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楼主:lonesomeguy 时间:2009-03-24 07:37:00 点击:817 回复:4
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Trade Barriers Rise as Slump Tightens Grip
  随着萧条加剧,贸易壁垒抬头
  
  By MARK LANDLER
  马克*兰德勒
  Published: March 22, 2009
  出版:2009年3月22日
  WASHINGTON — After repeated pledges by world leaders to avoid erecting trade barriers, protectionism is on the march, provoking nasty trade disputes and undermining efforts to plot a coordinated response to the deepest global economic downturn since World War II.
  华盛顿——尽管世界各国领导人再三承诺不会设立贸易壁垒,但贸易保护主义依然我行我素,引发了各种龌龊的贸易争端,并且削弱了旨在应对二战结束以来全球经济最严重经济衰退的协调计划。
  From a looming battle with China over tariffs on carbon-intensive goods to a spat over Mexican trucks using American roads, barriers are going up around the world. As the recession’s grip tightens, these pressures are likely to intensify, several experts said.
  从中国高含碳产品关税一触即发的贸易之战,到墨西哥卡车使用美国公路的一系列争议,各种贸易壁垒在全球各地纷纷出现。一些专家指出,随着经济萧条的加剧,这些贸易保护压力很可能会进一步加强。
  The surge in protectionism is casting a shadow over an economic summit meeting of world leaders scheduled for London on April 2. At the last such gathering, in Washington in November, former President George W. Bush persuaded the Group of 20 members to commit to protecting free trade — whatever the pressures caused by faltering economies and lost jobs. The members include industrialized and developing nations, and the European Union.
  贸易保护主义的激增使得将于4月2日在伦敦召开的全球领导人经济峰会蒙上了一层阴影。去年十一月份,在华盛顿召开的全球领导人经济峰会上,前总统布什奉劝20国集团要致力于保护自由贸易---无论经济动荡以及失业的压力有多大。
  “No sooner was the G-20 statement issued than it was breached,” said Daniel M. Price, an official in the Bush administration who helped negotiate the agreement. “Instead of just talking about trade liberalization, countries need to take immediate steps to show they mean it.”
  “20国集团的声明从签署之际就无人遵守,”帮助谈判该协议的布什政府官员丹尼尔M.普莱斯指出,“各国不应当只是空谈贸易自由化,而应当立即采取措施表明他们言出必行。”
  Far from heeding their pledge not to erect new barriers for 12 months, many countries have raised import duties or passed stimulus measures with trade-distorting subsidies. The World Bank, in a report last week, said that since the Washington meeting, 17 members of the Group of 20 had adopted 47 measures aimed at restricting trade.
  很多国家不但没有履行在未来12个月内不设立新贸易壁垒的承诺,反而提升关税,或者通过了含有各种足以扭曲贸易补贴的经济刺激措施。
  Russia has raised tariffs on used cars. China has tightened import standards on food, banning Irish pork, among other things. India has banned Chinese toys. Argentina has tightened licensing requirements on auto parts, textiles and leather goods. And a dozen countries, from the United States to Australia, are subsidizing embattled automakers or car dealers.
  俄罗斯已提高二手车的关税。中国已经提高了食品进口标准,禁止很多产品的进口,其中包括爱尔兰猪肉。印度已经禁止中国玩具。阿根廷已经收紧了就汽车配件、纺织品以及皮革制品的许可证要求。从美国到澳大利亚的十几个国家也在补贴四面楚歌的汽车制造商或汽车经销商。
  The most vivid example of that policy is the “Buy America” provision in the stimulus package, intended to ensure that only American manufacturers benefited from public-spending projects. The Obama administration persuaded Congress to water it down, and Mr. Obama has taken up Mr. Bush’s warnings about the dangers of protectionism.
  贸易保护政策最鲜明的例子就是经济刺激一揽子计划中所谓的“买美国货”条款,籍此来确保美国制造商在各种由公共支出的工程中获益。奥巴马政府曾奉劝国会淡化这一条款,并且奥巴马先生也接受了布什先生有关贸易保护主义之危险的警告。
  But pressures are building on other fronts. Last week, the energy secretary, Steven Chu, said he favored tariffs on Chinese goods if China did not sign on to mandatory reductions in greenhouse gas emissions — underscoring how the “green economy” could be the next trade battleground.
  但是,贸易保护主义的压力在其他方面正在囤积。能源部长朱棣文于上周声称,如果中国不书面承诺强制性的温室气体排放,他赞成对中国产品征收关税---此举凸显了“绿色经济”如何有可能会成为下一次的贸易战争。
  Mr. Obama signed a $40 billion spending bill that scrapped a program enabling Mexican trucks to haul cargo over long distances on American roads. Mexico retaliated by imposing duties on $2.4 billion worth of American goods — everything from pencils to toilet paper. The trucking dispute has its roots in the North American Free Trade Agreement, or Nafta, which guaranteed Mexico, Canada and the United States access to one another’s highways for cargo transport by 2000.
  奥巴马先生已签署了一个400亿美元的开支法案,该法案废除了一个允许墨西哥卡车在美国公路上长途运输的计划。墨西哥对此作出了报复,对价值达24亿美元的美国产品征收关税---从铅笔到卫生纸。卡车运输争议源自简称为纳福塔(NAFTA)的北美自由贸易协定,该协定保证墨西哥、加拿大和美国从2000年开始可以进入彼此国家从事货运。
  While resistance in Congress to Mexican trucks is long-running, based in part on safety and environmental concerns, American officials worry it will cause broader frictions with Mexico.
  国会反对墨西哥卡车由来已久,部分原因是出于对安全和环境方面的考虑,但美国官员担心此举会导致与墨西哥产生更大范围的贸易摩擦。
  “It’s very worrisome to the Mexicans because it’s seen as protectionism,” said Thomas A. Shannon Jr., the assistant secretary of state for Western Hemisphere affairs, who is working with other officials to devise a new pilot program for trucks that will satisfy critics in Congress.
  “墨西哥人现在非常担心,因为此举被看作是贸易保护主义,”小托马斯A.香农如是说,他是负责西半球事务的助理国务卿,目前正与其他官员合作设计一个能够满足国会中持批评意见的全新卡车计划。
  Mexico’s tariffs affect 90 products from 40 states, accounting for less than 2 percent of American exports. Mr. Shannon said it underscored the breadth of the trading relationship.
  墨西哥关税涉及美国40个州的90种产品,占美国出口的2%。香农先生指出,此举凸显了美墨贸易关系的广度。
  Even without protectionism, the synchronized global downturn is likely to result in the largest annual decline in world trade in 80 years, according to the World Bank. While the bank said it was difficult to quantify the effects of the new barriers, they could aggravate that decline.
  世界银行指出,即使没有贸易保护主义,全球经济的一致萧条也很有可能会导致世界贸易出现80年里最大的年度衰退。世界银行指出,尽管无法量化这些新贸易壁垒所造成的影响,但可以肯定的是这些壁垒会使经济衰退更加恶化。
   “It’s very easy for this to spin out of control and move to trade wars that could be quite devastating,” said Richard Newfarmer, who wrote the report and is the bank’s special representative to the World Trade Organization.
  “贸易保护主义很容易失控,演变成极具破坏力的贸易战,”理查德*纽法默指出,他是该报告的起草者并且是世界银行在世界贸易组织的特别代表。
  The World Bank president, Robert B. Zoellick, warned recently that 2009 could be a “very dangerous” year, as leaders faced rising calls for protection from economically insecure populations. He called on the World Trade Organization to monitor protectionist actions and publicize them. But not all the measures violate the body’s laws.
  世界银行 罗伯特B. Zoellick最近警告说,由于对经济感到不安的群体要求各国领导人采取贸易保护主义的呼声越来越高,2009年有可能成为“非常危险的”一年。他呼吁世界贸易组织监控贸易保护主义行径并予以公布。但并不是所有的贸易保护措施都违反了该组织的法律。
  The stimulus plans that the United States is pushing Europe to adopt can also distort trade, depending on how much they rely on subsidies. In November, the Group of 20 agreed to “refrain from raising new barriers to investment or to trade in goods and services,” regardless of whether the measures complied with trade laws. Mr. Price, the former Bush administration official who is now a trade lawyer with the firm Sidley Austin, said the leaders should go further in London.
  美国敦促欧洲采纳的经济刺激计划也会扭曲贸易,这要取决于这些刺激计划依赖补贴的程度。去年11月,20国集团认同“尽量避免在投资和商品和服务的贸易上设立新的贸易壁垒,”无论这些贸易保护措施是否符合贸易法规。身为前布什政府官员并且目前担任盛德国际律师事务所贸易律师的普莱斯先生认为,各国领导人在伦敦应当采取更进一步的措施。
  He proposed having the W.T.O. study the impact on trade of stimulus programs, much as the International Monetary Fund has been charged with studying their economic impact.
  他提议世界贸易组织研究各种经济刺激计划对贸易所造成的影响,就如同世界货币基金组织负责研究各种经济刺激计划对经济所造成的影响一样。
  Beyond that, he said, the leaders could agree to eliminate tariffs and other barriers on “clean” products. So far, the climate debate has brought to the surface potentially divisive issues, like whether countries should impose tariffs on exports with high carbon emissions. Chinese officials said they would view such acts as a violation of World Trade Organization agreements.
  他指出,除此之外,各国领导人应当承诺取消“清洁产品”的关税和其他贸易壁垒。到目前为止,有关气候的争论已经让很多有可能导致分歧的问题浮出水面,如各国是否应当对碳排放量高的出口征收关税。中国官员指出,他们认为此类措施违反了世界贸易组织的有关协议。
  “A lot of people are worried that U.S. protectionism is going to take a green face,” said Trevor Houser, an expert in energy and climate issues at the Peterson Institute for International Economics in Washington.
  “目前很多人担心美国的贸易保护主义会戴上绿色环保的面具,”特雷弗*豪泽如是说,他是设在华盛顿皮特森国际经济研究所能源与气候问题的专家。
  Some trade skeptics caution against making too much of the link between the economic crisis and protectionism. Lori Wallach, director of the global trade division at Public Citizen, a consumer advocacy group, noted that many countries had not raised tariffs to the highest levels permissible under trade laws.
  有些贸易怀疑者警告说,不要过于强调经济危机与贸易保护主义之间的关系。消费者维权团体公共市民全球贸易部的主任洛瑞•沃勒克指出,很多国家还没有将关税提高到贸易法规所允许的最高水平。
  With so much else on the agenda in London, it is not clear how much time the Group of 20 will be able to devote to trade. Mr. Price expressed disappointment that after a preparatory meeting of finance ministers last week in Britain, the Group of 20 did not issue a stronger statement about protecting trade.
  鉴于在伦敦峰会上还有很多其他的日程,目前尚不清楚20国集团在贸易问题上会投入多少时间。上周在英国召开的一次财长预备性会议之后,20国集团并没有就贸易保护发表一个更加强硬的声明,普莱斯先生对此表示失望。
  Given Mr. Obama’s ambiguous positions on trade during the campaign — he favored renegotiating Nafta — economists praise him for holding the fort against protectionism so far. But as stimulus programs begin to take hold, they could encourage consumers to buy more imported goods, further fanning antitrade sentiment.
  有鉴于奥巴马先生在竞选总统期间在贸易问题上所表现的大胆立场---他赞成重新议定北美自由贸易协定—-经济学家称赞他到目前为止依然能够反对贸易保护主义。
  “The U.S. is in such great danger of backing away from free trade,” said Kenneth S. Rogoff, a professor of economics at Harvard. “The next two years could be a disaster for free trade.”
  “美国远离贸易保护主义的威胁是如此巨大,”哈佛大学经济学教授肯尼斯S.罗格夫指出,“接下来的两年很可能成为自由贸易的灾难。”
  
  

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作者:crzhao 时间:2009-03-24 12:00:07
  Given Mr. Obama’s ambiguous positions on trade during the campaign 有鉴于奥巴马先生在竞选总统期间在贸易问题上所表现的大胆立场
  
  ambiguous, ambitious looks similar in english, however they bear no resemblance in chinese.
  
  HTH.
楼主lonesomeguy 时间:2009-03-24 13:55:37
  thanks a lot for your pointing out my mistaking the word "ambiguous" for "ambitious",can you tell me more mistake(s) that I may have committed?
楼主lonesomeguy 时间:2009-03-24 13:59:36
  “美国远离贸易保护主义的威胁是如此巨大,”改为“美国远离自由贸易的威胁是如此大,”

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