桃体炎
  
  Acute urinary retention 急性尿潴留
  
  Acute urticaria 急性荨麻疹
  
  Acute venous thrombosis 静脉血栓
  
  adbominal retraction 腹部凹陷
  
  Adenocarcinoma 腺癌
  
  Adenomatous hyperplasia of endometrium子宫内膜腺瘤性增生过长
  
  Adenomyosis 子宫腺肌病
  
  Alanine amino transaminase (ALT) 丙氨酸氨基转移酶
  
  Albumin (Alb) 白蛋白
  
  Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) 碱性磷酸酶
  
  Alkalosis 碱中毒
  
  Allergic rhinitis 变应性鼻炎
  
  Alllergic airway inflammation 气道变应性炎症
  
  Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) 甲肿蛋白
  
  Alveolar bone 牙槽骨
  
  Alveolar carcinoma 肺泡细胞癌
  
  Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM)动态血压监测
  
  Amebic hepatic abscess 阿米巴肝脓肿
  
  Amelolatoma 造釉细胞瘤
  
  Amniotic fluid 羊水
  
  Amniotic membrane 羊膜
  
  Ampulla of Vater 法特壶腹
  
  Ampulla 壶腹
  
  Anastomosis 吻合术
  
  Anemia due to blood loss 失血性贫血
  
  Aneurysms of the brain 脑动脉瘤
  
  Angina pectoris 心绞痛
  
  Angioedema 血管性水肿
  
  Angiography 血管造影
  
  Angular blepharitis 眦部性睑缘炎
  
  Anovulatory uterine bleeding 无排卵性功血
  
  anterior axillary line 腋前线
  
  anterior midline 前正中线
  
  Ante-roseptal infarction 前间壁心肌梗塞
  
  Aortic imcompetence 主动脉瓣关闭不全
  
  Aortic stenosis 主动脉狭窄
  
  Aortic-type heart shadow 主动脉型心脏
  
  AP film=Anterior posterior film 前后位相
  
  Aphakia 无晶体眼
  
  apical belly 尖腹
  
  apical impulse 心尖搏动
  
  Aplastic anemia 再生障碍性贫血
  
  Arterial aneurysms 动脉瘤
  
  Arteriography 动脉造影
  
  Artifact 伪影
  
  ascites 腹水
  
  Aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) 天门冬氨酸氨基转移酶
  
  Asphyxia of newborn 新生儿窒息
  
  Aspiration of cataract 针吸术
  
  Ataxia 共济失调
  
  ataxic gait 共济失调步态
  
  Atherosclerosis 动脉粥样硬化
  
  Atopic dermatitis 异位性皮炎
  
  Atrial fibrillation 心房颤动
  
  Atrial flutter 心房扑动
  
  Atrial premature beats 房性早搏
  
  Atrial septal defect(ASD) 房间膈缺损
  
  Atrial-ventricular block 房室传导阻滞
  
  Atrophic endometrium 萎缩型子宫内膜
  
  Atrophic rhinitis 萎缩性鼻炎
  
  Auricle 耳廓
  
  Automatism 自动症
  
  axillary fosea 腋窝
  
  
  Bacillary dysentery 细菌性痢疾
  
  Bacillary dysentery 菌痢
  
  Bacillus lactics 乳酸杆菌
  
  Bacillus of Calmette and Guerin (BCG) 卡介苗
  
  barrel chest 桶状胸
  
  Basal metabolic rate (BMR) 基础代谢率
  
  Basophil (B) 嗜碱性粒细胞
  
  Basophilic stippling cell 碱性点彩红细胞
  
  Behcet’s syndrome 贝切特氏综合征
  
  Bence-Jones proteinuria(BJP) 本-周氏蛋白
  
  Biparietal diameter (BPD) 双顶径
  
  Bladder calculus 膀胱结石
  
  Bleeding time(BT) 出血时间
  
  Blepharitis 睑缘炎
  
  Blood urea nitrogen(BUN) 血尿素率
  
  Blue bloater 紫肿型
  
  board-like rigidity 板状腹
  
  Body scanner 全身体层扫描仪
  
  Bone marrow puncture 骨髓穿刺术
  
  Border line tumor 临界瘤
  
  Brain abscess 耳源性脑脓肿
  
  Brittle crisis 反拗危象
  
  Bronchepneumonia 支气管肺炎
  
  Bronchial asthma 支气管哮喘
  
  Bronchial breach sound 支气管呼吸音
  
  Bronchiectasis 支气管扩张症
  
  Broncho-hyperreactivity 气道高反应性
  
  Brown-Sequard syndrome 脊髓半切综合征
  
  Bubble sound 水泡音
  
  Bulbar 球结膜
  
  Bundle branch block 束支传导阻滞
  
  Bupivacaine 布比卡因
  
  Cabottring 卡博环
  
  Candial vaginitis 念珠菌阴道炎
  
  Candidiasis 念珠菌病
  
  cannon sound 大炮音
  
  Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) 癌胚抗原
  
  Carcinoma of cervix uteri 宫颈癌
  
  Carcinoma of endometrium 子宫内膜癌
  
  Carcinoma of stomach 胃癌
  
  Carcinoma of the esophagus 食管癌
  
  Cardiac asthma 心源性哮喘
  
  Cardiac edema 心源性水肿
  
  cardiac murmurs 脏杂音
  
  Cardiac troponin 肌钙蛋白
  
  Cardio angiography 心血管造影
  
  Cardiomyopathy 心肌病
  
  Cardiophrenic angle 心膈角
  
  Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) 心肺复苏
  
  Carrier state 病原携带状态
  
  Cecostomy 直肠造口术
  
  Cell-mediated immunity 细胞免疫
  
  Cellular cast 细胞管型
  
  Cementum 牙骨质
  
  Central retinal artery occlusion 视网膜中央动脉阻塞
  
  Central venous pressure (CVP) 中心静脉压
  
  Centris fever 中枢性发热
  
  Cerebral arteriography 脑动脉造影
  
  Cerebral cysticercosis 脑囊虫病
  
  Cerebral embolism 脑栓塞
  
  Cerebral hemorrhage 脑出血
  
  Cerebral infarction 脑梗塞
  
  Cerebral thrombosis 脑血栓形成
  
  Cerebral watershed infarction (CWSI) 脑分水岭梗塞
  
  Cervical canal 子宫颈管
  
  Cervical polyp 宫颈息肉
  
  Cervicitis 宫颈炎
  
  Chalazion 霰粒肿
  
  Chest film 胸相
  
  chest wall 胸壁
  
  Chlamydia 沙眼衣原体
  
  Chloroma 绿色瘤
  
  Cholangitis 胆管炎
  
  Cholecystitis 胆囊炎
  
  Cholecystokinin 胆囊收缩术
  
  Cholelithiasis 胆石症
  
  Cholestatic hepatitis 淤血型肝炎
  
  Cholinergic crisis 胆碱能危象
  
  Cholinergic urticaria 胆碱能性荨麻疹
  
  Chorea 舞蹈病
  
  Choroidal rupture 脉络膜挫伤
  
  Chroci myelogenous leukemia (CML) 慢性髓细胞白血病
  
  Chronic active hepatitis 慢性活动型肝炎
  
  Chronic dacryocystitis 慢性泪囊炎
  
  Chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL) 慢性粒细胞贫血
  
  Chronic hypertrophic rhinitis 慢性肥厚性鼻炎
  
  Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) 慢性淋巴细胞白血病
  
  Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 慢性阻塞性肺病
  
  Chronic occlusive diseases of the lower leg arteries下肢动脉慢性阻塞性疾病
  
  Chronic persistent hepatitis 慢性迁延性肝炎
  
  Chronic pulmonary heart disease 慢性肺源性心脏病
  
  Chronic pulpitis 慢性牙髓炎
  
  Chronic renal failure (CRF) 慢性肾功能衰竭
  
  Chronic simple rhinitis 慢性单纯性鼻炎
  
  Circulating immune complexes (CIC) 循环免疫复合物
  
  Circulatory collapse 循环衰竭
  
  Circumvallate papillae 轮廓乳头
  
  Cirrhosis of liver 肝硬化
  
  Classical biotype 古典生物型
  
  Clearance(CH2O) 自由水清除率
  
  Clitoris 阴蒂
  
  Closed obstruction 闭锁袢性肠梗阻
  
  Clot retraction test 血快退缩实验
  
  Clotting time(CT) 凝血时间
  
  Cluster headache 丛集性偏头痛
  
  Coagulant 凝血药
  
  Cochlea 耳蜗
  
  Codman’s triangle 柯氏三角
  
  Cold ruticaria 寒冷性荨麻疹
  
  Color doppler flow imaging 彩色多普勒血流显
  
  Colostomy 结肠造口术
  
  Combining power (Co2CP) 血浆二氧化碳结合力Co2
  
  Common warts 寻常疣
  
  Commotio retinae 视网膜震荡
  
  Communicable diseases 传染病
  
  Companion shadow 伴随阴影
  
  Complete placenta previa 完全性前置胎盘
  
  Complicated cataract 并发性白内障
  
  Compressive myelopathy 脊髓压迫症
  
  compulsive position 强迫体位
  
  Computed tomography (CT) 计算机X线断层照相术
  
  Concusion of the brain 脑震荡
  
  Condyloma accuminatum 尖锐湿疣
  
  Condyloma latum 扁平湿疣
  
  Congenital cardiac disease 先天性心脏病
  
  Congenital cataract 先天性白内障
  
  Congenital glaucoma 先天性青光眼
  
  Congenital nephrotic syndrome 先天性肾病综合征
  
  Congenital syphilis 先天(胎传)梅毒
  
  Congestive heart failure 充血性心力衰竭
  
  Conjugated bilirubin 结合胆红素
  
  Consistency and elasticity 硬度和弹性
  
  Continuous fever, sustained fever 稽留热
  
  Contraindication 禁忌症
  
  Contrast medium 造影剂
  
  Contrast resolution 密度分辨率
  
  Contre-coup injury 对侧伤
  
  Contusion and laceration of the brain 脑挫裂伤
  
  Contusion of the eyelid 眼睑挫伤
  
  Contusion of the iris and ciliary body 虹膜睫状体挫伤
  
  Convalescent period 恢复期
  
  Convulsion of infants and children 小儿惊厥
  
  Coronary arteriography 冠状动脉造影
  
  Coronary heart disease 冠心病
  
  Cortical nephron 皮质肾单位
  
  costalspinal angle 肋脊角
  
  Costophrenic angle 肋膈角
  
  Covert infection 隐性感染
  
  Creatine kinase (CK) 肌酸激酶
  
  Crepitus 捻发音
  
  Cricoid cartilage 环状软骨
  
  Crowning of head 着冠
  
  cyanosis 紫绀,发绀
  
  Cystic hyperplasia of endometrium 子宫内膜腺囊性增生过长
  
  Cysticercosis 囊虫病
  
  Cystoscopy 膀胱镜检查
  
  Cytokines 细胞因子
  
  Dapillitis 视乳头炎
  
  Deciduous teeth 乳牙
  
  Deep mycosis 深部真菌病
  
  Deformity of duodenum cap 十二指肠球变形
  
  Degeneration of nucleus 核变性
  
  Demyelinating disease 脱髓鞘病
  
  Dental caries 龋病
  
  Dentigerous cyst 含牙囊肿
  
  Dentin 牙本质
  
  Dermatitis medicamentosa 药物性皮炎
  
  Dermatographism 皮肤划痕症
  
  Dermatomyositis 皮肌炎
  
  dermis=derma 真皮
  
  Deudenal ulcer (DU) 十二指肠溃疡
  
  Deviation of nasa septum 鼻中隔偏曲
  
  Devic disease 视神经脊髓炎(德维克病)
  
  Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) 糖尿病酮症酸中毒
  
  Diagnostic imaging 诊断影像学
  
  Diazepam 安定
  
  Dicaine (Tetracaine) 丁卡因
  
  Digestive organ 消化器官
  
  Digital subtraction angiography(DSA) 数字剪影血管造影
  
  Dilatation of cervix 宫口扩张
  
  Dilated cardiomyopathy 扩张型心肌病
  
  Direct bilirubin 直接胆红素
  
  Disease of periapical tissue 尖周组织病
  
  Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)弥散性血管内凝血
  
  Dissociative anesthesia 分离麻醉
  
  dough kneading sensation 揉面腹
  
  Drug eruption 药疹
  
  drunken man gait 醉酒步态
  
  Dullness 浊音
  
  Dysfunctional uterine bleeding 功能失调性子宫出血
  
  Echo cardiography, ultrasound cardiography 超声心动图
  
  Ectopic pregnancy 异位妊娠
  
  Ectropion 睑外翻
  
  Effective circulating blood volume 有效循环血流量
  
  Effervescence 体温上升期
  
  EL Tor biotype 埃尔托生物型
  
  Elliptocyte 椭圆红细胞
  
  Emulsion 乳剂
  
  Encephalic 脑内、颅内病
  
  Encephalitis 脑炎
  
  Encephalomyelitis 脑脊髓炎
  
  Encephalopathy 脑病
  
  Endemic typhus 地方性斑疹伤寒
  
  Endogenous creatinine clearance(Ccr) 内生肌酐清除率
  
  Endogenous pyrogen 内源性致热源
  
  Endometriosis 子宫内膜异位征
  
  Endorphin 内啡肽
  
  Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancretography(ERCP)经内窥镜逆行胆管造影
  
  Endoscopy 内镜,内窥镜检查
  
  Engagement 衔接
  
  Enkephalin 脑啡肽
  
  Enterotoxin 肠毒素
  
  Entrahepatic block 肝内性闭塞
  
  Entropion 睑内翻
  
  Eosinophil (E) 嗜酸性粒细胞
  
  Epherocyte 球形红细胞
  
  Epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis 流行性脑脊髓膜炎
  
  Epidemic encephalitis B 流行性乙型脑炎
  
  Epidemic hemorrhage conjunctivitis (EHC)流行性出血性结膜炎
  
  Epidemic hemorrhagic fever (EHF) 流行性出血热
  
  Epidemic typhus 流行性斑疹伤寒
  
  Epidemiologic feature 流行病学特征
  
  epidermis 表皮
  
  Epidermophyton 表皮癣菌
  
  Epidural block 硬膜外阻滞
  
  Epiglottic cartilage 会厌软骨
  
  Epikeratophakia 角膜表面镜片术
  
  Epilepsia partialis continua 持续性部分性癫痫
  
  Epiphyseal line 骨骺线
  
  Epistaxis, nosebleed 鼻出血
  
  Epithelioid cell 上皮样细胞
  
  Erythema multiforme 多形红斑
  
  Erythrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR) 红细胞沉降率
  
  Erythrodermic psoriasis 红皮病型银屑病
  
  Erythroplakia 红斑
  
  Essential hypertension 原发性高血压
  
  Ethmoid sinus 筛窦
  
  Exanthema subitum 幼儿急疹
  
  Exogenous pyrogen 外源性致热源
  
  Expected date of confinement(EDC) 预产期
  
  Expectoration 咯痰
  
  Expiratory dyspnea 呼气困难
  
  Extension 仰伸
  
  Exteranl pelvimetry 骨盆外测量
  
  External acoustic meatus 外耳道
  
  External electronic monitoring 外监护
  
  External rotation 外旋转
  
  Extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE)囊外摘除术
  
  Extracellular fluid 细胞外液
  
  Extradural abscess 硬脑膜外脓肿
  
  Extrahepatic biliary atresia 肝外胆道闭锁
  
  Extrapyramidal disease 锥体外系疾病
  
  Extrauterine pregnancy 宫外孕
  
  Eyeball rupture 眼球壁破裂
  
  facial features(expression) 面部表情
  
  Fallopian tube or oviduct 输卵管
  
  False pelvis 假骨盆
  
  Fascial space infection of maxillofacial regional颌面部间隙感染
  
  Fastigium 极期
  
  Fentanyl 芬太尼
  
  festinating gait 慌张步态
  
  Festination 慌张步态
  
  Fetal heart rate (FHR) 胎心率
  
  Fetal lie 胎产式
  
  Fetal movement 胎动
  
  Fetal position 胎方位
  
  Fetal presentation 胎先露
  
  Fever type 热型
  
  Fibroadenomas 纤维腺瘤
  
  Fibronectin 纤维连接蛋白
  
  Filiform papillae 丝状乳头
  
  Filling defect 充盈缺损
  
  Film interpretation 照片解释,读片
  
  Film of the kidney, ureter and bladder(KUB)泌尿系平片
  
  Fixation development 定影
  
  fixed splitting 固定分裂
  
  flat chest 扁平胸
  
  Flatness 实音
  
  Flexion 俯屈
  
  Floor of mouth 口底
  
  Fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption test(FTA-ABS test)荧光螺旋体抗体血清试验
  
  Foliate papillae 叶状乳头
  
  Follicular 滤泡囊肿
  
  Fontanel 囟门
  
  Foreign bodies in esophagus 食管异物
  
  Fornical 穹结膜
  
  Fracture of the ribs 肋骨骨折
  
  Fracture of the skull 颅骨骨折
  
  Free induction decay (FID) 自由感应衰减
  
  free ribs 浮肋
  
  frog belly 蛙腹
  
  Frontal sinus 额窦
  
  Fulminent hepatitis 暴发型肝炎
  
  Fungiform papillae 菌状乳头
  
  funnel chest 漏斗胸
  
  Furulent appendicitis 化脓性阑尾炎
  
  Furuncle 疖
  
  gallop rhythm 奔马率
  
  Gangrenous appendicitis 坏疽性阑尾炎
  
  Gastric rugae 胃粘膜皱襞
  
  Gastric ulcer 胃溃疡
  
  General anesthesia 全身麻醉
  
  Generalized tonic-clonic seizure (GTOS)全面性强直-阵挛发作
  
  German measles, rubella 风疹
  
  gibbus 驼背
  
  Gingiva 牙龈
  
  Gingivitis 牙龈炎
  
  Glaucoma 青光眼
  
  Gliomas 神经胶质瘤
  
  Glomerular filtration rate(GFR) 肾小球滤过率
  
  Glomerular proteinuria 肾小球性蛋白尿
  
  Glucosuria 葡萄糖尿
  
  Gonorrhea 淋病
  
  Gonorrhea 淋病
  
  Granular cast 颗粒管型
  
  Grasp reflex 握持反射
  
  Greater palate foramen 腭大孔
  
  Guillain-Garre syndrome (GBS) 格林-巴利综合征
  
  =========================================================================================================
  
  
  
  
  Any comments please
  send to: haifengw@mail.bjmu.edu.cn

打赏

0 点赞

主帖获得的天涯分:0
举报 | | 楼主 | 埋红包
楼主发言:9次 发图:0张 | 添加到话题 |
楼主Pomelo 时间:2003-05-12 11:51:41
  
  
  Harrison groove 肋膈沟
  
  Head visible on vulval gapping 胎头拨露
  
  Hegar‘s sign 黑格氏征
  
  Hemicrania, 偏头痛
  
  Hemiplegic migraine 偏瘫型偏头痛
  
  Hemolytic anemia 溶血性贫血
  
  Hemolytic disease of the newborn 新生儿溶血病
  
  Hemothorax 血胸
  
  Hepadnavirus 嗜肝DNA病毒
  
  Heparnavirus 嗜肝RNA病毒
  
  Hepatic edema 肝源性水肿
  
  Hepatic encephalopathy 肝性脑病
  
  hepatic facies 肝病面容
  
  hepatitis A,B,C,D,E virus (HAV,HBV,HCV,HDV, HEV) 甲、乙、丙、丁、戊型肝炎病毒
  
  hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) 乙型肝炎病毒核心抗原
  
  hepatitis B e antibody (Anti-HBe) 乙型肝炎病毒e抗体
  
  hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) 乙型肝炎病毒e抗原
  
  hepatitis B e core antibody (Anti-HBc) 乙型肝炎病毒核心抗体
  
  hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) 乙型肝炎病毒表面抗原
  
  Hepatitis gravis 重型肝炎
  
  Hepatolenticular degeneration 肝豆状核变性
  
  Hereditary spherocytosis 遗传性球型细胞增多症
  
  Herniation 疝成型术
  
  Hernniorrhaphy 疝修补术
  
  Herpes genitalis 生殖器疱疹
  
  Herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) 单疱性角膜溃疡
  
  Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE)单纯疱症病毒性脑炎
  
  Herpes simplex 单纯疱疹
  
  Herpes zoster 带状疱疹
  
  Hiatal hernia 食道裂口疝
  
  High density lipoprotein (HDL) 高密度脂蛋白
  
  High pressure injector 高压注射器
  
  High risk pregnancy 高危妊娠
  
  Hilar dance 肺门舞蹈
  
  Hilum (肺)门
  
  Hordeolum 麦粒肿
  
  Horner 霍纳氏(综合征)
  
  Hotz 何兹氏术
  
  Howell-Jolly‘s bodies 染色质小体
  
  Human papilloma virus(HPV) 人乳头瘤病毒
  
  Humoral immunity 体液免疫
  
  Hunsfield unit 亨氏单位
  
  Hyaline cast 透明管型
  
  Hyaline membrane disease 肺透明膜病
  
  Hymen 处女膜
  
  Hyperbarie oxygenation 高压氧疗法
  
  Hyperkalemia 高钠血症
  
  Hyperlipoproteinemia 高脂蛋白血症
  
  Hyperopia 远视
  
  Hyperosmolar nonketotic diabetic (HNDC)高渗性非酮症糖尿病昏迷
  
  Hypersusceptibility 高敏反应
  
  Hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage 高血压性脑出血
  
  Hyperthyroidism 甲状腺机能亢进症
  
  Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 肥厚性心肌病
  
  Hyphema 前房出血
  
  hypogastric region 下腹部
  
  Hypokalemia 低钠血症
  
  Hypoxia 缺氧
  
  Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy(HIE) 新生儿缺氧缺血性脑病
  
  
  Idiopathic facial palsy 特发性面神经麻痹
  
  Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)特发性血小板减少性紫癜
  
  Immunoglobulin (Ig) 免疫球蛋白
  
  Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) 葡萄糖耐量减低
  
  Incisive foramen 切牙孔
  
  Incomplete abortion 不全流产
  
  Incubation period 潜伏期
  
  Incus 砧骨
  
  Inevitable abortion 难免流产
  
  Infancy 婴儿期
  
  Infantile diarrhea 婴儿腹泻
  
  Infantile glaucoma 婴幼儿型青光眼
  
  Infectious diseases 感染性疾病
  
  Infectious eczematoid dermatitis 传染性湿疹样皮炎
  
  Infective fever 感染性发热
  
  Infectivity 传染性
  
  Inferior turbinate 下鼻甲
  
  Inferioror diaphragmatic infarction 下壁心肌梗塞
  
  infrasternal angle 胸骨下角
  
  Inhalation anesthesia 吸入麻醉
  
  Injury of acceleration 加速性损伤
  
  Injury of auricle 耳廓外伤
  
  Injury of deceleration 减速性损伤
  
  Injury of tympanic membrane 鼓膜外伤
  
  Inspiratory dyspnea 吸气困难
  
  Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)胰岛素依赖性糖尿病
  
  intercostal space 肋间隙
  
  Intermittent fever 间歇热
  
  Internal electronic monitoring 内监护
  
  Internal rotation 内旋转
  
  Intestinal amebiasis 肠阿米巴病
  
  Intestinal bypass 肠改道术
  
  Intestinal taeniasis 肠绦虫病
  
  Intracapsular cataract extraction (ICCE) 囊内摘除术
  
  Intracellular fluid 细胞内液
  
  Intracranial hematoma 颅内血肿
  
  Intracranial hemorrhage of the newborn(ICH)新生儿颅内出血
  
  Intracranial tumors 颅内肿瘤
  
  Intraocular foreign body 眼球内异物
  
  Intraocular lens implantation 人工晶体植入术
  
  Intrauterine device (IUD) 宫内节育器
  
  Intrauterine distress 宫内窘迫
  
  Intrauterine growth retardation(IUGR) 胎儿宫内发育迟缓
  
  Intravenous anesthesia 静脉麻醉
  
  Intravenous pyelography (IVP) 静脉肾盂造影
  
  Invasiveness 侵袭力
  
  inward impulse 负性心尖搏动
  
  Iron deficiency Anemia (IDA) 缺铁性贫血
  
  Irregular fever 不规则热
  
  Irritable bowel symdrome (IBS) 肠激惹综合征
  
  isoenzyme 同工酶
  
  Juvenile glaucoma 青少年型青光眼
  
  Keratic precipitate (K.p) 角膜后壁沉着物
  
  keratinocyte 角朊细胞
  
  Kerley‘s A,B,C lines 克氏A,B,C线
  
  Kernicterus 核黄疸
  
  Ketamine 氯胺酮
  
  Ketonemia 酮血
  
  Ketonuria 酮尿
  
  Koch-Weeks 科-威氏杆菌(结膜炎杆菌)
  
  koilonychia 匙状甲
  
  Krause 克劳氏腺(副泪腺)
  
  Kuhnt-Szymanowski 昆-慈氏术
  
  kyphosis 脊柱后凸
  
  Labium majus 大阴唇
  
  Labium minus 小阴唇
  
  Lacrimal canaliculus rupture 泪小管断裂
  
  Lacrimal gland 泪腺
  
  Lacrimal passages 泪道
  
  Lactic dehydrogenase (LD) 乳酸脱氢酶
  
  Lacunar infarct 腔隙性梗塞
  
  Lamellar keratoplasty (L.K.) 板层角膜移植术
  
  langerhans cell 郎格汉斯细胞
  
  Langhans cell 郎罕氏细胞
  
  Laparoscopic cholecystectomy 腹腔镜胆囊切除术
  
  Laryngeal obstruction 喉阻塞
  
  Laryngitis 喉炎
  
  Laryngopharynx 喉咽部
  
  Last menstrual period (LMP) 末次月经
  
  late diastolic gallop 舒张晚期奔马率
  
  Latent infection 潜伏性感染
  
  Left anterior oblique(LAO) 左前斜位
  
  left hypochondral region 左上腹部
  
  left lower quadrant 左下腹
  
  left lumber region 左侧腹部
  
  Lens capsule 晶体囊腺
  
  Lens cells 晶体细胞(晶体纤维)
  
  Lens epithelium 晶体上皮
  
  Lens zonules 晶体悬韧带(又称Zinn氏小带)
  
  Lens 晶状体
  
  Leptospirosis 钩端螺旋体病
  
  Leukoplakia 白斑
  
  Lichen planus 扁平苔藓
  
  Lichenification 苔藓样变
  
  Lidocaine 利多卡因
  
  Linear tomography 直线体层照相
  
  Lochia alba 白色恶露
  
  Lochia rubra 血性恶露
  
  Lochia serosa 浆性恶露
  
  Lochia 恶露
  
  Low-tension glaucoma 低压性青光眼
  
  Lung abscess 肺脓肿
  
  Lung markings 肺纹理
  
  Luxation 晶体脱位
  
  Lysozyme 溶菌酶
楼主Pomelo 时间:2003-05-12 11:52:47
  
  =========================================================================================================
  
  Maceration 浸渍
  
  Macrocyte 大红细胞
  
  Macule 斑疹
  
  Maculo-papular rash 斑丘疹
  
  Magnetic resonance (MR) 磁共振
  
  Major vestibular glands 前庭大腺
  
  Malassezia furfur 糠秕马拉色菌
  
  Malleus 锤骨
  
  Mammography 乳腺照相
  
  Mandible 下颌骨
  
  manubrium sterni 胸骨柄
  
  Marginal placenta previa 边缘性前置胎盘
  
  Massive bleeding 大出血
  
  Mastitis 乳腺炎
  
  Maxilla 上颌骨
  
  Maxillary sinuses 上颌窦
  
  Mc Bureny‘s point 麦氏点
  
  Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration(MCHC) 平均红细胞血红蛋白浓度
  
  Mean corpuscular hemoglobin(MCH) 平均红细胞血红蛋白含量
  
  Mean corpuscular volume(MCV) 红细胞比积
  
  Mechanical obstruction 机械性肠梗阻
  
  Medical imaging, Imageology 医学影像学
  
  Medium fine rules 中(小)水泡音
  
  Megaloblastic anemia 巨幼红细胞性贫血
  
  Megalocyte 巨红细胞
  
  Meibom 睑板腺(麦氏腺)
  
  Melena 黑便
  
  Meniere‘s disease 梅尼埃病
  
  Meningiomas 脑膜瘤
  
  Meninx 脑膜
  
  Meniscus sign 半月征
  
  Menorrhagia 月经过多
  
  Menstrual cycle 月经周期
  
  Menstruation 月经
  
  Meseteric thromboembolism 肠系膜血管栓塞
  
  Meseteric thrombosis 肠系膜血栓形成
  
  Metrorrhagia 子宫不规则出血
  
  Microcyte 小红细胞
  
  Microsporum 小孢子菌
  
  midaxillary line 腋中线
  
  Midazolam 咪唑安定
  
  midclavicular line 锁骨中线
  
  Middle meatus 中鼻道
  
  Middle turbinate 中鼻甲
  
  Migraine 偏头痛
  
  Missed abortion 稽留流产
  
  mitral facies 二尖瓣面容
  
  Mitral incompetence 二尖瓣关闭不全
  
  Mitral insufficiency(MI) 二尖瓣关闭不全
  
  Mitral stenosis (MS) 二尖瓣狭窄
  
  Mitral-type heart shadow 二尖瓣型心脏
  
  Mixed dentition 混合牙列
  
  Mixed proteinuria 混合性蛋白尿
  
  Mixed tumor of salivary gland 涎腺混合瘤
  
  Mobility 活动度
  
  Moll 莫尔氏腺
  
  Molluscum contagiosum 传染性软疣
  
  monoamine oxidase (MAO) 单氨氧化酶
  
  Monocyte(M) 单核细胞
  
  Mons pubis 阴阜
  
  Morax-Axenfeld 莫-阿氏双杆菌
  
  Morning sickness 孕妇晨吐
  
  Moro reflex 拥抱反射
  
  Morphea 硬斑病
  
  Mucosa sugae 粘膜皱襞
  
  Müller 苗勒氏腺
  
  Multiple sclerosis 多发性硬化
  
  muscular tone 肌张力
  
  Myasthenia gravis (MG) 重症肌无力
  
  Myasthenic crisis 肌无力危象
  
  Mycosis 真菌病
  
  Myelitis 脊髓炎
  
  Myelography 脊髓照相
  
  Myelopathy 脊髓病
  
  Myocardial damage 心肌损害
  
  Myocardial infarction 心肌梗塞
  
  Myoglobin 肌红蛋白
  
  Myoma of uterus 子宫肌瘤
  
  Naboth cyst 宫颈腺体囊肿
  
  Nasal vestibule 鼻前庭
  
  Nasopharynx 鼻咽部
  
  Neonatal behavioral neurological assessment(NBAN) 新生儿行为神经测定
  
  Neostigmine 新斯的明
  
  nephrotic facies 肾病面容
  
  Nephrotic syndrome (NS) 肾病综合征
  
  Neuromyelitis optica 视神经脊髓炎
  
  Neuropathy 神经病
  
  Neutitis 神经炎
  
  Neutrophil (N) 中性粒细胞
  
  Nitrous oxide 氧化亚氮
  
  Nonconjugated bilirubin 非结合胆红素
  
  Nongonococcal urethritis(NGU) 非淋菌性尿道炎
  
  Noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)非胰岛素依赖性糖尿病
  
  Nonspecific immunity 非特异性免疫
  
  Normocyte 正常红细胞
  
  Nuclear magnetic resonance image 核磁共振成像
  
  Nucleated erythrocyte 有核红细胞
  
  nystagmus 眼球震颤
  
  Occlude v. (牙齿)咬合,闭塞,堵塞
  
  Occlusion n. 咬合
  
  Ocular hypertension 高眼压症
  
  Ointment 软膏
  
  Onychomycosis 甲癣,甲真菌病
  
  opening snap 开瓣音
  
  Opportunistic infection 机会性感染
  
  Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 口服葡萄糖耐量试验
  
  oral pharynx 口咽
  
  Oral rehydration salts (ORS) 口服补液盐
  
  Orbit injury 眼眶损伤
  
  Orbital septum 眶膈
  
  Oropharynx 口咽部
  
  Osteoblastic lesion 成骨病变
  
  Osteolytic lesion 溶骨病变
  
  Osteoporosis 骨质稀疏
  
  Osteosclerosis 骨硬化
  
  Otitic meningitis 耳源性脑膜炎
  
  Ovarian tumor 卵巢肿瘤
  
  Overt infection 显性感染
  
  Ovulatory menstrual dysfunction 排卵性月经失调
  
  P. falciparium 恶性疟原虫
  
  P. melariae 三日疟原虫
  
  P. ovale 卵型疟原虫
  
  P. vivax 间日疟原虫
  
  PA film= posterior anterior film 后前位相
  
  Pachymeninx 硬脑膜
  
  Palpebral 睑结膜
  
  Pancreatectomy 胰切除术
  
  Pancreatitis 胰腺炎
  
  Papilloma 乳头状瘤
  
  Paralytic obstruction 麻痹性肠梗阻
  
  parasternal line 胸骨旁线
  
  Paratyphooid fever 副伤寒
  
  Parkinson disease 帕金森氏病(震颤麻痹)
  
  Parkinsonism, parkinsonian syndrome 帕金森氏综合征
  
  Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia阵发性室上性心动过速
  
  Paroxysmal tachycardia 阵发性心动过速
  
  Partial placenta previa 部分性前置胎盘
  
  Partogram 产程图
  
  patch test 斑帖试验
  
  Patent ductusarteriosus (PDA) 动脉导管未闭
  
  Pathogenecity 致病能力
  
  Pearly penile papules 阴茎珍珠状丘疹
  
  Pelvic inflammatiory disease 盆腔炎
  
  Pelvis abscess 盆腔脓肿
  
  Pelvis inlet 骨盆入口
  
  Pelvis outlet 骨盆出口
  
  pendular rhythm 钟摆率
  
  Penetrating keratoplasty (P.K.) 穿透角膜移植术
  
  Peptic ulcer 消化性溃疡
  
  Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) 经皮经肝胆管造影
  
  Perforation 穿孔
  
  Periampullary carcinomas 壶腹周围癌
  
  pericardial knock 心包扣击音
  
  Pericoronitis 冠周炎
  
  Period of apparent manifestation 症状明显期
  
  Periodic paralysis 周期性麻痹
  
  Periodontal disease 牙周组织疾病
  
  Periodontal membrane 牙周膜
  
  Periodontitis 牙周炎
  
  Peripheral nerves disease 周围神经疾病
  
  Peristalsis 蠕动
  
  Peritoneal cavity 腹膜腔
  
  Peritonsillar abscess 扁桃体周围脓肿
  
  Permanent magnet 永磁体
  
  Permanent teeth 恒牙
  
  Petechia 出血疹
  
  Pethidine 哌替啶
  
  Phacoemulsification 超声乳化术(晶状体乳化术)
  
  Pharyngeal tonsil 腺样体
  
  Pharyngotympanic tube 咽鼓管
  
  Phlyctenular kerato conjunctivitis 泡性角结膜炎
  
  Phototherapy 光照疗法
  
  physiologic splitting 生理分裂
  
  pigmentation 色素沉着
  
  Pink puffer 红喘型
  
  Pituitary adenoma 垂体腺瘤
  
  Placental abruption 胎盘早剥
  
  Plasma prothrombin time(PT) 血浆凝血酶原时间
  
  Platelet count 血小板计数
  
  Pneumococcal pneumonia 肺炎球菌肺炎
  
  pneumoperitoneum 气腹
  
  Pneumothorax 气胸
  
  Polymenorrhea 月经频发
  
  Polymyositis 多发性肌炎
  
  Polyp of stomach 胃息肉
  
  Polyp 息肉
  
  Portal-caval collateral circulation 门-腔侧枝循环
  
  positive position 被动体位
  
  posterior axillary line 腋后线
  
  Postinfection immunity 感染后免疫
  
  Postterm delivery 过期产
  
  Pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome (PIH)妊娠高血压综合征
  
  premature beat 过早搏动
  
  Premature ventricular beats 室性早搏
  
  Pressure urticaria 压迫性荨麻疹
  
  presystolic gallop 收缩前期奔马率
  
  Primary angle-closure glaucoma 原发闭角型青光眼
  
  Primary apnea 原发性呼吸暂停
  
  Primary complex 原发综合征
  
  Primary hyperthyroidism (Graves disease)原发性甲亢
  
  primary lesion 原发性损害
  
  Primary varicose veins 原发性静脉曲张
  
  Primordial cyst 始基囊肿
  
  Prodromal period 前驱期
  
  Progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) 进行性系统性红斑狼疮
  
  Proliferative phase of endometrium 增生期子宫内膜
  
  Propofol 异丙酚
  
  Prostatic hyperplasia (hypertrophy) 前列腺增生
  
  Protacaval shunt 门腔分流
  
  Protal hypertension 门脉高压
  
  Protal vein manometry 门脉压测定
  
  protodiastolic gallop 舒张早期奔马率
  
  Proton density weighted 质子密度像
  
  Pseudomonas corneal ulcer 绿脓性角膜溃疡
  
  Psoriasis arthropathica 关节病型银屑病
  
  Psoriasis pustulosa 脓疱型银屑病
  
  Psoriasis vulgris 寻常银屑病
  
  Psoriasis 银屑病
  
  Psychomotor epilepsy 精神运动性癫痫
  
  Ptosis 下垂
  
  Puerperium 产褥期
  
  Pulmonary angiography 肺血管造影
  
  Pulmonary emphysema 肺气肿
  
  Pulmonary segment 肺动脉段
  
  pulmonary stenosis 肺动脉瓣狭窄
  
  Pulp 牙髓
  
  pulse deficit 脉搏短绌
  
  Pulse sequences 脉冲序列
  
  Purified protein derivative(PPD) 结核纯蛋白衍生物
  
  Purulent meningitis 化脓性脑膜炎
  
  Pustule 脓疱
  
  Pyloric obstruction 幽门梗阻
  
  Pyogenic liver abscess 细菌性肝脓肿
  
  Pyogenic osteomyelitis of the jaws 化脓性颌骨骨髓炎
楼主Pomelo 时间:2003-05-12 11:55:08
  
  
  =========================================================================================================
  
  Radicular cyst 根端囊肿
  
  Radio-frequency pulse (RF pulse) 射频脉冲
  
  Radiologist 放射学家,放射学医师
  
  Radio-opaque 不透X线的
  
  RAO=Right anterior oblique 右前斜位
  
  Rapid film changer 快速换片器
  
  Rapid plasma reagin circle card test (RPR)快速血浆反应素环状卡片试验
  
  Rarefaction 稀疏
  
  Rash eruption 皮疹
  
  rebound tenderness 反跳痛
  
  Recrudescence 再燃
  
  Recto-uterine pouch or cul-de-sac of Douglas子宫直肠陷凹
  
  Recurrent fever 回归热
  
  Recurrent laryngeal nerve 喉返神经
  
  Refractory period 不应期
  
  Relapsing fever 回归热
  
  Relaxation times 弛豫时间
  
  Remittent fever 弛张热
  
  Renal artery stenosis 肾动脉狭窄
  
  Renal claulus (stone) 肾结石
  
  Renal colic 肾绞痛
  
  Renal edema 肾源性水肿
  
  Renal parenchymal hypertension 肾性高血压
  
  Renovascular hypertension 肾血管性高血压
  
  Resonance 清音
  
  Respiratory failure 呼吸衰竭
  
  Respiratory syncytial virus 呼吸道合胞病毒
  
  Reticulocyte 网织红细胞
  
  Retrograde pyelography 逆行肾盂造影
  
  reversed splitting 逆分裂
  
  Rexurrent aphthae 复发性口疮
  
  r-glutamyl transpeptidase (r-GT) r-谷氨酰转移酶
  
  Rheumatic fever 风湿热
  
  Rheumatic heart disease 风湿性心脏病
  
  Rhonchus 干罗音
  
  Richettsia 立克次体
  
  right iliac region 右下腹部
  
  right upper quadrant 右上腹
  
  Roentgenologist X线学家,X线学医师
  
  Roentgenology X线学
  
  Rooting reflex 觅食反射
  
  Routine fluoroscopy 常规透视
  
  Rupture of membranes 胎膜破裂
  
  Salivary gland 涎腺
  
  Scales 鳞屑
  
  scaphoid abdomen 舟状腹
  
  scapula 肩胛骨
  
  Scarlet fever 猩红热
  
  Schirmer 席氏试验
  
  Schistosomiasis japonica 日本血吸虫病
  
  scissor gait 尖刀步态
  
  sclera 巩膜
  
  Scleredema of newborn 新生儿硬肿症
  
  Scleroderma 硬皮病
  
  Scoline 琥珀胆碱
  
  Secondary apnea 继发性呼吸暂停
  
  Secondary glaucoma 继发性青光眼
  
  Secondary hyperthyroidism 继发性甲亢
  
  Secondary P.T.B 继发性肺结核
  
  Secretory otitis media 分泌性中耳炎
  
  Seizure 痫性发作
  
  Senile cataract 老年性白内障
  
  Senile vaginitis 老年性阴道炎
  
  Septic fever 败血症型热
  
  Septicaemia 败血病
  
  Serpiginous corneal ulcer 匐行性角膜溃疡
  
  Serum creatinine 血清肌酐
  
  Serum protein electrophoresis 血清蛋白电泳
  
  Serum total bilirubin 血清总胆红素
  
  Serum total protein(TP) 血清总蛋白
  
  Sexually transmitted disease (STD) 性传播疾病
  
  Sick sinus syndrome 病态窦房结综合征
  
  Sigmoideus sinus thrombophlebitis 乙状窦血栓性静脉炎
  
  Simple goiter 单纯性甲状腺肿
  
  Simple obstruction 单纯性肠梗阻
  
  Sinus arrest 窦性静止
  
  sinus arrhythmia 窦性心率不齐
  
  Sinus bradycardia 窦性心动过缓
  
  Sinus pause 窦性停搏
  
  sinus phrenicocostalis 肋膈窦
  
  Sinus tachycardia 窦性心动过速
  
  Skin associated lymphoid tissue (SALT)皮肤相关淋巴组织
  
  skin eruption 皮疹
  
  Small cell carcinoma 小细胞癌
  
  Small for gestational age infant(SGA) 小于胎龄儿
  
  Solar urticaria 日光性荨麻疹
  
  somnolence 嗜睡
  
  Spatial resolution 空间分辨率
  
  Spectrometer 波谱仪
  
  Sphenoid sinus 蝶窦
  
  Spin echo imaging 自旋回波成像
  
  spinous process 脊柱棘突
  
  Splenomegaly 脾肿大
  
  splitting of heart sounds 心音分裂
  
  Spontaneous pneumothorax 自发性气胸
  
  Sporothrix Schenckii 申克孢子丝菌
  
  Sporotrichosis 孢子丝菌病
  
  Squamous blepharitis 鳞屑性睑缘炎
  
  Squamous cell carcinoma 鳞状细胞癌
  
  stained yellow 黄染
  
  Stapes 镫骨
  
  Staphylococcal pneumonia 葡萄球菌肺炎
  
  Stem cell 干细胞
  
  sternal angle 胸骨角
  
  Stomatocyte 口形红细胞
  
  Strabismus 斜视
  
  Strangulation obstruction 绞窄性肠梗阻
  
  Subacute cutaneous lupus;erythematosus亚急性皮肤型红斑狼疮
  
  Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) 蛛网膜下腔出血
  
  Subclinical infection 亚临床感染
  
  subcutaneous tissue 皮下组织
  
  Subluxation 晶体半脱位
  
  succusion splash 振水声
  
  Sucking reflex 吸吮反射
  
  Superconducting magnet 超导磁体
  
  Superficial mycosis 浅部真菌病
  
  Superior laryngeal nerve 喉上软骨
  
  Superior meatus 上鼻道
  
  Superior turbinate 上鼻甲
  
  Suppurant peritonitis 化脓性腹膜炎
  
  suprasternal notch 胸骨上切迹
  
  Sympathetic ophthalmia 交感性眼炎
  
  Symptomatology 症状学
  
  Systemic lupus; erythematosus 系统性红斑狼疮
  
  T1weighted image T1加权像
  
  Tachypnea 呼吸过速
  
  Tamm-Horsfall protein(THP) Tamm-Horsfall蛋白
  
  Target cell 靶形红细胞;靶细胞
  
  Temporal bone 颞骨
  
  tenderness 压痛
  
  Tensilon 藤喜龙
  
  Tension headache 紧张性偏头痛
  
  Tension pneumothorax, pressure pneumothorax张力性气胸
  
  Term delivery 足月产
  
  Tetralogy of Fallot 法洛氏四联症
  
  The basal metabolic rate (BMR) 基础代谢率
  
  Thiopental sodium 硫喷妥那
  
  Thoracic aortography 胸主动脉造影
  
  Thoracic empyema 脓胸
  
  Threatened abortion 先兆流产
  
  Thrombocytopenia 血小板减少(症)
  
  Thyroid adenoma 甲状腺瘤
  
  Thyroid carcinoma 甲状腺癌
  
  Thyroid cartilage 甲状软骨
  
  Thyroid storm (thyroid crisis) 甲状腺危象
  
  Thyroiditis 甲状腺炎
  
  Thyrotoxicosia 甲状腺毒症
  
  Tichophyton 毛发癣菌
  
  Tinctures and spiritus 酊剂和醑剂
  
  Tinea capitis 头癣
  
  Tinea corporis 体癣
  
  Tinea cruris 股癣
  
  Tinea mannus and pedis 手足癣
  
  Tinea unguium 甲菌
  
  Tinea versicolor 花斑癣
  
  Tomography 体层照相
  
  Total enteral nutrition (TEN) 胃肠内营养
  
  Total parenteral nutrition(TPN) 胃肠外营养
  
  Toxemia 毒血症
  
  Toxemic symptoms 毒血症状
  
  Toxic granulation 中毒颗粒
  
  Tracheotomy 气管切开术
  
  Transient ischemic attack(TIA) 短暂性脑缺血发作
  
  Traumatic cataract 外伤性白内障
  
  Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA)梅毒螺旋体血凝试验
  
  Treponema pallidum 苍白螺旋体(梅毒螺旋体)
  
  Trichiasis 倒睫
  
  Trichomonal vaginitis 滴虫性阴道炎
  
  Trigeminal nerve 三叉神经
  
  Trigeminal neuralgia 三叉神经痛
  
  Trigger point 板击点
  
  True pelvis 真骨盆
  
  Tubal pregnancy 输卵管妊娠
  
  Tubular proteinuria 肾小管性蛋白尿
  
  Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) 肿瘤坏死因子
  
  tumor plop 肿瘤扑落音
  
  Tumor staining 肿瘤染色
  
  Tympanic cavity 鼓室
  
  Tympanic membrane 鼓膜
  
  Tympany 鼓音
  
  Tyndall 房水闪光
  
  Ulceration 溃疡
  
  Ulcerative blepharitis 溃疡性睑缘炎
  
  Ulcerative colitis 溃疡性结肠炎
  
  umbilical region 中腹部
  
  unconjugated bilirubin 非结合胆红素
  
  Undulant fever 波状热
  
  Unheated serum reagin (USR) 血清不加热反应素试验
  
  Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage 上消化道出血
  
  Upper GI series 上消化道造影
  
  Ureteral calculus 输尿管结石
  
  Urethrography 显影
  
  Urethrostenosis (stricture of urethra) 尿道狭窄
  
  Urinary lithiasis 尿结石(尿石症)
  
  Uring osmol(Uosm) 尿渗量
  
  Urography 尿道造影
  
  Uteroplacental apoplexy 子宫胎盘卒中
  
  Uterosalpingography 子宫输卵管造影
  
  Vacuolation 空泡变性
  
  Vaginal vestibule 阴道前庭
  
  Valvular heart disease 心脏瓣膜病
  
  Varicella-zoster virus 水痘-带状疱疹病毒
  
  Vascular malformations of the brain 脑血管畸形
  
  Venereal disease laboratory slide test (VDRL)性病研究室玻片试验
  
  Ventricular fibrillation 心室颤动
  
  Ventricular flutter 心房扑动
  
  ventricular gallop 室性奔马率
  
  Ventricular hypertrophy 心室肥大
  
  Ventricular tachycardia 室性心动过速
  
  Ventricular Septal defect (VSD) 室间隔缺损
  
  Vernal conjunctivitis 春季卡他性结膜炎
  
  Verruca plana 扁平疣
  
  Vertigo 眩晕
  
  Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) 极低密度脂蛋白
  
  Vesicular breach sound 肺泡呼吸音
  
  Vesiculo-pustular rach 疱疹,脓疱疹
  
  Vestibule of the mouth 口腔前庭
  
  Vibrio cholerae 霍乱弧菌
  
  Viral myocarditis 病毒性心肌炎
  
  Virulence 毒力
  
  Vocal fremitus 语音震颤
  
  Volvulus 肠扭转
  
  Vulvitis 外阴炎
  
  Warts 疣
  
  Wenckebal phenomenon 文氏现象
  
  Wheal 风团
  
  White coat hypertension 白大衣性高血压
  
  Wood‘s light examination 滤过紫外线检查(伍德氏灯检查)
  
  Xerosis of conjunctiva 结膜干燥症
  
  xiphoid process 剑突
  
  Zeiss 蔡氏腺
  
  Zoonosis 人兽共患病
  
  β2-microglobulin(β2-M) β2-微球蛋白
  
  ========================================================
  原整理者联系方式: Any comments please send to haifengw@mail.bjmu.edu.cn
  
作者:tinggy 时间:2003-05-12 11:55:26
  有毛病啊,贴这种帖子!
  看文章的时候,有不认识的单词,向来用roboword就可以搞定了
楼主Pomelo 时间:2003-05-12 11:55:54
  
  
  =========================================================================================================
  
   GENETIC TERMS (IN ALPHABATIC ORDER)
  
   按字母顺序排列
  
  5‘-P group
  
  Abundance: of an mRNA is the average number of molecules per cell.
  
  Abundant mRNA: consisting of a small number of individual species, each present in a large
  
  number of copies per cell.
  
  Acentric fragment (of a chromosome): lacks a centromere and is lost at cell division.无中心粒的片断
  
  Acentric chromosome 近端着丝的染色体
  
  Acquired genetic mutation
  
  Acridine
  
  Acrocentric chromosome
  
  Activator (Ac)
  
  Active site: 活性中心
  
  Acylated rRNA
  
  Adaptation
  
  Addition rule
  
  Additive genetic effects
  
  Additive genetic variance
  
  Additive variance
  
  Adenine
  
  Adenyle acyclase
  
  Adjacent disjunction
  
  Adjacent segregation
  
  Affected relative pair
  
  Agarose
  
  Agglutination
  
  Albinism
  
  Alien addition lines
  
  Alien cytoplasm substitution
  
  Alkaptonuria
  
  Alkylating agent
  
  Allele:等位基因
  
  Allele exclusion: 等位基因排斥
  
  Allele frequency
  
  Allele specific associated primer
  
  Allele specific oligo
  
  Allele specific polymerase chain reaction
  
  Alloenzyme
  
  Allograft
  
  Alloploidy
  
  Allopolyploid
  
  Allopolyploidy
  
  Allosteric control: 变构/异构控制
  
  Allosteric protein
  
  Allosyndesis
  
  Allotetraploidy
  
  Allozygote
  
  Allozyme
  
  Alpha helix
  
  Alternate disjunction
  
  Alternate segregation
  
  Alzheimer’s disease
  
  Amber codon:琥铂密码子
  
  Amber mutation
  
  Amber suppressor: 琥铂抑制子
  
  Ames test
  
  Aminacylated rRNA
  
  Amino acid
  
  Amino centesis
  
  Amino terminus
  
  Aminoacyl site (A site)
  
  Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase
  
  Amorph
  
  Amphiploid
  
  Amplification:扩增
  
  Amplified fragment lenght polymorphism
  
  Amxicell method
  
  Analog
  
  Analyte
  
  Anaphase后期(减数分裂和有丝分裂中的一个时期)
  
  Aneuploid: 非整倍体
  
  Aneuploidy
  
  Anneal
  
  Annealing: 退火
  
  Antibiotic-resistant mutant
  
  Antibiotic-resistant mutation
  
  Antibody
  
  Anticipation
  
  Anticoding strand: 反密码链
  
  Anticodon
  
  Antigen
  
  Antigen presentation
  
  Antigen-presenting cell
  
  Anti-mitotic
  
  Antimorph
  
  Antiparallel
  
  Antiparallel strand: 反向平行链
  
  Antisense
  
  Antisense oligonucleotide
  
  Antisense RNA-ribozyme chimeric DNA
  
  Antisense strand 反义链
  
  Antitermination protein: 抗终止蛋白
  
  AP endonuclease AP核酸内切酶
  
  Apoinducer
  
  Apoptosis
  
  Aporepressor
  
  AP-PCR
  
  Apurinic endonuclease (AP endonuclease)
  
  Arbitrary primed polymerase chain reaction
  
  Arbitrary primer
  
  Archaea
  
  Archebacteria (archae-bacteria) 古细菌,原始细菌
  
  Arrayed library
  
  Artificial insemination
  
  Artificial selection
  
  ASAP
  
  Ascertainment
  
  Ascospore 子囊孢子
  
  Ascus 子囊
  
  ASO
  
  AS-PCR
  
  Association
  
  Assortative mating
  
  Assortment 配例
  
  ATP
  
  Attached-X chromosome
  
  Attachment site
  
  Attenuation 衰减, 减毒
  
  Attenuator 衰减器,衰减学
  
  Attractant
  
  AUG
  
  Autogamy
  
  Autogenous control
  
  Autograph
  
  Autoimmune disease
  
  Autonomous controlling element
  
  Autonomous determination
  
  Autopolyploidy
  
  Autoradiography 自动射线照相术,射线自显迹法
  
  Autoregulation
  
  Autosomal recessive disorder
  
  Autosome 常染色体
  
  Auxotroph 营养缺陷型
  
  Avuncular relationship
  
  B cells
  
  Back-cross 回交,逆代杂交
  
  Back mutation 回复突变
  
  Bacterial attachment site
  
  Bacterial transformation
  
  Bacteriophage(phage) 噬菌体
  
  Balbiani ring: an extremely large puff(疏松部) at a band(分带) of a polytene chromosome
  
  Band
  
  Banding technology
  
  Barr body
  
  Basal body
  
  Base
  
  Base analog
  
  Base composition
  
  Base pair (bp)
  
  Base sequence
  
  Base sequence analysis
  
  Base substitution mutation
  
  Base-substitution mutation
  
  Becquerel (Antoine Henri Becquerel, French physicist)
  
  Behavior
  
  B-form DNA
  
  bidirectional replication 双向复制
  
  binding site
  
  biochemical pathway
  
  Biochemical polymorphism
  
  Biochemical stock
  
  Bioinformatics
  
  Biotechnology
  
  Biotin 生物素
  
  Biotin labeling
  
  bivalent 双价体
  
  Blastoderm 胎盘
  
  blastula
  
  Blood cells
  
  blood-group system
  
  blunt ends 平齐末端
  
  Bone marrow
  
  Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)
  
  branch migration 分枝移动
  
  branched pathway
  
  BRCAI and BRCAZ breeding
  
  Breakpoint 断裂点
  
  broad-sense heritability
  
  Bulked segregant analysis
  
  cAMP-CRP complex
  
  Candidate gene
  
  Cap: the structure at the 5‘ end of eukaryotic mRNA, introduced after transcription by linking the
  
  terminal phosphate of 5‘ GTP to the terminal base of the mRNA.
  
  CAP protein: a positive regulator protein activated by cyclic AMP. It si needed for RNA
  
  polymerase to initiate transcription of certain operons of E. Coli.
  
  Capsid: external protein coat of a virus particle. (病毒的)衣壳,壳体
  
  Carbon-source mutant
  
  Carboxyl terminus
  
  Carcinogen
  
  Carrier
  
  Cascade
  
  Cassette
  
  Catabolite activator protein
  
  Catabolite repressio 分解产物(降解物)阻遏
  
  C-banding: a technique for generating stained regions around centromeres
  
  CAAT box: part of a conserved sequence located upstream of the startpoints of eukaryotic
  
  transcription units; it is recognized by a large group of transcription factors.
  
  cDNA: a single-stranded DNA complementary to an RNA, synthesized from it by reverse
  
  transcription in vitro.
  
  cDNA clone
  
  Cell cycle: the period from one division to the next
  
  Cell fate
  
  Cell hybrid
  
  Cell lineage
  
  Cell lysate on cellophane disk
  
  Cellular oncogene (C-onc)
  
  Centimorgan 厘摩(基因连锁图的距离单位)
  
  Central dogma
  
  Centriole: 中心粒
  
  Centromere 着丝粒
  
  Centromere mapping
  
  Centrosome 中心体,中心粒
  
  centrosomic
  
  CEPH pedigree
  
  C genes: code for the constant regions of immunoglobulin protein chain.
  
  C value: the total amount of DNA in a haploid genome
  
  Chain elongation
  
  Chain initiation
  
  Chain termination
  
  Chaperone
  
  Chargaff‘s rules
  
  Charged tRNA
  
  Che (chemotaxis)
  
  Chemoreceptor
  
  Chemosensor
  
  Chemotaxis
  
  Chiasma (染色体)交叉(pl. Chiasmata)
  
  Chimera
  
  Chimeraplasty
  
  Chimeric gene
  
  Chi-square
  
  Chlorobiocin
  
  Chloroplast 叶绿体
  
  Chloroplast DNA
  
  Chondrion 线粒体
  
  Chromatid 染色单体
  
  Chromatid interference
  
  Chromatin 染色质
  
  Chromocenter 染色中心
  
  Chromomere 染色粒
  
  Chromonema 染色线
  
  Chromoneme 染色线,染色体丝
  
  Chromosomal address
  
  Chromosomal deletion
  
  Chromosomal inversion
  
  Chromosomal marker
  
  Chromosomal segment
  
  Chromosomal translocation
  
  Chromosome 染色体
  
  Chromosome balance translocation
  
  Chromosome band-specific
  
  Chromosome breaks
  
  Chromosome complement
  
  Chromosome configuration
  
  Chromosome doubling
  
  Chromosome gaps
  
  Chromosome homology
  
  Chromosome interference
  
  Chromosome knob
  
  Chromosome map
  
  Chromosome painting
  
  Chromosome pairing
  
  Chromosome rearrangement
  
  Chromosome theory of heredity
  
  Chromosome walking
  
  Chromotest
  
  Circadian rhythm
  
  Circular permutation
  
  Cis 同侧,近侧,顺式
  
  Cis configuration
  
  Cis heterozygote
  
  Cis-acting function
  
  Cis-acting locus
  
  Cis configuration
  
  Cis-dominant mutation
  
  Cis-trans test
  
  Cistron 顺反子
  
  ClB method (*)
  
  Class switching
  
  Cleavage division
  
  Cleaved amplified pollymorphic sequence
  
  Clinical genetics
  
  Clone
  
  Clone bank
  
  Cloned gene
  
  Cloning 克隆形成
  
  Cloning vector 克隆载体
  
  Closed reading frame
  
  cM
  
  coated vesicle
  
  Coconversion
  
  Code
  
  Coding region
  
  Coding sequence
  
  Coding strand
  
  Codominance 同等优势,等显性
  
  Codon 密码子
  
  Cognate tRNA: those recognized by a particular aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase
  
  Cohesive end (cos)
  
  Cointegrate 共联体
  
  Coisogenic
  
  Colchicine
  
  Colinearity
  
  Colony
  
  Colony hybridization
  
  Colony hybridization assay
  
  Color blindness
  
  Combinatorial chemistry
  
  Combinatorial control
  
  Combinatorial joining
  
  Common ancestor
  
  Compartment
  
  Compatible
  
  Complementary DNA (cDNA)
  
  Complementary sequences
  
  Complementation 互补作用
  
  Complementation assay
  
  Complementation group
  
  Complementation test
  
  Complex
  
  Complex locus
  
  Complexity
  
  Complex trait
  
  Composite
  
  Composite map
  
  Composite transposon
  
  Compound heterozygote 杂合体,异型合子(就某一性状具有不同的等位基因的个体)
  
  Compound-X chromosome
  
  Concatenated circle (of DNA): interlocked like rings on a chain
  
  Conception
  
  Concerted evolution
  
  Condensation
  
  Conditional mutation
  
  Congenic
  
  Congenital
  
  Conjugation 接合
  
  Consanguineous mating
  
  Consanguinity 血亲,同血缘
  
  Consensus map
  
  Consensus sequence 同感序列
  
  Conservative recombination
  
  Conserved sequence
  
  Constant region (C region)
  
  Constitutive gene
  
  Constitutive heterochromatin
  
  Constitutive mutation
  
  Constitutive stable replication (c SDR)
  
  Contig map
  
  Contigs: a set of cloned DNA fragments overlapping in such a way as to provide unbroken
  
  coverage of a contiguous(紧接的,临近的) region of the genome; a contig contains no gaps.
  
  Contiguous gene syndrome
  
  Continuous trait
  
  Contractile ring
  
  Controlling element (of maize)
  
  Conversion 转换
  
  Coordinate gene
  
  Coordinate regulation: refers to the common control of a group of genes
  
  Copy number mutant (cop)
  
  Cordycepin: 3‘ deoxyadenosine, an inhibitor of polyadenylation of RNA 3‘脱氧腺苷
  
  Core DNA
  
  Core particle
  
  Co-repressor 辅抑制物,辅阻遏物
  
  Correlated response
  
  Correlation coefficient
  
  Cosmid 粘粒
  
  Cot
  
  Cot curve
  
  Cotransduction
  
  Cotransfection: simultaneous transfection of two markers
  
  Cotransformation
  
  Counterselected marker
  
  Coupled transcription-translation
  
  Coupling 配对,联结,偶联
  
  Courtship song
  
  Covalent bond
  
  Covalently closed circle
  
  Creutzfeldt-Jakob Desease (CJD)
  
  Cross population
  
  Crossing over 交换(细胞第一次减数分裂的粗线期中,配对同源染色体的非姊妹染色单体之间的遗传物质进行交换,导致新的基因组合)
  
   
  
  Crossover fixation: a possible consequence of unequal crossing-over that allows a mutation in one
  
  member of a tandem cluster to spread through the whole cluster (or to be eliminated)
  
  Cross-licensing
  
  CRP protein
  
  Cruciform: the structure produced at inverted repeats of DNA if the repeated sequence pairs with
  
  its complement on the same strand.
  
  Cryopreservation
  
  Cryptic satellite: a satellite DNA sequence not identified as such by a separate peak on a density
  
  gradient; that is, it remains present in main-band DNA.
  
  Cryptic splice site
  
  Cultivar
  
  Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)
  
  Cyclic AMP (cAMP)
  
  Cyclic AMP receptor protein (CPR)
  
  Cyclin: protein that accumulate continously throughout the cell cycle and are then destroyed by
  
  proteolysis during mitosis
  
  Cytochrome
  
  Cytogenetic line
  
  Cytogenetics
  
  Cytokinesis 胞质分裂
  
  Cytological band
  
  Cytological hybridization
  
  Cytological map
  
  Cytoplasm 细胞质
  
  Cytoplasmic classification
  
  Cytoplasmic fertility gene
  
  Cytoplasmic inheritance
  
  Cytoplasmic inheritance
  
  Cytoplasmic male sterility
  
  Cytoplasmic protein synthesis
  
  Cytoplasmic trait
  
  Cytosine 胞嘧啶
  
  Cytosol 细胞溶质,胞液
  
  Cytotoxic T cell
  
  =========================================================================================================
  
  DAF
  
  DAMD
  
  Daughter stand
  
  Deamination
  
  Decaploid
  
  Decentric chromosome
  
  Deficience
  
  Deficiency 缺乏,不足
  
  Degeneracy 兼并
  
  Degenerate code
  
  Degree of dominance
  
  Degrees of freedom
  
  Deletion 缺失
  
  Deletion mapping
  
  Deme 同类群
  
  Denaturation(of DNA or RNA)变性(双链变单链)(见renaturation, or annealing)
  
  Denaturation mapping
  
  Denature 变性
  
  Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis
  
  Deoxyribonuclease (DNase)
  
  Deoxyribonucleic acid(DNA)脱氧核糖核酸
  
  Deoxyribonucleotide 脱氧核糖核苷酸
  
  Deoxyribose
  
  Depressed state: it is synonymous with induced when describing the normal state of a gene;
  
  It has the same meaning as constitutive in describing the effect of mutation.
  
  (去阻遏物)解除阻遏物的作用使基因得到表达
  
  Depurination
  
  Derepression
  
  Deuteranomaly
  
  Deuteranopia
  
  Deviation
  
  Diakinesis 终变期(第一次减数分裂前期中的一个阶段
  
  Dicentric
  
  Dicentric chromosome: the product of fusing two chromosome fragments, each of which has a
  
  centromere.
  
  Dideoxy sequencing method
  
  Dideoxyribose
  
  Differentiation
  
  Diffuse centromere
  
  Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR)
  
  Dimer
  
  Diploid 双倍体
  
  Diplotene
  
  Direct repeat: identical (or related) sequences present in two or more copies in the same
  
  orientation in the same molecule of DNA; not necessarily adjacent.
  
  Directed ampllification of minisatellite region DNA
  
  Directed evolution
  
  Directed mutagenesis
  
  Discontinuous replication: 不连续复制
  
  Discontinuous variation
  
  Disjunction: the movement of members of a chromosome pair to opposite poles during cell
  
  division
  
  Displacement loop (D loop)
  
  Dissociator (Ds)
  
  Distribution
  
  Disulfide bond
  
  Divergence 相互分歧
  
  Divergent transcription
  
  Dizygotic twins
  
  DNA adenine methylase
  
  DNA amplification fingerprinting
  
  DNAase=Dnase=deoxyribonuclease: 脱氧核糖核酸酶
  
  DNA bank
  
  DNA cloning
  
  DNA cloning vectors DNA
  
  DNA diagnostics
  
  DNA-driven hybridization: involves the reaction of an excess of DNA with RNA
  
  DNA fingerprint
  
  DNA fingerprinting 指纹法,指纹术,酶解图谱法
  
  DNA gyrase
  
  DNA ligase
  
  DNA looping
  
  DNA methylase
  
  DNA polymerase
  
  DNA probes
  
  DNA repair
  
  DNA repair genes
  
  DNA replicase
  
  DNA replication
  
  DNA sequence
  
  DNA shuffling
  
  DNA typing
  
  DNA uracyl glycosylase
  
  Dointegrate
  
  Domain of a protein is a discrete continuous part of the amino acid sequence that can be equated
  
  with a particular function.
  
  Dominance
  
  Dominance variance
  
  Dominant 显性的,决定性的,优性的
  
  Dominant allele
  
  Dosage compensation
  
  Double helix
  
  Double heterozygote
  
  Double minute chromosome (DM)
  
  Double-stranded DNA
  
  Double-Y syndrome
  
  Down promoter mutations decrease the frequency of initiation of transcription.
  
  Downstream: identifies sequences proceding farther in the direction of expression.
  
  Down syndrome
  
  Drug-resistance plasmid
  
  Dukaryote
  
  Duplex DNA
  
  Duplicate-deficient chromosome complement
  
  Duplication (doubling) 重迭
  
  Dyhybrid
  
  Early development: the period of a phage infection before the start of DNA replication
  
  Ecogenetics
  
  Ectopic expression: 异(常)位的expression of a gene in a tissue in which it is not usu. expressed
  
  Editing function
  
  Effector
  
  Egg donor
  
  Electrophoresis 电泳
  
  Electroporation
  
  Elongation
  
  Elongation factor (EF): 延伸因子
  
  Embryo
  
  Embryo
  
  Embryo transfer
  
  Embryo transplantation
  
  Embryoid
  
  Embryonic induction
  
  Embryonic stem cells
  
  End labeling: the addition of a radioactively labeled group to one end (5‘ or 3‘)of a DNA strand
  
  Endocytic vesicles: membranous particles that transport proteins through endocytosis; also known
  
  as clathrin-coated vesicles
  
  Endocytosis: a process by which protein at the surface of the cell are internalized, being
  
  transported into the cell within membranous vesicles.
  
  Endogenous hormone
  
  Endonuclease 核酸内切酶
  
  Endoreduplication
  
  Endosperm
  
  Endosymbiont theory
  
  End-product inhibition: the ability of a product of a metabolic pathway to inhibit the activity of an
  
  enzyme that catalyzes an early step in the pathway.
  
  Enhancer
  
  Enhancer trap
  
  Envelopes: surround some organelles (eg. Nucleus or mitochondrion) and consist of concentric
  
  membranes, each membrane consisting of the usual lipid bilayer.
  
  Environment
  
  Environmental variance
  
  Enzyme (oxidoreductase氧化还原酶 transferase转移酶 lyase裂合酶 Hydrolase水解酶
  
  isomerase异构酶 ligase连接酶)
  
  Epigenetic changes: influence the phenotype without altering the genotype.
  
  Episome: a plasmid able to integrate into bacterial DNA
  
  附加体(细菌遗传学中任何染色体外复制的辅助性遗传物质)
  
   
  
  Epistasis: a situation in which expression of one gene obscures the phenotypic effects of another
  
  gene.
  
  Epistatic 上位(遗传)的,叠加
  
  Equational division
  
  Equilibrium
  
  Equilibrium centrifugation in a density gradient
  
  Equilibrium density-gradient centrifugation
  
  Error free repair
  
  Error prone repair
  
  Erythrolastosis fetalis
  
  Escherichia coli ( E. Coli)
  
  Essential gene: one whose deletion is lethal to the organism
  
  Estrogen
  
  Ethidium bromide
  
  Eubacteria: comprise the major line of prokaryotes
  
  Euchromatin 常染色体
  
  Eugenics
  
  Eukarya
  
  Eukaryote 真核(生物)
  
  Euploid: having a balanced set or sets of chromosomes in any number
  
  Evolutionarily conserved
  
  Evolutionary clock: is defined by the rate at which mutations accumulate in a given gene.
  
  Ex vivo
  
  Excision
  
  Excision repair: remove a single-stranded sequence of DNA containing damaged or mispaired
  
  bases and replace it in the duplex by synthesizing a sequence complementary to the remaining strand.
  
  Excisionase
  
  Exit site (E site)
  
  Exocytosis: the process of secreting proteins from a cell into the medium, by transport in
  
  membranous vesicles from the endoplasmic reticulum, through the Golgi, to storage vesicles, and finally through the plasma membrane.
  
  Exogenous DNA
  
  Exogenous gene
  
  Exon shuffle
  
  Exons
  
  Exonuclease
  
  Expressed gene
  
  Expressed sequence tag
  
  Expression vector: a cloning vector designed so that a coding sequence inserted at a particular site
  
  will be transcribed and translated into protein.
  
  Expressivity
  
  Extranuclear gene: resides outside the nucleus in organelles
  
  Extranuclear inheritance
  
  F plasmid
  
  F‘ plasmid
  
  F1
  
  F1 generation
  
  F2 generation
  
  Facultative heterochromatin: the inert state of sequences that also exist in active copies
  
  Falgellin
  
  Fast component (of a reassociation reaction): the first to renature and contains highly repetitive
  
  DNA.
  
  Fate
  
  Fate map
  
  Favism
  
  Feedback inhibition
  
  Fertility
  
  Fertility factor (F factor): a bacterial sex or fertility plasmid
  
   
  
  Fertility restorer
  
  Fertiliztion
  
  Fidelity of replication
  
  Figure eight: two circles of DNA linked together by a recombination event that has not yet been
  
  completed.
  
  Filial generation
  
  Filter hybridization: is performed by incubating a denatured DNA preparation immobilized on a
  
  nitrocellulose filter with a solution of radioactively labeled RNA or DNA.
  
  Fine physical map
  
  Fingerprint (of DNA): a pattern of polymorphic restriction fragments that differ between
  
  individual genomes.
  
  Fingerprint (of a protein): the pattern of fragments generated by cleavage with an enzyme such as
  
  trypsin.
  
  Fingerprinting
  
  Fingerprinting probe
  
  First meiotic division
  
  First-division segregation
  
  Fitness
  
  five prime end (5‘ end)
  
  fixed allele
  
  Flagellum (flagella)
  
  Flanking region
  
  Flow cytometry
  
  Flow karyotyping
  
  fluctuation test
  
  Fluidicity: a property of membranes. It indicates the ability of lipids to move laterally with in their
  
  particular monolayer.
  
  Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) 荧光原位杂交(分子杂交)
  
  Focus formation: the ability of transformed eukaryotic cells to grow in dense clusters, piled up on
  
  one another.
  
  Focus forming unit (ffu): a quantitative measure of focus formation.
  
  Foldback DNA: consists of inverted repeats that have renatured by intrastrand reassociation of
  
  denatured DNA.
  
  folded chromosome
  
  folding domain
  
  Foot printing (footprinting): a technique for identifying the site on DNA bound by some protein
  
  by virtue of the protection of bonds in this region against attack by nucleases.
  
  forward mutation: inactive a wild-type gene
  
  founder effect: the presence in a population of many individuals all with the same chromosome
  
  derived from a single ancestor.
  
  Fragile-X chromosome
  
  Fragile-X syndrome
  
  Frame shift (frameshift) mutation: change the frame in which triplets are translated into protein.
  
  Fraternal turn
  
  Fraternal twins
  
  Free radical frequency of recombination
  
  Full gene sequence
  
  Gain-of-function mutation
  
  Galactosidase
  
  Gamete 配子
  
  Gamete intrafallopian transfer(GIFT)
  
  Gametophyte
  
  Gap (in DNA): the absence of one or more nucleotides in one strand of the duplex.
  
  Gap gene
  
  Gastrula
  
  G-banding: G带显带技术
  
  Gel electrophoresis
  
  Gene
  
  Gene amplification 基因扩增
  
  Gene candidate
  
  Gene cloning
  
  Gene cluster: a group of adjacent genes that are identical or related
  
  Gene controlling chromosome segregation
  
  Gene conversion: alternation of one strand of a heteroduplex DNA to make it complementary with the other strand at any positions where there were mispaired bases.
  
  Gene dosage: the number of copies of a particular gene in the genome.
  
  Gene expression
  
  Gene family 基因家族
  
  Gene flow 基因流动(由于迁移和杂交繁殖致使基因在群体中的流动)
  
  Gene frequency
  
  Gene library 基因库(一组克隆的DNA片段)
  
  Gene mapping 基因定位:确定染色体上基因的相对位置
  
  Gene of cellubiohydrolase
  
  Gene pool (the totality of genes possessed by all the member of a population)基因库
  
  Gene product
  
  Gene regulation
  
  Gene sterile
  
  Gene suppressing Ph activity
  
  Gene targeting
  
  Gene therapy
  
  Gene transfer
  
  General transcription factor
  
  Generalized linear models
  
  Generalized transduction
  
  Genetic advance
  
  Genetic code 遗传密码
  
  Genetic devergence
  
  Genetic differentiation
  
  Genetic distance
  
  Genetic divergence
  
  Genetic diversity
  
  Genetic drift
  
  Genetic engineering
  
  Genetic engineering technologies
  
  Genetic equilibrium
  
  Genetic fine structure
  
  Genetic line
  
  Genetic map
  
  Genetic marker
  
  Genetic material
  
  Genetic model
  
  Genetic mosaic
  
  Genetic mutation
  
  Genetic polymorphism
  
  Genetic predisposition
  
  Genetic screening
  
  Genetic testing
  
  Genetic variance
  
  Genetics 遗传学
  
  Genetics of histocompatibility
  
  Genome 基因组,染色体组
  
  Genome equivalent
  
  Genome project
  
  Genomic DNA clones: sequences of the genome carried by a cloning vector
  
  Genomic healthcare
  
  Genomic in situ hybridization
  
  Genomic library
  
  Genomics
  
  Genotype : the genetic constitution of an organism 基因型,遗传型
  
  Genotype frequency
  
  Genotype-environment association (G-E association)
  
  Genotype-environment interaction (G-E interaction)
  
  Genotypic variance
  
  Germ cell
  
  Germ line
  
  Germ line mosaicism
  
  Germinal mutation
  
  Germplasm
  
  Germplasm release
  
  Gestation
  
  Giemsa banding
  
  Giemsa stain
  
  GISH
  
  Glyphosate
  
  Gnentic diversity
  
  Golgi apparatus: individual stacks of membranes near the endoplasmic reticulum
  
  G protein: guanine nucleotide-binding trimeric protein residing in the plasma membrane
  
  Graft hybrid
  
  Gratuitous inducer: resembles authentic inducer of transcription but are not substrates for the
  
  induced enzymes.
  
  Guanine (G)
  
  Guide RNA (the RNA template present in telomerase)
  
  Gynandromorph: a sexual mosaic
  
  Gyrase (DNA): a type II topoisomerase of E. Coli with the ability to introduce negative supercoils
  
  into DNA
  
  =========================================================================================================
  
  H1(H2, H3, H2A, H2B)histone
  
  H4 histone
  
  Hairpin: a double-helical region formed by base pairing between adjacent complementary
  
  sequences in a single strand of RNA or DNA.
  
  Haldane‘s mapping function
  
  Haploid 单倍体
  
  Haploid heritability
  
  Haplotype
  
  Hapten: a small molecule that acts as an antigen when conjugated to a protein
  
  Hardy-Weinberg principle
  
  Heavy chain ( H chain)
  
  Helicase: a protein that separates the strands of double-stranded DNA
  
  Helix-loop-helix: a DNA-binding motif found in many regulatory proteins
  
  Helper T cell
  
  Helper virus: provides functions absent from a defective virus, enabling the latter to complete the
  
  infective cycle during a mixed infection.
  
  Hemeotic gene
  
  Hemizygote: a diploid individual that has lost its copy of a particular gene and which therefore has
  
  only one single copy.
  
  Hemizygous
  
  Hemizygous gene
  
  Hemoglobin
  
  Hemophilia
  
  Hereditary genetic mutation heterozygosity
  
  Heritability (broad-sense heritability and narrow-sense heritability)可遗传性,遗传力
  
  Heterochromatin 异染色质
  
  Heterochronic mutation
  
  Heteroduplex analysis
  
  Heteroduplex DNA: is generated by base pairing between complementary single strands derived
  
  from the different parental duplex molecules.
  
  Heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA)
  
  Heteroduplex region
  
  Heterogametic
  
  Heterogeneity
  
  Heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA): comprises transcripts of nuclear genes made by RNA
  
  polymerase II.
  
  Heterokaryon: a cell containing two or more nuclei in a common cytoplasm 异核体
  
  Heterologous plant
  
  Heteromultimeric proteins: consist of nonidentical subunits coded by different genes
  
  Heteroplasmy
  
  Heterosis
  
  Heterozygosity 杂合性,异型接合性
  
  Heterozygosity value
  
  Heterozygote 杂合体,异型合子
  
  Heterozygote superiority
  
  Heterozygous
  
  Hexaploid
  
  High-copy-number plasmid
  
  Highly repetitive DNA: the first component to reassociate and is equated with satellite DNA
  
  Highly repetitive sequence
  
  Histocompatibility
  
  Histocompatibility antigens
  
  Histocompatibility genes
  
  Histone 组蛋白
  
  Holliday junction resolving enzyme
  
  Holliday model
  
  Holliday structure
  
  Holocentric chromsome (a chromosome with a diffuse centromere)
  
  Holoenzyme
  
  Homeobox: the conserved sequence that is part of the coding region of D. melanogaster homeotic
  
  genes同源异形盒
  
   
  
  Homeotic gene: is defined by mutations that convert one body part into another; for example, an
  
  insect leg may replace an antenna.
  
  Homeotic mutation
  
  Homeotic selector gene
  
  Homoduplex DNA
  
  Homokaryon
  
  Homolog: chromosome carrying the same genetic loci
  
  Homologies
  
  Homologous 同源的,同种的
  
  Homologous chromosome
  
  Homologous recombination
  
  Homology (Homologies) 同种性,同源性
  
  Homothalic (HO)
  
  Homothallism
  
  Homozygosity 纯合性
  
  Homozygote 纯合子,同质合子
  
  Homozygous
  
  Homozygous embryo lethal
  
  Hoogstein base pairing (an unusual type of base pairing)
  
  Hook
  
  Hormone
  
  Hot spot (Hotspot) : a site in a DNA molecule at which the mutation rate is much higher than the
  
  rate for most other site
  
  Housekeeping gene: a gene that is expressed at the same level in virtually all cells and whose
  
  product participates in basic metabolic processes
  
  Hox gene: clusters of mammalian gens containing homeoboxes
  
  Human gene therapy
  
  Human genome
  
  Human genome initiative
  
  Human genome project
  
  Huntington disease
  
  Hybrid 杂种
  
  Hybrid-arrested translation: a technique that identifies the cDNA corresponding to an mRNA by
  
  relying on the ability to base pair with the RNA in vitro to inhibit translation.
  
  Hybrid derivatives
  
  Hybridoma: a cell line produced by fusing a myeloma with a lymphocyte; it continues indefinitely
  
  to express the immunoglobulins of both parents.
  
  Hybrid dysgenesis: inability of certain strains of D Melanogaster to interbreed because the hybrids
  
  are sterile.
  
  Hybrid vigor (see heterosis)
  
  Hybridization (also crossbreeding) 杂交,分子杂交,体细胞杂交,杂化:
  
  the pairing of complementary RNA and DNA strands to give an RNA-DNA hybrid.
  
  Hydrogen bond (a weak noncovalent linkage between two negatively charged atoms in which a
  
  hydrogen atom is shared)
  
  hydrolytic reaction: one in which a covalent bond is broken with the incorporation of a water
  
  molecule.
  
  Hydrophilic groups: interact with water, so that hydropilic regions of protein or the faces of a lipid
  
  bilayer reside in an aqueous environment
  
  Hydrophobic interaction
  
  Hyperchromicity: the increase in opticla density that occurs when DNA is denatured.
  
  Hypermorph
  
  Hypervariable regions (of an immunoglobulin): the parts of the variable region that show
  
  maximum alternation when different antibodies are compared.
  
  Hypomorph
  
  Hypostatic (血液)坠积的,下位的
  
  Identical twins (see monozygotic twins)
  
  Identity by descent (Identity-by-descent): the condition in which two alleles are both replicas of a
  
  single ancestral allele in the recent past
  
  Identity-by-state
  
  Ideogram: a diagrammatic representation of the G-banding pattern of a chromosome
  
  Idling reaction: the production of pppGpp and ppGpp by ribosomes when an uncharged tRNA is
  
  present in the A site.
  
  Imagined disk
  
  Immune response
  
  Immune system
  
  Immunity ( a general term for resistance to a disease-causing agent after an initial infection)
  
  Immunoglobulin
  
  Immunoglobulin class
  
  Immortalization: the acquisition by a eukaryotic cell line of the ability to grow through an
  
  indefinite number of divisions in culture.
  
  Imprinting 印刻铭记
  
  In situ hybridization 原位杂交
  
  In vitro 在活体外
  
  In vitro culture
  
  In vitro experiment
  
  In vitro fertilization (IVF)
  
  In vivo 在活体内
  
  In vivo experiment
  
  In vivo gene therapy
  
  In vivo maturation (IVM)
  
  Inborn error of metabolism
  
  Inbred line
  
  Inbred strain
  
  Inbreeding
  
  Inbreeding coefficient
  
  Inbreeding depression
  
  Incompatible
  
  Incompatibility: inability of certein bacterial plasmids to coexist in the same cell
  
  Incomplete dominance
  
  Incomplete penetrance
  
  Independent assortment
  
  Individual selection
  
  Induced mutation: results from the addition of a mutagen.
  
  Inducer: a small molecule that triggers gene transcription by binding to a regulator protein
  
  Inducible
  
  Inducible expression
  
  Inducible stable replication
  
  Inducible transcription
  
  Inductest
  
  Induction
  
  Induction of prophage: excision from the host genome and entry into the lytic cycle as a result of
  
  destruction of the lysogenic repressor.
  
  Informatics
  
  Initiation: the beginning of protein synthesis
  
  Initiation factor (IF in prokaryotes, eIF in eukaryotes)
  
  Inosine: one of a number of unusual bases found in transfer RNA
  
  Insert
  
  Insertion 插入(遗传学上一种少见的非互补性异位,一染色体裂成三段,其
  
  中一段插入一非同源染色体的断裂区)
  
   
  
  Insertion sequence (IS): a small bacterial transposon that carries only the genes needed for its own
  
  transposition
  
  Insertional inactivation
  
  Integral membrane protein: a protein inserted into a membrane
  
  Integrase
  
  Integration: insertion into a host genome as a region covalently linked on either side to the host
  
  sequences
  
  Integration host factor (IHF)
  
  Integrative recombination
  
  Interallelic complementation: the change in the properties of a heteromultimeric protein brought
  
  about by the interaction of subunits coded by two different mutant alleles.
  
  Interband: relatively dispersed region of polytene chromosomes that lie between the bands
  
  Intercalation
  
  Interchange 异位 (same as translocation)
  
  Intercistronic region: the distance between the termination codon of one gene and the initiation
  
  codon of the next gene
  
  Intercross
  
  Interference 干预,干扰,阻碍
  
  Intergenic complementation
  
  Intergenic suppression
  
  Interkinesis 分裂间期
  
  Interphase 分裂间期
  
  Interphase heterochromatin
  
  Interrupted-mating technique
  
  Inter-simple sequence repeat
  
  Interspecific hybrid
  
  Intervening sequence
  
  Intra fallopian tube transfer
  
  Intracistronic complementation 顺反子内互补
  
  Intracytoplasmic sperm insertion (ICSI)
  
  Intron (a noncoding DNA sequence in a gene that is transcribed but is then excised from the
  
  primary transcript in forming a mature mRNA molecule; found primarily in eukaryotic cells. See also exon) 内含子
  
   
  
  Inverse polymerase chain reaction 颠倒PCR
  
  Inversion 内翻,倒位
  
  Inversion loop (loop structure formed by synapsis of homologous genes in a pair of chromosomes,
  
  one of which contains an inversion)
  
  Inverted repeat (IR):颠倒重复
  
  Inverted terminal repeats: short related or identical sequences present in reverse orientation at the
  
  ends of some transposons
  
  Ionizing radiation
  
  IS element
  
  Isoaccepting tRNAs: represent the same amino acid
  
  Isochromosome (a chromosome with two identical arms containing homologous genes)
  
  Isoenzyme 同功酶(作用相同,化学、物理及免疫特性上有差异)
  
  Isotetrasomic
  
  Isotype: a group of closely related immunoglobulin chains
  
  Isozyme 同功酶
  
  Joining (J) region
  
  Karyotype: the entire chromosomal complement of a cell or species
  
  Kilobase (Kb) 千碱基(1000个碱基对)
  
  Kinase: an enzyme that phosphorylates to a substrate
  
  Kinetochore (the cellular structure, formed in association with the centromere, to which the
  
  spindle fibers become attached in cell division)
  
  Kinetic complexity: the complexity of a DNA component measured by the kinetics of DNA
  
  reassociation
  
  Kinetic properties
  
  Klinefelter syndrome
  
  Kosambi‘s mapping function
  
   
  
  Lac operon (the set of genes required to metabolize lactose in bacteria)
  
   
  
  Lac repressor
  
  Lactose permease (an enzyme responsible for tansport of lactose from the environment into
  
  bacteria)
  
  Lagging strand
  
  Lambda
  
  Lampbrush chromosomes: the large meiotic chromosomes found in amphibian oocytes
  
  Large single copy
  
  Lariat structure
  
  Leader: nontranslated sequence at the 5‘ end of mRNA that procedes the initiation codon
  
  Leader polypeptide
  
  Leader sequence: the region of an mRNA molecule form the 5‘ end to the beginning of the coding
  
  sequence
  
  Leading strand
  
  Leaking mutation: allow some residual level of gene expression
  
  Leptotene 细线期(细胞减数分裂的一期,此时染色体细长似丝状)
  
  Lethal locus: any gene in which a lethal mutation can be obtained
  
  Lethal mutation
  
  Leukemia
  
  Li- Fraumeni syndrome
  
  Library: a set of cloned fragments together representing the entire genome 基因库
  
  Ligand: the molecule that binds to a specific receptor
  
  Ligation 结扎
  
  Light chain (L chain)
  
  Lineage
  
  Linkage 连锁:在遗传学中指同一染色体上位点相近的两个基因的关联,可
  
  能导致一组非等位基因在遗传上的连锁。
  
   
  
  Linkage disequilibrium
  
  Linkage group
  
  Linkage map
  
  Linkage quilibrium (the condition in which the alleles of different genes in a population are present in gametes in proportion to the product of the frequencies of the alleles.
  
  Linker
  
  Linker DNA: all DNA contained on a nucleosome in excess of the 146bp core DNA
  
  Linker fragment: short synthetic duplex oligonucleotide
  
  Linker scanner mutation: are introduced by recombining two DNA molecules in vitro at restriction
  
  fragment added to the end of each
  
  Linking number: number of times the two strands of a closed DNA duplex cross over each other
  
  Liquid hybridization: a reaction between complementary nucleic acid strands performed in
  
  solution
  
  Localize 定位
  
  Localized centromere ( the type of centromere organization found in most eukaryotic cells in
  
  which the centromere is located in one small region of the chromosome)
  
  Localized mutagenesis 定位诱变
  
  Locus ( the site or position of a particular gene on a chromosome)(pl. Loci)(L.)位置,位点
  
  Long terminal repeat (LTR): a sequence directly repeated at both ends of a retroviral DNA
  
  Long-period interspersion: a pattern in the genome in which long stretches of moderately
  
  repetitive and nonrepetitive DNA alternate
  
  Loop: a sing-stranded region at the end of hairpin in RNA
  
  Loss-of-function mutation (also called null mutation): a mutation that eliminates gene function
  
  Lost allele
  
  Lumen
  
  Luxury genes
  
  Lymphocyte
  
  Lysis: breakage of a cell caused by rupture of its cell membrane and cell wall
  
  Lysogen: clone of bacterial cells that have acquired a prophage
  
  Lysogenic cycle: the phenomenon in which the DNA of an infecting phage becomes part of the
  
  genetic material of the cell
  
  Lysogenic immunity
  
  Lysogenic repressor
  
  lysogeny
  
  Lysosome
  
  Lysozyme
  
  Lytic cycle: the life cycle of a phage
  
  Lytic infection
  
  =========================================================================================================
  
  Macrophage
  
  Macrorestriction map
  
  Mad cow disease
  
  Main band (of genomic DNA)
  
  Major groove (in B-form DNA, the larger of two continuous indentations running along the
  
  outside of the double helix)
  
  Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)
  
  Major histocompatibility locus
  
  Map distance
  
  Map unit
  
  Map-based cloning
  
  Mapping
  
  Mapping population
  
  Mappping function
  
  Marker 标志物,标记
  
  Marker-assisted selection
  
  Masked mRNA (that cannot be translated until specific regulatory substances are available)
  
  Maternal effect
  
  Maternal effect gene
  
  Maternal inheritance (extranuclear inheritance of a trait through cytoplasmic factors or organelles
  
  contributed by the female gamete) 母体遗传
  
   
  
  Maternal sex ratio
  
  Mating system
  
  Mating type locus (MAT)
  
  Matingpype regulation (MAR)
  
  Mating-type interconversion
  
  Matrix attachment site (MAR)
  
  Maxam-Gilbert method: a tehnique for determining the nucleotide sequence of DNA
  
  Megabase (Mb)
  
  Meiocyte (a germ cell that undergoes meiosis to yield gametes in animals or spores in plants)
  
  Meiosis 减数分裂
  
  Melting (of DNA): denaturation
  
  Melting curve: a graph of the amount of denatured DNA present in a solution as a function of
  
  inceasing temperature
  
  Melting temperature (Tm)
  
  Membrane
  
  Membrane proteins
  
  Meme
  
  Memeotic mutation
  
  Mendelian disorder
  
  Mendelian genetics
  
  Mendelian inheritance
  
  Meristem: the mitotically active growing point of a plant tissue
  
  Meristic trait: a trait in which the phenotype is determined by counting number of ears of eggs
  
  Merodiploid
  
  Messenger RNA
  
  Metacentric
  
  Metaphase 中期(细胞分裂的第二期)
  
  Metaphase plate
  
  Methylation: the modification of a protein or a DNA or RNA base by the addition of a methyl
  
  group 甲基化(作用)
  
   
  
  Metocentric chromosome
  
  Micrococcal nuclease: a nuclease that is isolated from a bacterium and that cleaves double-
  
  stranded DNA without regard to sequence
  
  Microsatellite
  
  Microsomes: fragmented pieces of endoplasmic reticulum associated with ribosomes
  
  Microtubules: filaments consisting of dimers of tubulin
  
  Microtubule associated proteins (MAPs)
  
  Microtubule organizing center (MTOC)
  
  Middle repetitive DNA sequence
  
  Migration: movement of organisms among subpopulatons, or of molecules in electrophoresis)
  
  Minicell
  
  Minichromosome
  
  Minicell method
  
  Minisatellite
  
  Minor groove (the smaller of two continuous indentations running along the outside of the double helix)
  
  Miscoding mutagenesis
  
  Mismatch repair
  
  Mispairing
  
  Missense mutation
  
  Mitochondria
  
  Mitochondrial chromosome
  
  Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)
  
  Mitochondrial DNA sequence
  
  Mitochondrial genetic disorder
  
  Mitochondrial plasmid
  
  Mitochondrion
  
  Mitosis
  
  Mitotic spindle
  
  Modification (of DNA or RNA): changes made to the nucleotides after their initial incorporation
  
  into the polynucleotide chain
  
  modified bases
  
  Monocistronic mRNA
  
  Monoclonal antibody
  
  Monogenic inheritance
  
  Monohybrid
  
  monolayer
  
  Monomorphic gene
  
  Monoploid
  
  Monosomic
  
  Monozygote twin
  
  Morphogen
  
  Mosaic: an organism composed of two or more genetically different types of cells
  
  Mosaicism 镶嵌性/现象
  
  Mot (motility)
  
  Motif
  
  MPF : maturation or M phase-promoting factor
  
  Mulliplicative effect
  
  Multicopy plasmids
  
  Multifactorial disorder
  
  Multiforked chromosome
  
  Multigenic disorder
  
  Multimeric protein
  
  Multiple alleles: the presence in a population of more than two alleles of a gene
  
  Multiple arbitrary amplicon profiling
  
  Multiple cloning site (MCS)
  
  Multiple gene line
  
  Multiplexing
  
  Multiplication rule
  
  Multivalent (an association of more than two homologous chromosomes resulting from synapsis
  
  during meiosis in a polysomic or polyploid individual)
  
  Mutagen (an agent that is capable of increasing the rate of mutation)
  
  Mutagenesis
  
  Mutant
  
  Mutant line
  
  Mutant screen
  
  Mutatest
  
  Mutation
  
  Mutation frequency
  
  Mutation pressure
  
  Mutation rate
  
  Near-isogenic line
  
  Negative chromatid interference
  
  Negative complementation
  
  Negative regulation
  
  Negative regulator
  
  Negative supercoiling
  
  Neomorph: a mutation in which the mutant allele expresses either a novel gene product or a
  
  mutant gene product that has a novel phenotypic effect
  
  Neutral allele: an allele that has a negligible effect on the ability of the organism to survive and
  
  reproduce
  
  Neutral substitution: changes of amino acids that do no affect activity
  
  Newborn screening
  
  Nick: a single-strand break in a DNA molecule
  
  Nick translation
  
  Nicked circle: a circular DNA molecule containing one or more single-strand breaks
  
  Nitrogenous base
  
  Nitrous acid: HNO2, a chemical mutagen
  
  Noagenic hereditary mechanism
  
  Noncoding muatagenesis
  
  Nondisjunction: failure of chromosomes to separate and move to opposite poles of the division
  
  spindle; the result is loss or gain of a chromosome.
  
  Nonhistone chromosomal proteins
  
  Non-homologous recombination
  
  Non-parametric analysis
  
  Nonparental ditype: an ascus containing two pairs of recombinant spores
  
  Nonpermissive condition
  
  Nonrepetitive transposition
  
  Nonselective medium
  
  Nonsense codon
  
  Nonsense mutation
  
  Nonsense suppression
  
  Nonsense suppressor
  
  Nontaster
  
  Nontranscribed spacer: a region between transcription units
  
  Normal distribution
  
  Northern blot
  
  Northern blotting: a technique for transferring RNA
  
  Novobiocin
  
  Nuclear chromosome
  
  Nuclear envelope
  
  Nuclear lamina
  
  Nuclear matrix
  
  Nuclear pores
  
  Nuclear transfer
  
  Nuclease
  
  Nucleic acid
  
  Nucleic acid hybridization
  
  Nucleoid
  
  Nucleolar organizer
  
  Nucleolar organizing region
  
  Nucleolus (pl. Nucleoli)
  
  Nucleolytic reaction
  
  Nucleoside: a purine or pyrimidine base covalently linked to a sugar.
  
  Nucleosome
  
  Nucleotide
  
  Nucleotide analog
  
  Nucleus: the organelle, bounded by a membranous envelope
  
  Nullisomic
  
  Null mutation: see loss-of-function mutation
  
  Nutritional mutation
  
  Ochre codon
  
  Octoploid
  
  Okazaki fragment: also called precursor fragment
  
  Oligogenic
  
  Oligogenic inheritance
  
  Oligonucleotide
  
  Oligonucleotide primer
  
  Oligonucleotide site-directed mutagenesis
  
  Oncogene: a gene that can initiate tumor formation
  
  Oocyte
  
  Open reading frame (ORF): in the coding strand of DNA or in mRNA, a region containing a series
  
  of codons uninterrupted by stop codons and therefore capable of coding for a polypeptide chain.
  
  Operator: a regulatory region in DNA that interacts with a specific repressor protein in controlling
  
  the transcription of adjacent structural genes
  
  Operon: a collection of adjacent structural genes regulated by an operator and a repressor.
  
  Operon fusion
  
  Organelle: a membrane-bounded cytoplasmic structure that has a specialized function
  
  Origin (ori): a sequence of DNA at which replication is initiated
  
  Origin of replication (ori C): a DNA base sequence at which replication of a molecule is initiated
  
  Orphans: isolated individual genes found in isolated locations, but related to members of a gene
  
  cluster
  
  Ovary
  
  Overdominance
  
  Overlapping clones
  
  Overlapping genes
  
  Overwinding
  
  Ovulation
  
  Ovum
  
  P53 parental line
  
  Pachytene
  
  Packaging RNA
  
  Packing ratio
  
  Paired box
  
  Pairing ( of chromosomes)
  
  Pair-rule gene (any of a group of genes active early in Drosophila development that specifies the fates of alternating segments or parasegments. )
  
  Palindrome: a sequence of DNA that is the same when one strand is read left to right or the other
  
  is read right to left
  
  Paracentric inversion
  
  Paranemic joint
  
  Parasegment: developmental unit
  
  Parental combination: alleles present in an offspring chromosome in the same combination as that
  
  found in one of the parental chromosomes.
  
  Parental ditype: an ascus containing two pairs of nonrecombinant spores
  
  Parental strand
  
  Parthenogenesis
  
  Partial digestion
  
  Partial diploid
  
  Partial dominance
  
  Partial gene sequence
  
  Partial lysate
  
  Pascal‘s triangle
  
  Patent
  
  Paternal inheritance
  
  Path in a pedigree: a closed loop in a pedigree
  
  Penetrance: 外显率
  
  Peptide
  
  Peptide bond
  
  Peptide mutant
  phage-attachement site
  
  Peptidyl site
  
  Peptidyl transferase
  
  Pericentric inversion: an inversion that includes the centromere
  
  Perinuclear space
  
  Periodicity (of DNA): the number of base pairs per turn of the double helix
  
  Permeable cell
  
  Permease: 透性酶
  
  Permissive condition: an environmental condition in which the phenotype of a conditional
  
  mutation is not expressed; contrasts with nonpermissive or restrictive condition
  
  Permutation
  
  Phage: bacterial virus
  
  Phage repressor
  
  Pharmacogenomics
  
  Phase variation
  
  Phenocopy
  
  Phenotype
  
  Phenotypic variance
  
  Philadelphia chromosome: abnormal human chromosome 22, resulting from reciprocal
  
  translocation and often associated with a type of leukemia
  
  Phosphatase: an enzyme that removes phosphate groups from substrates
  
  Photoreactivation
  
  Phylogenetic
  
  Phylogenetic tree: a diagram showing the genealogical relationships among a set of genes or
  
  species
  
  Phylogeny
  
  Physical map: a diagram showing the relative positions of physical landmarks in a DNA molecule
  
  Plant regeneration
  
  Plasma membrane: the continuous membrane defining the boundary of every cell
  
  Plasmid: an automous self-replicating extrachromosomal circular DNA
  
  Plastid
  
  Playback experiment: the retrieval of DNA that has hybridized with RNA to check that it is
  
  nonrepetitive by a further reassociation reaction
  
  Plectonemic winding: the interwinding of the two strands in the classical double helix of DNA
  
  Pleiotropic effect: any phenotypic effect that is a secondary manifestation of a mutant gene多效
  
  Pleiotropy
  
  Plenipotent
  
  Point mutation: a mutation caused by the substitution, deletion, or addition of a single nucleotide
  
  pair
  
  Polarity: the 5‘-to-3‘ orientation of a strand of nucleic acid
  
  Pole cell: any of a group of cells, set off at the posterior end of the Drosophila embryo, from
  
  which the germ cell are derived
  
  Poly A RNA
  
  Poly-A tail: the sequence of adenines added to the 3‘end of many eukaryotic mRNA molecules in
  
  processing
  
  Polyadenylation
  
  Polyamine
  
  Polycistronic mRNA: coding regions representing more than one gene
  
  Polygeneic inheritance: the determination of a trait by alleles of two or more genes
  
  Polygenic disorders
  
  Polygenic inheritance
  
  Polylinker
  
  Polymerase
  
  Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
  
  Polymerpolymerase
  
  Polymorphic gene: a gene for which there is more than one relatively common allele in a
  
  population
  
  Polymorphism: simultaneous occurrence in the population of genomes showing allelic variations
  
  Polynuclear bodies
  
  Polynucleotide
  
  Polynucleotide chain
  
  Polypeptide
  
  Polypeptide chain
  
  Polyploid
  
  Polyploid cell: having more than two sets of the haploid genome
  
  Polyploidy
  
  Polyprotein
  
  Polyribosome: same as polysome
  
  Polysome: a complex of two or more ribosomes associated with an mRNA molecule and actively
  
  engaged in polypeptide synthesis
  
  Polysomy
  
  Polytene
  
  Polytene chromosome
  
  Population: a group of organisms of the same species
  
  Population genetics
  
  Population structure
  
  Population substructure
  
  Porous cell
  
  Position effect
  
  Positional cloning
  
  Positional information
  
  Position-effect variegation: mosaic phenotype(variegation) due to variation in the level of
  
  expression of a gene in different cell lineages owing to its position in the genome
  
  Positive chromatid interference
  
  Positive regulation
  
  Positive supercoiling
  
  Postmeiotic segregation
  
  Postreplication repair
  
  Posttranslocation state
  
  Precursor fragment : see Okazaki fragment
  
  Prediction equation
  
  Predictive gene tests
  
  Predisposition
  
  Pre-embryo
  
  Preimplantation embryo
  
  Prenatal diagnosis
  
  Preparation
  
  Presymptomatic testing
  
  Pretranslocation state
  
  Pribnow box: a base sequence in prokaryotic promoters to which RNA polymerase binds in an
  
  early step of initiating transcription
  
  Primary transcript
  
  Primary cell: the original unmodified RNA product corresponding to a transcription unit
  
  Primase
  
  Primer
  
  Primer extension analysis
  
  Primer oligonucleotide
  
  Primosome
  
  Prion
  
  Prion protein: protein infectious agent; a protein that can transmit disease
  
  Proband
  
  Probe: a radioactive DNA or RNA molecule used in DNA-RNA or DNA-DNA hybridization
  
  assays
  
  Probed site
  
  Procentriole: an immature centriole, formed in the vicinity of a mature centriole
  
  Processed pseudogene
  
  Processing: a series of chemical reactions in which primary RNA transcripts are converted into
  
  mature mRNA, rRNA, or tRNA molecules or in which polypeptide chains are converted into finished proteins
  
  processive enzyme
  
  Progeny
  
  Programmed cell death
  
  prokaryotic
  
  Prokaryote
  
  Promoter: a region of DNA involved in binding of RNA polymerase to initiate transcription
  
  Promoter mutation: a mutation that increases or decreases the ability of a promoter to initiate
  
  transcription
  
  Promoter recognition: the first step in transcription
  
  Pronucleus
  
  Proofreading
  
  Proofreading function: see editing function
  
  Prophage
  
  Prophage induction: activation of a prophage to undergo the lytic cycle
  
  Prophase
  
  Protein
  
  Protein drug
  
  Protein synthesis
  
  Proteolytic reactions: comprise the hydrolysis of peptide bonds in protein
  
  Proto-oncogene: the normal counterparts in the eukaryotic genome to the oncogenes carried by
  
  some retroviruses
  
  Prototroph
  
  Provirus: a duplex DNA sequence in the eukaryotic chromosome corresponding to the genome of
  
  an RNA retrovirus
  
  Pseudoautosomal region
  
  Pseudogene
  
  PUC 19 library
  
  Puff: expansion of a band of a polytene chromosome associated with the synthesis of RNA at some loci in the band
  
  Pulse-field gel electrophoresis
  
  Purine
  
  Pyrimidine
  
  Pyrimidine dimer
  
  Qualitative inheritance
  
  Quantitative inheritance
  
  Quantitative trait
  
  Quantitative trait locus (QTL): a locus segregating for alleles that have different measurable
  
  effects on the expression of a quantitative trait
  
  Quaternary structure (of a protein): its multimeric constitution
  
  Quick-stop dna mutants (of E. Coli): cease replication immediately when the temperature is up to
  
  420C
  
  =========================================================================================================
  
  Random genetic drift
  
  Random mating
  
  Random spore analysis
  
  Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)
  
  Rare-cutter enzyme
  
  Rational drug design
  
  Reading frame
  
  Reannealing
  
  Reassociation of DNA: describes the pairing of complementary single strands to form a double
  
  helix
  
  Receptor
  
  Recessive: an allele or the corresponding phenotypic trait, expressed only in homozygotes
  
  Recessive allele
  
  Recessive disorder
  
  Recessive lethal
  
  Reciprocal cross
  
  Reciprocal recombination
  
  Reciprocal translocation: interchange of parts between nonhomologous chromosomes
  
  Recombinant
  
  Recombinant clone
  
  Recombinant DNA
  
  Recombinant DNA molecule
  
  Recombinant DNA technologies
  
  Recombinant fraction
  
  Recombinant inbred (RI)
  
  Recombinant joint
  
  Recombinant map
  
  Recombinant substitution line
  
  Recombination
  
  Recombination activation (Rac)
  
  Recombination nodules (nodes): are dense objects present on the synaptonemal complex
  
  Recombination repair
  
  Recruitment: the process in which a transcriptional activator protein interacts with one or more
  
  components of the transcription complex and attracts it to the promoter
  
  Reductional division
  
  Redundancy: the feature of the genetic code in which an amino acid corresponds to more than one
  
  codon; also called degeneracy
  
  Regulatory gene
  
  Regulatory region
  
  Regulatory sequence
  
  Relative fitness: fitness of a genotype expressed as a proportion of the fitness of another genotype
  
  Relative risk
  
  Relaxed DNA
  
  Relaxed mutants (of E. Coli) : do not display the stringent response to starvation for amino acids
  
  Relaxed replication control: ability of some plasmids to continue replicating after bacteria cease
  
  Dividing
  
  Release factor: termination factor
  
  Renaturation
  
  Renaway-replication plasmid
  
  Repair associated division inhibitor (RADI)
  
  Repair synthesis: the enzymatic filling of a gap in a DNA molecule at the site of excision of
  
  a damaged DNA segment
  
  Repeating unit
  
  Repetition frequency
  
  Repetitive DNA
  
  Repetitive sequence: a DNA sequence present more than once per haploid genome
  
  Replacement sites
  
  Replication: see DNA replication
  
  Replication banding
  
  Replication-defective virus
  
  Replicaiton eye
  
  Replication fork: the region in which nucleotides are added to growing strands
  
  Replication origin
  
  Replication slippage: the process in which the number of copies of a small tandem repeat can
  
  increase or decrease during replication
  
  Replicative recombination
  
  Replicative transposition
  
  Replicon: a DNA molecule that has a replication origin
  
  Replisome
  
  Reporter gene: a gene whose expression can be monitored
  
  Repression: a regulatory process in which a gene is temporarily rendered unable to be expressed
  
  Repressor
  
  Repulsion
  
  Resolution
  
  Resolvase
  
  Resolvation site (res)
  
  Restriction endonuclease
  
  Restriction enzyme
  
  Restriction enzyme cutting site
  
  Restriction fragment
  
  Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)
  
  Restriction landmark genomic scanning
  
  Restriction map
  
  Restriction site
  
  Restrictive condition
  
  Retroposon: a transposon that mobilizes via an RNA form; the DNA element is transcribed into
  
  RNA, and then reverse-transcribed into DNA
  
  Retroregulation: the ability of a sequence down stream to regulate translationof an mRNA
  
  Retrotransposon
  
  Retrovirus: one of a class of RNA animal viruses that cause the synthesis of DNA complementary
  
  to their RNA genomes on infection
  
  Reverse genetics: procedure in which mutations are deliberately produced in cloned genes and
  
  introduced back into cells or the germ line of an orgnaism.
  
  Reverse mutation: a mutation that undoes the effect of a preceding mutation
  
  Reverse translation
  
  Revertant
  
  Reverse transcriptase
  
  Reverse transcription
  
  Reversion
  
  RI line
  
  RI strain
  
  Ribonsomal RNA
  
  Ribonuclease
  
  Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
  
  Ribonucleotides
  
  Ribonuleoprotein particle
  
  Ribose
  
  Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
  
  Ribosome
  
  Ribosome-binding site (also called Shine-Dalgarno sequence)
  
  Ribozyme
  
  Right splicing junction: boundary between the right end of an intron and the left end of the
  
  adjacent exon
  
  Ring chromosome
  
  RNA-driven hybridization reaction
  
  RNA editing
  
  RNA polymerase
  
  RNA processing
  
  RNA splicing
  
  RNase (RNAase): any emzyme that cleaves RNA 核糖核酸酶
  
  Robertsonian translocation
  
  Rolling-circle replication
  
  S phase
  
  Saltatory replication
  
  Salt-resistant
  
  Salt-tolerance
  
  Salvage pathway: a minor source of deoxythymidine triphosphate for DNA synthesis that uses the enzyme thymidine kinase (TK) )
  
  Satellite DNA
  
  Scaffold: a protein-containing material in chromosomes
  
  Saturation density
  
  Sdr (stable DNA replication)
  
  Second meiotic division
  
  Secondary constriction
  
  Second-division segregation
  
  Segment
  
  Segmentation gene
  
  Segment-polarity gene
  
  Segregation
  
  Segregation distortion
  
  Segregation mutation
  
  Segregational petites
  
  Selected marker (a genetic mutation that allows growth in selective medium)
  
  Selection pressure (the tendency of natural or artificial selection to change allele frequency)
  
  Selection-mutation balance
  
  Selective medium
  
  Selectively neutral mutation
  
  Self-fertilization
  
  Selfish DNA
  
  Semi-conservative
  
  Semiconservative replication
  
  Semisterility
  
  Sense strand
  
  Sequence
  
  Sequence characterised amplified region
  
  Sequence tagged microsatellite
  
  Sequence-tagged site (STS)
  
  Sequencing
  
  Seroesterase polymorphism
  
  Sex chromosome
  
  Sex-influenced trait
  
  Sex-linked
  
  Shotgun method
  
  Shuttle vector
  
  Sigma(σ) factor
  
  Sigma(σ) subunit
  
  Signal hypothesis
  
  Signal sequence
  
  Signal transduction
  
  Silent mutation
  
  Simple sequence DNA: equals satellite DNA
  
  Simple sequence repeats
  
  Sin: suppression of initiation defect
  
  Single-copy plasmid
  
  Single primer amplification reaction
  
  Single strand assimilation
  
  Single stranded conformational polymorphism( SSCP)
  
  Single strand exchange
  
  Single tandem repeat polymorphism (STRP)
  
  Single-active-X principle
  
  Single-copy sequence
  
  Single-gene disorder
  
  Single-strand binding protein
  
  Single-stranded DNA (a DNA molecule that consists of a single polynucleotide chain)
  
  Sister chromatids (chromatids produced by replication of a single chromosome)
  
  Site
  
  Site specific recombination
  
  Site-specific exchange
  
  Site-specific recombination
  
  Slow component
  
  Slow-stop dna mutants
  
  Small nuclear RNA (snRNA)
  
  Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP)
  
  Small rebonucleoprotein particles
  
  Small single copy
  
  Solution hybridization
  
  Somaclonal mutant
  
  Somaclonal variation
  
  Somatic cell
  
  Somatic cell gene therapy
  
  Somatic cell genetic mutation
  
  Somatic cell genetics
  
  Somatic cell nuclear transfer
  
  Somatic hybrid
  
  Somatic mosaic
  
  Somatic mutation
  
  Somatic pairing
  
  Somatic-cell genetics
  
  SOS box
  
  SOS repair (an inducible, error-prone system for repair of DNA damage in E.coli.)
  
  SOS response
  
  Southern blot (a nucleic acid hybridization method)
  
  Southern blotting
  
  Spacer sequence
  
  Specialized transduction
  
  Species: genetically, a group of actually or potentially inbreeding organisms that is reproductively
  
  isolated from other such groups
  
  Spheroplast: a bacterial or yeast cell whose wall has been largely or entirely removed
  
  Spindle: a structure composed of fibrous proteins on which chromosomes align furing metaphase
  
  and move during anaphase
  
  Splice acceptor: the 5‘ end of an exon
  
  Splice donor: the 3‘ end of an exon
  
  Spliceosome: an RNA-protein particle in the nucleus in which introns are removed from RNA
  
  transcripts
  
  Splice site
  
  Splicing
  
  Spontaneous mutation
  
  Sporadic case
  
  Spore
  
  Sporophyte: the diploid, spore-forming generation in plants
  
  Sporulation
  
  Stable integration
  
  Staggered cuts
  
  Start codon
  
  Startpoint
  
  Stem: base-paired segment of a hairpin
  
  Stem cell
  
  Stem-loop structure
  
  Sticky end
  
  Stop codon
  
  Strain distribution patter (SDP)
  
  Strand
  
  Strand displacement
  
  Streptolydigins: inhibit the elongation of transcription by bacterial RNA polymerase
  
  Stringent replicaiton
  
  Stringent response
  
  Structural change
  
  Structural gene
  
  Submetacentric
  
  Submetacentric chromosome
  
  Substitution
  
  Substrate: a substance acted on by an enzyme
  
  Supercoiling: coiling of double-stranded DNA in which strain caused by overwinding or
  
  underwinding of the duplex makes the double helix itself twist; a supercoiled circle is also called a twisted circle or a superhelix.
  
  Suppressed: the same as uninducible
  
  Suppression
  
  Suppressive peptites
  
  Suppressor
  
  Suppressor gene
  
  Suppressor mutation: a mutation that partially or completely restores the function impaired by
  
  another mutation at a different site in the same gene (intragenic suppression) or in a different gene (intergenic suppression)
  
  Suppressor tRNA: usually, a tRNA molecule capable of translating a stop codon by inserting an
  
  amino acid in its place, but a few suppressor tRNAs replace one amino acid with another.
  
  Synapsis: the pairing of homologous chromosomes or chromosome regions in zygotene of the first
  
  meiotic prophase.
  
  Synapton
  
  Synaptonemal complex: a complex protein structure that forms between synapsed homologous
  
  chromosomes in the pachytene substage of the first meiotic prophase.
  
  Synaptonemal complex damage
  
  Syncytial blastoderm
  
  Syndesis
  
  Syndrome mutant
  
  Syngamy
  
  Syntenic: genetic loci lie on the same chromosome
  
  Synteny: the presence of two different genes on the same chromosome.
  
  Synteny group: a group of genes present in a single chromosome in two or more species
  
  Tandem duplication: a pair of identical or closely related DNA sequences that are adjacent and in
  
  the same orientation.
  
  Tandem repeat sequences
  
  Taster: one who has the inherited ability to taste the substance phenylthiocarbamide
  
  TATA binding protein (TBP): a protein that binds to the TATA motif in the promoter region of a
  
  gene.
  
  TATA box: the base sequence 5‘-TATA-3‘ in the DNA of a promoter.
  
  Tautomeric shift
  
  Technology transfer
  
  Telomerase
  
  Telomere
  
  Telophase
  
  Temperate phage: a phage capable of both a lysogenic and a lytic cycle.
  
  Temperature-sensitive mutation
  
  Template
  
  Template strand
  
  Terminal redundancy
  
  Termination
  
  Termination codon
  
  Terminator
  
  Test-cross (testcross): a cross between a heterozygote and a recessive homozygote
  
  Testes
  
  Testis-determining factor (TDF): genetic element on the mammalian Y chromosome that
  
  determines maleness.
  
  Tetrad: the four chromatids that make up a pair of homologous chromosomes in meiotic prophase
  
  I and metaphase I; also the four haploid products of a single meiosis.
  
  Tetrad analysis: a method for the analysis of linkage and recombination using the four haploid
  
  products of single meiotic divisions.
  
  Tetraploida cell or organism with four complete sets of chromosomes
  
  Tetratype: an ascus containing spores of four different genotypes
  
  Thermal gel gradient electrophoresis (Tgge)
  
  Thermophile: an organism that normally lives at an unusually high temperature.
  
  θreplication: bidirectional replication of a circular DNA molecule, starting from a single origin of
  
  replication.
  
  30-nm fiber: the level of compaction of eukaryotic chromatin resulting from coiling of the
  
  extended, nucleosome-bound DNA fiber.
  
  Three-point cross: cross in which three genes are segregating
  
  Thymine: a nitrogenous pyrimidine base found in DNA
  
  Thymine dimer: see pyrimidine dimer
  
  Topoisomerase: an enzyme that introduces or eliminates either underwinding or overwinding of
  
  double-stranded DNA.
  
  Topological isomer
  
  Totipotent
  
  Totipotent cell: a cell capable of differentiation into a complete organism. The zygote is totipotent.
  
  Tracer
  
  Trailer
  
  Tranposable element
  
  Tranposition
  
   
  
  Trans
  
  Trans-acting function
  
  Transcribed spacer
  
   
  
  Trans configuration: the arrangement in linked inheritance in which a genotype heterozygous for
  
  two mutant sites has received one of the mutant sites from each parent.
  
  Transcript
  
  Transcriptonal activator protein
  
  Transcription complex
  
  Transcription start site
  
  Transducing phage
  
  Transcription unit
  
  Transduction: the carrying of genetic information from one bacterium to another by a phage.
  
  Transfection
  
  Transfer RNA (tRNA)
  
  Transformation
  
  Transformation mutation
  
  Transgenic
  
  Transgenic line
  
  Transgenic organism
  
   
  
  Trans heterozygote : see trans configuration
  
  Transient expression
  
  Transit peptide
  
  Transition
  
  Transition mutation: a mutation resulting from the substitution of one purine for another purine or that of one pyrimidine for another pyrimidine.
  
  Translation: the process by which the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide is synthesized on a
  
  ribosome according to the nucleotide sequence of an mRNA molecule.
  
  Translocation
  
  Translocation line
  
  Transmembrane protein
  
  Transmembrane receptor
  
  Transplantation antigen
  
  Transposable element: a DNA sequence capable of moving(transposing) from one location to
  
  another in a genome.
  
  Transposase: protein necessary for transposition.
  
  Transposition: the movement of a transposable element.
  
  Transposition immunity
  
  Transposon (Tn): a transposable element that contains bacterial genes
  
  Transposon tagging: insertion of a transposable element that contains a genetic marker into a gene
  
  of interest.
  
  Transvection
  
  Transverse transmission of genetic material
  
  Transversion
  
  Transversion mutation: a mutation resulting from the substitution of a purine for a pyrimidine or
  
  that of a pyrimidine for a purine.
  
  Trinucleotide repeat: a tandemly repeated sequence of three nucleotides
  
  Triplet code: a code in which each codon consists of three bases.
  
  Triplicaton: the presence of three copies of a DNA sequence that is ordinarily present only once.
  
  Triploid: a cell or organism with three complete sets of chromosomes.
  
  Trisomic : a diploid organism with an extra copy of one of the chromosomes.
  
  Trisomy
  
  Trivalent
  
  True-breeding: a strain, breed, or variety of organism that yields progeny like itself; homozygous
  
  Truncation point: in artificial selection, the value of the phenotype that determines which
  
  organisms will be retained for breeding and which will be culled.
  
  Tumor-suppressor gene
  
  Twinning
  
  Twin spot
  
  Twisting number
  
  Ultracytochemical localization
  
  Uncharged tRNA: a tRNA molecule that lacks an amino acid
  
  Uncovering: the expression of a recissive allele present in a region of a structurally normal
  
  chromosome in which the homologous chromosome has a deletion.
  
  Underwinding
  
  Underwound DNA: a DNA molecule whose strands are untwisted somewhat; hence, some of its
  
  bases are unpaired.
  
  Unequal crossing-over: crossing-over between nonallelic copies of duplicated or other repetitive
  
  Sequences
  
  Unidentified reading frame (URF)
  
  Unidirectional replicaiton
  
  Uninducible mutants
  
  Uniparental inheritance
  
  Unique sequence: a DNA sequence that is present in only one copy per haploid genome, in contrast with repetitive sequences
  
  univalent
  
  Unknown inheritance
  
  Unscheduled DNA synthesis
  
  Upstream
  
  Uracil(U): a nitrogenous pyrimidine base found in RNA
  
  Variable expressivity: differences in the severity of expression of a particular genotype.
  
  Variable-number tandem-repeat (variable number of tandem repeats ) (VNTR): any region of the
  
  genome that, among the members of a population, is highly polymorphic in the number of
  
  tandem repeats of a short nucleotide sequence
  
  Variable region (V region)
  
  Variation
  
  Variation of constitutive heterochromatin
  
  Variegation: mottled or mosaic expression
  
  Variety
  
  Vector: a DNA molecule, capable of replication, into which a gene or DNA segment is inserted by
  
  recombinant DNA techniques; a cloning vehicle
  
  Vesicles
  
  Viability: the probability of survival to reproductive age.
  
  Viral oncogene: V-oncogene (V-onc)
  
  Virion
  
  Virulent phage: a phage or virus capable only of a lytic cycle; contrast with temperate phage.
  
  Virus
  
  Von Hippel-Lindau disease: hereditary disease marked by tumors in the retina, brain, other parts of
  
  the central nervous system, and various organs throughout the body.
  
  Washed nuclei
  
  Watson-Crick pairing
  
  Wide hybridization
  
  Wild-type (wildtype): the most common phenotype or genotype in a natural population
  
  Wobble: the acceptable pairing of several possible bases in an anticodon with the base present in
  
  the third position of a codon.
  
  Writhing number
  
  X chromosome: a chromosome that plays a role in sex determination and that is present in two
  
  copies in the homogametic sex and in one copy in the heterogametic sex.
  
  Xenograft
  
  Xeroderma pigmentosum: an inherited defect in the repair of ultraviolet-light damage to DNA,
  
  associated with extreme sensitivity to sunlight and multiple skin cancers.
  
  Xerotransplant
  
  X-inactivation
  
  X-linked inheritance: the pattern of hereditary transmission of genes located in the X
  
  chromosome; usually evident from the production of nonidentical classes of progeny from reciprocal crosses.
  
  X-linked recessive disorder
  
  Y chromosome
  
  Yeast artificial chromosome (YAC)
  
  Z-form DNA: one of the unusual three-dimensional structures of duplex DNA in which the helix
  
  is left-handed.
  
  Zero time-binding DNA
  
  Zinc finger: a structural motif, found in many DNA-binding proteins, in which finger-like
  
  projections entrap a zinc ion.
  
  Zoo blot
  
  Zygote
  
  Zygotene: the substage of meiotic phrophase I in which homologous chromosomes synapse.
  
  Zygotic gene: any of a group of genes that control early development through their expression in
  
  the zygote.
  
  β sheet
  
  β-galactosidase
  
作者:白令海峡的鱼 时间:2003-05-12 12:00:08
  我靠
  什么天书啊
作者:如雪的肌肤 时间:2003-05-12 12:01:55
  楼主,你炫耀什么呵。
楼主Pomelo 时间:2003-05-12 12:02:24
  回 tinggy:
  
  
  不是每个人都有时间去买软件的。您可以不看, 但请不要攻击别人!
  
  另外, 如果您有病我可以免费给您看。
  
  
  
  Humble Pomelo
  
  
  
  
楼主Pomelo 时间:2003-05-12 12:06:08
  如果大家认为给大家方便是炫耀, 请斑竹删了这贴吧。
  
  费事再贴了。 反正书也不贵, 40多块钱人民币。
  
楼主Pomelo 时间:2003-05-12 12:26:27
  医学微生物学(Medical Microbiology)词汇
  ============================================================
  
  adenovirus [ 7AdEnEu5vaiErEs] 腺病毒
  
  adsorption [ Ad5so:pFEn] 吸附
  
  aerobe [ 5eErEub] 需氧菌
  
  aflatoxin [ 7AflE5toksin] 黄曲霉毒素
  
  airborne transmission [ 5eEbo:n tra:nz5miF(E)n (trAns5miF(E)n)] 空气传播
  
  amantadine [ E5mAntEdi:n] 金刚烷胺
  
  anaerobe [ A5neErEub] 厌氧菌
  
  anthrax [ 5AnWrAks] 炭疽
  
  antigenic drift [ 7Anti5dVenik drift] 抗原漂移,抗原转变
  
  asepsis [ ei5sepsis (E5sepsis)] 无菌
  
  assembly [ E5sembli] 组装
  
  attenuated live vaccine [ E5tenjueit laiv 5vAksi:n] 减毒活疫苗
  
  autoclaving [ 5o:tEukleiviN] 高压蒸汽灭菌法
  
  bacteremia [ 7bAktE5ri:miE] 菌血症
  
  binary fission [ 5bainEri 5?iF(E)n] 二分裂法
  
  blood agar (plate) [ blQd 5eigE(r) (pleit)] 血琼脂 (平皿)
  
  Bordetella pertussis [ 7bo:dei5telE pE5tQsis] 百日咳杆菌
  
  budding [ 5bQdiN] 出芽
  
  Campylobacter jejuni [ 7kAmpilEu5bAktE dVi5dVu:nai] 空肠弯曲菌
  
  Candida albicans [ 5kAndidE 5AlbikAn] 白色念珠菌
  
  capsid [ 5kApsid] 衣壳
  
  capsule [ 5kApsju:l (5kApsl)] 荚膜,被膜,囊胞
  
  darkfield microscope [ 5maikrEskEup] 暗视野显微镜
  
  defective virus [ di5fektiv 5vaiErEs] 缺陷病毒
  
  Dengue virus [ 5deNgi 5vaiErEs] 登革病毒
  
  differential medium [ difE5renF(E)l 5mi:diEm] 鉴别培养基
  
  disinfection [ 7disin5fekFEn] 消毒
  
  dot blot [ dot blot] 斑点分子杂交法
  
  droplet transmission [ 5droplit trA(tra:)nz5miF(E)n] 飞沫传播
  
  drug resistance [ drQg ri5zistEns] 耐药性
  
  eclipse period [ i5 klips 5piEriEd] 隐蔽期
  
  endotoxin [ 7endEu5toksin] 内毒素
  
  enterotoxin [ 7entErEu5toksin] 肠毒素
  
  enterovirus [ 7entErEu5vaiErEs] 肠道病毒
  
  envelope [ 5envElEup] 包膜
  
  epidemic hemorrhagic fever [ 7epi5demik 7hemE5rAdVik 5fi:vE(r)] 流行性出血热
  
  etiology [ 7i:ti5olEdVi] 病原学
  
  exotoxin [ 7eksEu5toksin] 外毒素
  
  facultative anaerobe [ 5fAkEltEtiv A5neErEub] 兼性厌氧菌 
  
  flagellum, flagella [ flE5dVelEm flE5dVelE] 鞭毛
  
  flora disequilibrium [ 5flo:rE 7disikwi5libriEm] 菌群失调
  
  fungus, fungi [ 5fQNgEs 5fQNgai(5fQndVai)] 真菌
  
  fusion [ 5fju:V(E)n] 融合
  
  generalized transduction [ trAns5dQkFEn] 普遍性转导
  
  genome mutation [ mju:5teiF(E)n] 基因组突变
  
  genome variation [ 7veEriEeiF(E)n] 基因组变异
  
  gonorrhea [ gonE5riE] 淋病
  
  Gram staining [ grAm stein] 革兰染色法
  
  Seoul virus [ sEul 5vaiErEs] 汉城型病毒
  
  hepadnaviridae [ 7hepE5di:5en5ei5vairEdi:] 嗜肝DNA病毒科
  
  heparnavirus [ 7hepE5a:5en5ei5vaiErEs] 嗜肝RNA病毒属
  
  horizontal transmission [ trAnz5miF(E)n] 水平传播
  
  hyaluronidase (spreading factor) [ 7haiElju5ronideis (5sprediN 5fAktE(r))] 透明质酸酶
  
  inactivated vaccine [ in5Aktiveit 5vAksi:n(sin)] 灭活疫苗
  
  inapparent infection [ 7inEpArEnt in5fekF(E)n] 非显性感染
  
  indole test [ 5indEul test] 吲哚试验
  
  influenza A virus [ 7influ5enzE 5vaiErEs] 甲型流感病毒
  
  integration [ 7inti5greiFEn] 整合,整体性
  
  legionella pneumophilia [ 7nju:mEu5filiE] 嗜肺军团菌
  
  lysogenic conversion [ 7laisEu5dVenik kEn5v*:F(E)n] 溶原转换
  
  lysozyme [ 5laisEzaim] 溶菌酶
  
  measles virus [ 5mi:z(E)l 5vairEs] 麻疹病毒
  
  mesosome [ 5mezEsEum] 中介体
  
  methyl red (MR) test [ 5meWil red test] 甲基红试验
  
  MMR vaccine (measles, mumps, rubella) [ 5vAksi:n (5mi:z(E)lz mQmps ru5belE)] 麻疹、腮腺炎、风疹三联疫苗
  
  mumps virus [ mQmps 5vaiErEs] 腮腺炎病毒
  
  Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Tubercle bacillus, TB) [ 7maikEubAk5tiEriEm 7tju:bEkju5lEusis(5tu:bEkl bE5silEs)] 结核杆菌
  
  mycosis [ mai5kEusis] 真菌病
  
  naked virus [ 5neikt 5vaiErEs] 裸病毒
  
  Negri body [ 5neigri bodi] 内基小体
  
  normal flora [ 5no:mEl 5flo:rE] 正常菌群,正常菌丛
  
  Northern blot [ 5no:TEn blot] RNA分子杂交印迹法
  
  nosocomial disease [ 7nosE5kEumiEl di5zi:z] 医源性疾病
  
  nucleocapsid [ 7nju:kliEu5kApsid] 核衣壳
  
  obligate anaerobe [ 5obligeit A5neErEub] 专性厌氧菌
  
  orthomyxovirus [ 7o:WE7maiksE5vaiErEs] 正粘病毒
  
  paramyxovirus [ 7pArE7miksE5vaiErEs] 副粘病毒
  
  penetration [ 7peni5treiFEn] 穿入
  
  peptidoglycan [ 7peptidEu5glikEn] 肽聚糖
  
  persistent infection [ pE5sistEnt in5fekFEn] 持续性感染
  
  picornavirus [ pi7ko:nE5vaiErEs] 小RNA病毒
  
  plasmid [ 5plAzmid] 质粒
  
  poliovirus, polio [ 7pEuliEu5vaiErEs 5pEuliEu] 脊髓灰质炎病毒
  
  Pseudomonas aeruginosa [ 7sju:dEu5mEnEs 7ZErEdV5nEusE] 绿脓杆菌
  
  pyemia [ pai5i:miE] 脓血症、脓毒症
  
  pyrogen [ 5paiErEudVin] 致热源
  
  rabies virus [ 5reibiz 5vaiErEs] 狂犬病病毒
  
  recombination [ 7rikombi5neiFEn] 重组合,基因重组
  
  release [ ri5li:s] 释放
  
  retrovirus [ 7retrEu5vaiErEs] 逆转录病毒
  
  reverse transcriptase [ ri5v*:s trAns5kripteis] 逆转录酶
  
  Salmonella typhi [ 7sAlmE5nelE 5taif(a)i] 伤寒沙门菌
  
  scarlet fever [ 5ska:lit 5fi:vE(r)] 猩红热
  
  septicemia [ 7septi5si:miE] 败血症
  
  Shigella [ Fi5gelE] 志贺菌属
  
  Southern blot [ 5sQT(E)n blot] Southern印迹
  
  spike [ spaik] 刺突,锋电位
  
  spirochete [ 5spaiErEuki:t] 螺旋体
  
  spore, endospore [ spo:(r) 5endEuspo:] 芽胞
  
  sterilization [ 7sterElai5zeiFEn] 灭菌、消毒、绝育
  
  subclinical infection [ sQb5klinikEl in5fekF(E)n] 亚临床感染
  
  superinfection [ 7sju:pErin5fekFEn] 重叠感染
  
  teichoic acid [ tai5koid 5Asid] 胞壁酸
  
  temperate (lysogenic) phage [ 5tempErEt (7laisE5dVenik) feidV] 温和噬菌体,溶原噬菌体
  
  =========================================================
  
  
  
作者:红柳 时间:2003-05-12 12:39:07
  收藏,谢谢。
发表回复

请遵守天涯社区公约言论规则,不得违反国家法律法规