分享专业英语的作业

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  IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 13, No. 1,January 1998
  /*IEEE 电力传输学报,卷13,1998年1月1日*/
  Development of a Control System for a High-Performance Self-Commutated AC/D C Converter
  /*高性能自整流交流直流变换器控制系统的开发*/
  
  Koji Sakamoto Masashi Yajima
  Power Electronics Department, Power Engineering R&D Center, Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., 4-1 Egasaki, Tsurumi, Yokohama 230, Japan
  /*东京电力株式会社电力工程研发中心电力电子部,4-1Egasaki,Tsurumi,横滨 230,日本* /
  
  Tadao Ishikawa, Member, IEEE
  Power Electronics Group ,Komae Research Laboratory,Central Research Institute of Electrical Power Industry (CIUEPI), Japan
  /*Tadao Ishikawa, IEEE 会员,日本,电源工业研究中心,狛江实验室,电力电子组*/
  
  Shigeyuki Sugimoto
  Electric Power Research & Development Center Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., Japan
  /*日本,中部电力株式会社电源研发中心*/
  
  Tadashi Sato
  Substation Section,Power System Engineering & Operation,Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Japan
  /*日本,关西电力株式会社电力系统工程操作变电所分部*/
  
   Hideyuki Abe
  Substation & HVDC Engineering Section,Electrical Engineering Department Electric Power Development Co., Ltd., Japan
  /*日本,电源开发有限责任公司,电子工程部,变电所及高压直流工程分部*/
  
  Abstract : A self-commutated ac/dc converter composed of controlled turn-off devices to be applied to future system interconnection is described. The advantages of a control system for this type of converter are:
  /*摘要:自整流交流直流变换器是由被描述成应用于未来系统互联的受控开关元件组成的,这种变换器的控制系统的优点是:*/
  (1) Commutation does not fail when the system voltage is decreased or distorted by a power system fault.
  /*当系统电压因为电力系统故障而减小或者畸变时整流不会失败*/
  (2)
  It needs no equipment for reactive power supply, such as static capacitors or synchronous rotating condensers, when used in a low short-circuit capacity power system.
  /*当用于低短路包容的电力系统时它不需要设备来提供无功功率,例如静态电容和同步旋转电容*/
  (3) It can independently control active power through dc lines
  and reactive power from each terminal.
  /* 它可能独立地控制通过直流线路的有功功率和每个终端的无功功率。 */
  The proposed back-to-back (BTB) control system using the voltage margin method was verified with a power system simulator, and the results demonstrated the excellent features of the high-performance self-commutated converter.
  /*BTB控制系统使用容限电压法的建议在一个电力系统模拟器上得到验证,结果证实了高效自控整流变换器的优秀性能。*/
  Keywords : Self-commutated AC/DC converter, Pulse width modulation, Power system simulator
  /*关键词:自整流交直流变换器,脉宽调制,电力系统模拟器*/
  PE-790-PWRD-0-04-1997 A paper recommended and approved by the IEEE Transmission and Distribution Committee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society for publication in the IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery. Manuscript submitted December 18, 1996; made available for printing April 11, 1997.
  /*文章被IEEE电力工程学会下属IEEE电力传送与分配委员会出版的IEEE电力传送学报收录并推荐。手稿于1996年12月18日提交,1997年8月11日印刷出版*/
  I. INTRODUCTION
  /*绪论*/
   Due to the growth in power demand, power systems are being expanded and power stations are being located further away from load centers. The application of power electronics to power networks, such as HVDC and FACTS equipment, is expected to enhance power transmission capacity and improve power system stability in the future.
  /*由于电力需求的快速增加,电力系统被扩展,发电厂也被安排在离负载中心更远的地方。电力电子器件在电网上的应用,例如高压直流和柔性交流输电设备,预计将来会增加电力输送容量和电力系统的稳定性。*/
   Conventional line-commutated converters using thyristors have been in operation for many years in various countries around the world, however numerous studies have been conducted to cope with problems such as commutation failures during ac system faults and instability arising when the converter is connected to a power system with a small short-circuit capacity ratio.
  /* 很多年来,使用晶闸管的传统线性整流变换器已经被全球各国采用,然而很多研究正在指导处理一些诸如当变换器接到一个短路容比小的电力系统时交流系统的故障或者不稳定导致整流失败的问题。*/
  Therefore a new type of ac/dc converter having the following high-performance is expected to be realized
  /*因此,一种有下列高性能的新型变换器被认为会实现*/
  
  (1)The converter will not fail to carry out commutation even when a voltage dip or waveform distortion has occurred in the ac system.
  /*即使交流系统出现电压下降或者波形畸变也不会整流输出失败*/
  (2) The converter will be able to send power from a healthy ac system even when another ac side has completely failed.
  在一个的交流边彻底失效的时候变换器仍然能够从另一个正常的交流系统输出电力
  (3) The converter will be able to easily control reactive power.
  /*变换器很容易控制无功功率*/
  
  
  The recent development of high-power semiconductor switching devices with controlled turn-off functions has made it possible to apply large-capacity converters to power systems. In Japan, two sets of 50 MVA static var compensators using gate turn-off thyristor (GTO) converters with a nominal dc voltage of 16 kV and another of 80 MVA with dc 4 kV, which are referred to as "static synchronous compensators (STATCOMs)" in the FACTS projects, have already been installed and are in operation [3][4]. Since these converters are of the voltage-source type, a scheme for high-speed control of dc voltage and reactive power was developed, and satisfactory operating experience in actual grid systems has been obtained.
  /* 受控大功率的半导体开关器件的新发展使为电力系统提供大容量变换器成为可能。 在日本,两套50MVA的 静态无功补偿器使用GTO和普通16KV直流,另一套80MVA的则使用4KV,它们被称为柔性交流输电工程的“静态同步补偿器”,已经安装了并且运转中。 因为这些变换器是压源型,直流电压和无功功率高速控制的一份方案被开发出来,并且在实际网格系统获得的令人满意的运营经验*/
  
  This paper describes a cooperative control scheme for a dc two-terminal system consisting of voltage-source self-commutated converters . Using this scheme, each terminal can be operated independently, with little data communication. Prototype controllers have also been developed and tested with an analogue power system simulator. The test results have verified that active and reactive power can be controlled without interference, and it has been confirmed that stable operation is continued without commutation failure even in the event of an ac system fault
  /* 本文描述了一种由压源自整流变换器构成的双端直流系统的合作控制方案。 使用这份方案,每端可以独立地管理,只用很少的数据通信。 原型控制器也开发出来,并在一套电力系统模拟器测试。 测试结果证实有功功率和无功功率可以是受控的,不用干涉,并且被证实甚而在交流系统失败的情形下,稳定的操作继续,不会换向失败*/
  
  11. CONFIGURATION OF CONTROL SYSTEM
  /*控制系统的配置*/
  The control system we are proposing for the high-performance converter consists of terminal controllers and a master controller, as shown in Fig. 1.
  /*我们给高性能变换器建议的控制系统由一个主控器和若干控制终端构成,如图一所示*/
  
  The main functions for controlling the active power, reactive power and dc voltage are incorporated in the terminal controllers. The master controller is provided with the minimum set of functions necessary for coordinated operation of the terminals in the dc circuit, such as start and stop sequences, power flow reversal.
  /*控制有功功率和无功功率和直流电压的主要功能被分散在各个控制终端。主控器只需要基本的协调直流线路的各个控制终端的功能,例如开始停止次序,电能流向翻转*/
  
  Fig. 1.Hierarchy of control system.
  /*分层控制系统*/
  
  There is no need for an exchange of signals between the two terminals; the system achieves a high degree of independence with minimal reliance on communication systems. The automatic frequency control (AFC), emergency power dispatch and other functions related to ac system control that are employed in conventional line-commutated converters can be also added above the master controller if necessary, according to the ac system conditions.
  /*两个终端之间不需要交换信号; 系统达到高度独立以对通信系统的最小的信赖。如果交流系统需要,传统线性变化器的自动频率控制,应急电源,和其他与交流系统有关的功能 也可以被加进主控器*/
  
  The high-performance ac/dc converter is able to control active and reactive power independently by employing the amplitude and the phase of the ac output voltage as two state variables. In order to realize this function, the instantaneous values of the three-phase voltage and current are converted to the d-q coordinates in the ACR block of the terminal controller so as to suppress interaction between the active and reactive components, as shown in Fig. 2.
  /*高性能交直流变换器可以独立控制有功功率和无功功率以及交流输出的振幅和相位两个变量。为了实现这一功能,三相电压电流的瞬时值被转换到终端控制器ACR的d-q坐标系,使得抑制交直流成分之间的相互作用,如图二所示*/
  
  Ⅲ
  INTERCHANGE POWER CONTROL USING VOLTAGE MARGIN
  /*使用容限电压的电力交换控制*/
  In a voltage-source converter, if there is any imbalance between the input power of one terminal and the output of the other, the energy stored in the dc capacitor may change and therefore the dc voltage may fluctuate from its nominal level. In order to prevent dcovervoltages and undervoltages and to continue operation of the converter, the interchange power between the rectifier (REC) and the inverter (NV)should be coordinated.
  /*在一个压源变换器当中,如果输入输出端不平衡,那么直流电容器中的储能就会改变,而且直流电压也可能偏离正常值。为了防止过压和欠压并维持变换变换器的运行,要使得整流器和倒相器的换能相等。*/
  
  The voltage margin method for interchange power control was applied to the dc voltage control block (DC-AVR) and the active power control block (APR) in the terminal controller. When the active power is injected from the dc circuit to the ac system at one terminal, the power is supplied from the ac side to the dc side at the other terminal so as to compensate for dc voltage fluctuation. Consequently, the two terminals can be coordinated without relying on a communication system to maintain constant dc voltage.
  /*容压法电力交换控制已经应用于终端控制器的直流电压控制部分和有功功率控制部分。当一个端口的直流有功功率进入交流时,电能从另一端的交流边进入直流边以补偿直流电压波动。也就是说,两个端口无需通信系统就可以一起维持直流电压不变*/
  The voltage margin is defined as the difference between the dc reference voltages of the two terminals, for the purpose of active power interchange between terminals having the characteristics shown in Fig. 3(a) and (b). When power is to be transferred from terminal A to terminal B, the voltage margin is subtracted from the dc reference voltage for terminal B.
  /*容限电压定以为两个端口之间的直流电压差,目的就是使得端口之间的有功功率交换有图3(a)和(b)所示的特性。当电能从A端进入B端时,容限电压就是B端的基准电压*/
  
  The intersection of the characteristics of the two terminals in Fig. 3(c) is the operating point; the dc voltage is determined by the dc reference voltage of
  terminal A (REC), and the active power is assigned by the lower limit of terminal B 。In the block diagram of Fig. 2, the voltage margin is the input value to the DC-AVR block. The lower limit of the DC-AVR block is a variable limit, and is controlled by the output value of the APR block. When the active power reference value is modified, the lower limit changes and the interchanged
  active power can be controlled.
  /*两个特性的交集如图(c)所示;直流电压被A端的基准电压钳定,有功功率被B端的的下限确定 。在图二的方框图里面,容限电压是直流电压控制域的输入值,直流电压控制域的下限是一个有限变量,被有功功率控制域的输出控制,当有功功率的基准值被修改后,下限会改变而有功功率交换也会处于可控。*/
  The power flow direction of the two terminals can be easily reversed with the voltage margin method. As indicated in Fig. 3(d), by resetting the dc reference voltage to its nominal value for terminal B and subtracting the voltage margin for terminal A instead, the operating point is moved and the power flow can be reversed. Thus, in the voltage margin method, the dc voltage and the active power are separately controlled by the rectifier and the inverter, respectively.
  /*两个端口之间的电能流向可以很容易的被容限电压法翻转。如图3(d)所示,复位端口B的直流电压基准值到正常值或者减去端口A的容限电压,工作点会移动,电能流向翻转。如此,在容限电压法当中,直流电压和和有功功率分别被整流器和反相器所控制。*/
  In a two-terminal configuration when a terminal is tripped out, the active power is no longer interchanged. Hence the operating point, which has been at the intersection of the characteristic lines for the two terminals, shifts to the zero active power point along the characteristic of the healthy terminal in order to maintain constant dc voltage. This operation is automatically completed, even if no communication signals are exchanged. Even in the event of a serious fault, as long as a healthy terminal remains, the dc voltage control system continues its function. Thus, dc voltage fluctuations are maintained within the small range of the voltage margin.
  /*在一个双口配置中,当一端跳闸时有功功率不再交换。因此,系统工作点,也就是两个端口的特性曲线交点,会移动到有功功率零点以维持直流电压常量。这个动作会自动完成,即使没有通信交换信息。即便是一个重大故障,直流电压控制系统会维持正常直到端口恢复正常。直流电压变化会维持在一个很小的范围内。*/
  IV.PROTOTYPE CONTROL EQUIPMENT
  /*控制设备原型*/
  In order to confirm the operating performance of the control method, prototype control equipment was manufactured and tested with an analogue simulator. An external view of the equipment is shown in Fig. 4.
  /*为了证实控制方法的操作特性,控制设备的原型被制造出来并被用一个模拟器测试。设备外观如图4所示*/
  
  Since the high-performance converter is of the voltage- source type, in the event of a power system fault the control system should respond instantaneously so that overcurrents do not occur. The prototype equipment uses high-speed digital signal processors and microprocessors.and enables a sampling period of 200 ps (an electrical degree of 3.6 at 50 Hz) for the ACR and PWM blocks,where rapid response is required. In the prototype equipment, all of the control functions including 9-pulse PWM are carried out by digital processing.
  /*由于高性能变换器是压源型,在电力系统故障中控制系统会瞬时响应使过载电流不会出现。原型设备使用高速DSP和MPU,提供采样周期200ps的ACR和PWM模块,快速响应需求。原型设备中,包括9脉冲PWM的所有功能都由数字处理实现。*/
  
  V. SIMULATOR TEST RESULTS
  /*模拟结果*/
  
  A. Configuration of Test Circuit
  
  In order to verify the performance of the prototype equipment for active and reactive power control, and to confirm continuous operating performance for voltage decreases, waveform distortions and other disturbances in the ac power system, we conducted various tests combining converter models employing actual switching devices with an analogue power system simulator. The basic specifications for the power system simulator are shown in TABLE I.
  /*为了检验原型机的有功功率和无功功率控制性能,并验证应对电压下降,波形失真,以及交流系统中的其他干扰的连续操作性能,我们在模拟电力系统中实施了各种各样的使用实际开关器件的变换器模型。模拟电力系统的基本参数如表一所示。*/
  
  As shown in Fig. 5, the test circuit consists of a 50 Hz and a 60 Hz power network connected to a back-to-back (BTB) system. AC/DC converters are linked to the tertiary winding of a main transformer (66 kv> at a 275 kV / 500 kV substation on the 50 Hz system side, and to a 275 kV bus on the 60 Hz side. The nominal active power is 37.5 MW,and each terminal comprises four converter bridges. /*如图5所示,测试电路包括连接了BTB系统的50Hz和60Hz的网络。交直流变换器连接在275KV/500KV变电所的66KV主变压器的三相绕组和60Hz边的275KV总线上。正常有功功率是37.5MW,每一端包含4个变换器桥。*/
  
  B. Simulator Test Results
  /*模拟结果*/
  The following tests were conducted.
  /*以下测试被实施*/
  
  -Tests to confirm basic operating performance /*验证基本工作性能的测试*/
  * Start and stop/*启动停止*/
   * Modification of references (active power, reactive power, ac voltage)
  /*修改基准电压(有功功率,无功功率,交流电压)*/
  * Power flow reversal /*电流反向*/
  
  -Tests to confirm continuous operating performance
  /*连续工作性能测试*/
  AC voltage disturbances (voltage fluctuations, voltage imbalance, frequency fluctuations)
  /*交流电压扰动(电压波动,电压不平衡,频率波动)*/
  Adjacent ac equipment operation (opening/closing of capacitor banks, transformers, transmission lines)
  /*临近交流设备操作(开关状态的电荷泵,变压器,输电线)*/
  AC system disturbances (ground faults in ac transmission lines)
  /*交流系统干扰(交流输电线接地故障)*/
  DC terminal tripping-out
  /*直流端断开*/
  
  
  1) Tests to Confirm Basic Operating Performance
  /*验证基本工作性能的测试*/
  
  Fig. 6 shows the results of the test for power flow reversal under the condition that the active power is nominal. The voltage margin switches in the terminal controllers of both converters are opened and closed so as to reverse the power flow in accordance with requests from the master controller. The active power flow is reversed quickly, within 90 ms, with very little effect on the reactive power output. A slight fluctuation in the dc voltage of less than 10% is observed during power flow reversal, however after reversal, the dc voltage is stabilized at unity.
  /*图6所示为在正常有功功率环境下的电流翻转实验。两个变换器的控制端的容限电压一开一闭使得电流方向与主变压器的要求一致。有功功率电流很快反向,不到90ms,对无功功率输出影响很小。电能反向时观察到直流电压10%以内的轻微波动,但是反向之后直流电压整体稳定。*/
  
  2) Tests to Confirm Continuous Operating Performance
  /*验证连续工作性能的测试*/
  
  Fig. 7 shows the response of the converter when a one-line grounding fault (1LG) occurs at the ac transmission line on the 60 Hz side (terminal B: INV). Even during such a malfunction, the converter continues to operate without causing overcurrents in the output current.
  /*图7所示为60Hz边的一条交流输电线出现单线接地故障的时变换器的响应。即使在故障期间,变换器也没有引起输出电流过载。*/
  
  The active power at terminal B contains the second harmonic ripple owing to the negative-phase-sequence component of the system voltage; however, the average power is still interchanged at the level of about 2/3 before the fault. At the same time the output power of terminal A (REC) is limited automatically, so that the dc voltage is maintained at 1 pu. During this period, there is no exchange of signals between the terminals. Immediately after the fault is cleared, the system quickly returns to its power flow condition prior to the fault.
   /*由于系统电压负相次序,B端有功功率会包含二次谐波;然而,在故障前交换的平均功率仍然达到三分之二。与此同时,A端输出自动受限,所以直流电压维持在1pu,在此期间,端口之间无信号交换。故障后立即清除,系统很快返回故障之前的电能。*/
  
  Fig. 8 shows the response in the event of tripping-out due to gate block at the 50 Hz terminal (terminal A: REC). When terminal A is tripped out, active power can no longer be exchanged; however, the healthy 60 Hz terminal (terminal B: INV) can control reactive power continuously. After the rectifier, which has been regulating dc voltage, undergoes tripping-out, the healthy inverter terminal should maintain the dc voltage in order to continue operation.
  /*图8所示为50Hz端口门极断开的响应。端口A断开时,有功功率不再交换,然而,60Hz端口可以继续控制无功功率。调整直流电压的整流器断开后,正常的倒相器会维持直流电压以保持可操作性。*/
  
  In the voltage margin method, the operating point can be shifted at P=O in the characteristics of either terminal. When the inverter remains in operation, by switching its mode from active power control to dc voltage control, the decrease in dc voltage can be held within the range of the voltage margin (10%). The switching of control mode mentioned above is completed automatically, by detecting the decrease in dc voltage on its own side even when there is no exchange of signals.
  /*容限电压法中,工作点可以移动到任一端的P=0特性点。倒相器保持运行时,通过切换有功功率控制模式到直流电压控制模式,直流压降可以控制在容限电压以内(10%)。即便没有信号交换亦可通过检测自身边的直流电压降自动完成上述控制模式切换。*/
  
  It was also confirmed through various tests that the active power and reactive power can be controlled without interference and that they can follow their reference values accurately and quickly. Further, it was verified that the converters can continue stable operation during ac system voltage fluctuations, adjacent ac equipment operation and ac system disturbances. These results demonstrated that the control scheme for the high-performance ac/dc converter has been successfully established.
  /*通过各种各样的测试也证实了有功功率和无功功率不经干预即可控制,而且它们会快速准确的跟随它们的基准电压,同时还证实了变换器可以在交流电压波动,临近交流设备运行或者交流系统有干扰的时候保持稳定运行。这些结果证明高性能交直流变换器控制系统方案被成功确立了。*/
  
  VI. CONCLUSIONS /*结论*/
  A control system for the high-performance ac/dc converter has been established. This system employs the voltage margin method to realize interchange power control, interference-free control of active and reactive power, and suppression of overcurrents with high-speed sampling processing.
  /*高性能交直流变换器控制系统方案被成功确立了。这个系统使用容限电压法实现了电能交换控制,抗干扰的有功功率和无功功率,高采样率处理的过载电流抑制。*/
  
  The operating performance of the control system confirmed through tests using a power system simulator is summarized as follows:
  /*通过电力系统模拟器的各种测试证实,控制系统的操作性能概括如下:*/
  
  (1)Active and reactive power can be controlled with no mutual interference.
  /*有功功率和无功功率可以不相互干扰的受到控制。*/
  (2) Continuous operation is possible even in the event of disturbances in the ac power system.
  /*在交流系统有故障的时候依然可以连续运行。*/
  (3)In the event of terminal tripping-out as well, the healthy terminal can continue operation without depending on any means of communication between terminals.
  /*在有端子断开的情况下,良好的端子可以不依赖任何端子之间的通信而保持系统继续运行*/
  
  This R&D program is also engaged in the development of high-performance ac/dc converter main circuits and converter transformers. We are planning to combine
  control/protection equipment with 37.5 MW GTO converters and converter transformers at the ShinShinano Substation of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. A
  three-terminal BTB system is to be connected to actual power systems and field testing will be conducted.
  /*这个研发项目也运用在高性能交直流变换器主电路图和变换器变压器的开发中。*/
  
  VII. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS /*致谢*/
  The authors would like to thank the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy for supporting this project and the electric power companies of Hokkaido, Tohoku, Hokuriku, Chugoku, Shikoku and Kyushu for their cooperation as members of the committee for the project. The authors also wish to acknowledge Toshiba Corp., Hitachi Ltd., and Mitsubishi Electric Corp. for their help in manufacturing the prototype controllers.
  /*作者感谢支持这项工程的经济产业省下属天然资源及能源厅,感谢北海道电力电子,东北电力,北陆电力电子,広岛电力,四国电力电子和九州电力作为工程成员提供协助。作者同样感谢东芝,日立,三菱电子公司为制造原型变换器提供的帮助。*/
  
  VIII. REFERENCES /*参考文献*/
  
  [l] Y. Sekine, T. Hayashi, et al., "Application of Power Electronics Technologies to Future Interconnected Power System in Japan," Proc. of the 1995 CIGRE Tokyo Symposium, N0.210-03, May 1995.
  /*电力电子技术在未来日本接触网的应用,*/
  
  [2] H. Suzuki, T. Nakajima, et al., "Development and Testing of Prototype Models for a High-Performance 300 Mw Self-Commutated ACDC Converter," IEEE Power Engineering Society Summer
  Meetiing,NO.96 SM 448-1,1996.
  /*300MW自整流高性能交直流变换器原型的开发测试。*/
  
  [3] S. Mori, K. Matsuno, T. Hasegawa, et al., "Development of a Large Static Var Generator Using Self-Commutated Inverters for Improving Power System Stability," LEEE Power Engineering Society Winter M~tiw,N0.92 WM 165-1, 1992.
  /*开发使用自整流倒相器的大型静态无功发生器来增加电力系统的稳定性*/
  
  [4] F. Ichikawa, K. Suzuki, T. Nakajima, et al., "Development of Self-Commutated SVC for Power System," IEEE Conference Record of the Power Conversion Conference, Yokohama, April 1993.
  /*开发电力系统的自整流SVC*/
  
  [5] S. Horiuchi, et al., "Control System for High Performance Self-commutated Power Converter," CZGRE Group 14 Session, No.14-304, Paris, August 1996.
  /*高性能自整流电力变换器的控制系统*/
  
  







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