法律英语《德国民法典》

楼主:王道振法 时间:2009-11-09 12:54:00 点击:557 回复:10
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Book 1 General Part
  Division 1 Persons
  
  Title 1 Natural persons, consumers, entrepreneurs
   自然人、消费者、经营者
  
  Section 1 Beginning of legal capacity
   权利能力的起始
  
  The legal capacity of a human being begins on the completion of birth.
   自然人之权利能力,始于出生完成。
  
  Section 2 Beginning of majority
   成年的起始
  Majority begins at the age of eighteen.
  
   成年始于年满18周岁
  
  Sections 3 to 6
  (repealed)
  已废止
  
  Section 7 Residence; establishment and termination
   住所;设立与废止
  (1) A person who settles permanently in a place establishes his residence in that place.
   自然人长期居住于某地的,该地确定为其住所。
  (2) The residence may exist in several places at the same time.
   住所可以同时存在两个以上的地方。
  
  (3) Residence is terminated if the person abandons the place of residence with the intention of giving it up.
  
   如果以废止的意思表示放弃其居所,其住所即被废止。
  
  (1) A person who is not capable of contracting or who has limited capacity to contract can neither establish nor terminate a residence without the consent of his legal representative.
  
   无行为能力人或限制行为能力人,非经其法定代理人同意,不得设定住所与废止住所。
  
  (2) A minor who is or has been married can independently establish and abandon a residence.
   已婚或曾婚的未成年人有权设立与废止住所。
  
  Section 9 Residence of a soldier
   军人的住所
  (1) A soldier has his residence in the place where he is stationed. The residence of a soldier who is not stationed in Germany is deemed to be the place in Germany where he was last stationed.
   军人以驻地为住所。在国内无驻地的军人,其最后的国内驻地视为其住所。
  (2) These provisions do not apply to soldiers who are merely doing compulsory military service or who cannot independently establish a residence.
   前款之规定,不适用于仅基于兵役义务而服兵役的军人或不能独立设定住所的军人。
  
  
  Section 10
  (repealed)
  废止
  

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楼主王道振法 时间:2009-11-09 12:55:18
  Section 11 Residence of a child
   子女的住所
   A minor child shares its parents’ residence; it does not share the residence of a parent who does not have the right to care for the child’s person.
   未成年子女共享其父母的住所;不享有监护其子女的权利的父或母不与其子女共享其住所。
   If neither parent has the right to care for the child's person, the child shares the residence of the person who has this right.
   父母双方皆无监护未成年子女的权利的,该子女与享有该项权利的人共享其住所。
   The child retains the residence until it validly abandons it.
   未成年子女保有该住所直至合法废止之。
  
  Section 12 Right to a name
   名称权
   If a person’s right to use a name is disputed by another person, or if the interest of the person entitled to the name is injured by another person’s use of the same name without authority, the person entitled may require the other to remove the injury.
  
   权利人之姓氏姓名使用权为另一人所争议,或权利人之利益因他人无权使用同一姓氏姓名而受到侵害的,权利人可以请求该他者除去侵害。
  
   If further injuries are to be feared, the person entitled may seek a prohibitory injunction.
   倘若侵害有加剧之势,权利人可以提起不作为之诉。
  
  Section 13 Consumer *)
   消费者
   A consumer means every natural person who enters into a legal transaction for a purpose that is outside his trade, business or profession.
   消费者意指不以其交易、商业或职业为目的,缔结法律行为的自然人。
  
   (1) An entrepreneur means a natural or legal person or a partnership with legal personality who or which, when entering into a legal transaction, acts in exercise of his or its trade, business or profession.
   经营者意指在缔结法律行为时,其营利活动或独立的职业活动中实施行为的自然人或法人或有权利能力的合伙。
   (2) A partnership with legal personality is a partnership that has the capacity to acquire rights and to incur liabilities.
   有权利能力的合伙,意指具有取得权利和负担债务的能力的合伙。
  
  Sections 15 to 20
  (repealed)
  已废止
  
楼主王道振法 时间:2009-11-09 12:56:25
  Title 2 Legal persons 法人
  
  
  Subtitle 1 Associations 社团
  
  Chapter 1 General provisions 一般规定
  
  Section 21 Non-commercial association 非营利社团
  
   An association whose object is not commercial business operations acquires legal personality by entry in the register of associations of the competent local court [Amtsgericht].
   非以营利为目的的社团,因登记于有管辖权的区法院的社团登记簿而取得权利能力。
  Section 22 Commercial association 营利社团
   An association whose object is commercial business operations acquires legal personality, in the absence of special provisions under [Reich] law, by state grant. The grant is in the power of the [state] in whose territory the association has its seat.
   以营利为目的的社团,无特别的帝国法律规定时,因国家的授予而取得权利能力。社团所在地的邦有授予的权利。
   An association whose seat is not in a [state] may, in the absence of special provisions under [Reich] law, be granted legal personality by a resolution of the [Federal Council][Bundesrat].
   无特别的帝国法律规定时,在任何邦均无所在地的社团可以因取邦参议院的决议而被授予权利能力。
  
  Section 24 Seat
   The seat of an association, unless otherwise provided, is the place where the management is conducted.
   除另有规定外,社团执行管理的地方视为社团的所在地。
  
  Section 25 Constitution
   The constitution of an association with legal personality is, to the extent that it is not based on the following provisions, determined by the articles of association.
   有权利能力的社团的组织,除基于下列规定者外,由社团章程规定之。
  
  Section 26 Board; representation
  (1) The association must have a board. The board may consist of more than one person.
  
   社团必须有董事会。董事会可以由两人以上组成。
  
  (2) The board represents the association in court and out of court; it has the status of a legal representative. The scope of its power of representation may be restricted by the articles of association with effect against third parties.
   董事会在裁判上和裁判外代表社团:董事会具有法定代表人的地位。可以以章程限制董事会的代表权的范围,且对第三人发生效力。
  
  
  Section 27 Appointment of and management by the board 董事会的选任与业务执行
  
  (1) The appointment of the board is by resolution of the general meeting.
   董事会的选任,以社员大会的决议为之。
  
  (2) The appointment is revocable at any time, notwithstanding the claim to contractual payment. The revocability may be restricted by the articles of association to the case where an important reason for the revocation exists; such a reason includes in particular a gross breach of duty or inability to effect proper management.
  
   尽管有契约支付的请求,但是选任是随时可以撤销的。可撤回可以通过社团章程限定为存在重大事由;此种事由包括重大的义务违反,或对于通常的业务执行不能。
  
  (3) The management by the board is governed by the provisions on mandate in sections 664 to 670 with the necessary modifications.
   董事会的业务执行,准用第664条至670条关于委托的规定。
  
  Section 28 Passing of resolutions and representation 决议的做出和消极的代表
  
  (1) If the board consists of more than one person, the resolutions are passed in accordance with the provisions of sections 32 and 34, which govern the resolutions of the members of the association.
   董事会由2人以上组成的,决议依照第32条,第34条关于社员的决议的规定为之。
  (2) If a declaration of intent is to be made to the association, it is sufficient if it is made to a member of the board.
   意思表示须向社团做出的,只需要向董事会成员之一做出即为充分。
  
  
  Emergency appointment by local court 区法院之紧急选任
  
  To the extent that the board lacks the necessary members, they are to be appointed, in urgent cases, for the period until the deficiency is corrected, on the application of a person concerned, by the local court that keeps the register of associations for the district in which the association has its seat.
  缺少必要之董事会成员的,在急迫的情况下,必须就缺员的情况消除前的期间,由社团所在地的辖区主管社团登记簿登记的区法院根据利害关系人之一的申请进行选任。
  
楼主王道振法 时间:2009-11-09 12:57:26
  Section 30
  Special representatives 特别代表人
  
  The articles of association may provide that, in addition to the board, special representatives are to be appointed for certain transactions. The power of representation of such a representative extends, in cases of doubt, to all legal transactions that the sphere of business allocated to him normally entails.
  章程可以规定:除董事会以外,须就特定事物选任特别代表人。特别代表人的代表权,有疑义时,及于分派给此种代表人的事物通常所引起的一切法律行为。
  
  Section 31
  Liability of the association for organs 社团对机关的责任
  
  The association is liable for the damage to a third party that the board, a member of the board or another constitutionally appointed representative causes through an act committed by it or him in carrying out his duties, where the act gives rise to a liability in damages.
  董事会、董事会的一名成员或其他依照章程选任的代表人,以在执行其有权执行的事务中实施的,引起损害赔偿义务的行为加损害于第三人的,社团对该损害负责任。
  
  Section 32
  
  
  General meeting; passing of resolutions
  (1) The affairs of the association, to the extent that they are not to be attended to by the board or another organ of the association, are dealt with by resolution in a meeting of the members. In order for the resolution to be valid, it is necessary for the matter to be stated when the meeting is convened. The resolution is passed by the majority of the members present.
   社团事务不能由董事会或社团的其他机关处理的,以社团大会的决议处理。为使决议有效,必须在召集时述明议题。决议时,由出席社员的多数做出决定。
  
  (2) Even without a meeting of the members, a resolution is valid if all members declare their approval of the resolution in writing.
   全体社员以书面表示其对决议的同意的,不经召集社员大会,决议也有效。
  
  Section 33
  Amendment of articles of association 章程的变更
  
  (1) A resolution containing an amendment of the articles of association must have a majority of three quarters of the members present. In order to alter the objects of the association, the approval of all members is necessary; the approval of the members not present must be declared in writing.
   对于包含章程的变更的决议,必须得到出席社员的3/4多数的同意。对于变更社团的目的,必须得到全体社员的同意;缺席社员的同意,必须以书面为之。
  (2) If the legal personality of the association is the result of a grant, government approval is necessary for every amendment of the articles of association, or, if the grant was made by the [Bundesrat], the approval of the [Bundesrat].
  
   社团的权力的基于授予的,对于章程的任何变更,必须得到国家的批准;在该项授予由联邦参议院为之的情况下,必须得到联邦参议院的批准。
  
  Section 34
  
  
  Exclusion from voting 表决权的排除
  
  A member has no right to vote if the resolution relates to entering into a legal transaction with him or commencing or disposing of litigation between him and the association.
   决议涉及与某社员之间的法律行为的实施或该社员和社团之间的诉讼的开始或终结的,该社员无表决权。
  
  Special rights of a member may not be adversely affected by a resolution of the general meeting without the approval of that member.
  非经社员同意,不得以社员大会的决议侵害其特别权利。
  
  Section 36 Convening of the general meeting 社员大会的召集
  
  (1) The general meeting is to be convened in the cases laid down in the articles of association and when the interests of the association require it.
   在章程所规定的情况下以及社团的利益要求时,必须召集社员大会。
  
  Section 37 Convening a meeting at the request of a minority 应少数人的要求召集
  (1) The general meeting is to be convened if the proportion of the membership laid down in the articles of association or, in the absence of a provision, one-tenth of the members call in writing for a meeting to be convened, stating the purpose and the reasons.
  章程所规定的部分社员,或无规定时社员的1/10在说明目的和理由的情况下,以书面要求召集社员大会的,必须召集大会。
  
  (2) If the request is not granted, the local court may authorise the members who made the request to convene the meeting; it may make orders on the conduct of the chairmanship at the meeting. The court with jurisdiction is the local court that keeps the register of associations for the district in which the association has its seat. The notice convening the meeting must refer to the authorisation.
  
  要求未获得满足的,区法院可以授权提出要求的社员召集大会;区法院可以就大会 的担任发出命令。社团所在地的辖区主管社团登记簿登记的区法院有管辖权。召集大会时,必须援用该项授权。
  
  Section 38 Membership 社员资格
  
  Membership is not assignable and not inheritable. The exercise of membership rights cannot be entrusted to another person.
   社员资格是不可转让和不可继承的。基于社团资格而发生的权利,不提交给他人行使。
  
  Section 39 Leaving the association 退出社团
  (1) The members have the right to leave the association.
   社员有权退出社团
  (2) The articles of association may provide that leaving is admissible only at the end of a business year or only after a notice period; the maximum notice period is two years.
   章程可以规定:仅在事务年度终了时,或仅在通知终了期间届满后,才准许退社;通知中止期间最长可为2年。
  
楼主王道振法 时间:2009-11-09 13:00:28
  Section 40 Flexible provisions 任意规定
  The provisions of section 27 (1) and (3), section 28 (1) and sections 32, 33 and 38 do not apply to the extent that the articles of association provide otherwise.
  
   章程另有规定时,不适用第27条第1款、第3款,第28条第1款和第32条、第33条.第38条的规定。
  
  Dissolution of the association 社团的解散
  The association may be dissolved by resolution of the general meeting. The resolution must have a majority of three quarters of the members present, unless otherwise provided in the articles of association.
  可以以社员大会的决议解散社团。除章程另有规定外,对于解散社团的决议,必须得到出席社员的3/4多数的同意。
  
  Section 42
  
  Insolvency 支付不能
  
  (1) The association is dissolved by the commencement of insolvency proceedings. If the proceedings are discontinued on the application of the debtor or terminated after the confirmation of an insolvency plan that provides for the association to continue in existence, the general meeting may pass a resolution that the association is to continue in existence. The articles of association may provide that, if insolvency proceedings are commenced, the association is to continue as an association without legal personality; in this case too, if the requirements of sentence two above are satisfied, a resolution may be passed to continue the association as an association with legal personality.
   社团因支付不能程序的开始解散。根据债务人的申请而使支付不能程序停止,或在认可预先规定社团继续存在的支付不能方案之后,废止支付不能程序的,社员大会可以做出社团继续存在的决议。章程可以规定:社团在支付不能程序开始的情况下,作为无权利能力的社团继续参中;于此情形,也可以按照本款第2举的要件做出作为有权利能力的社团继续存在的决议。
  
  (2) If the association is unable to pay its debts or is overindebted, the board must petition for the commencement of insolvency proceedings. If there is delay in petitioning, the members of the board who are at fault are responsible to the creditors for the damage resulting from this; they are liable as joint and several debtors.
   董事会在支付不能或负债过度的情况下,必须申请开始支付不能程序。延迟提出申请的,自己有过错的董事会成员,对因此而发生的损害向债权人负责任;董事会的成员作为连带债务人负责任。
  
  Section 43
  Deprivation of legal personality
   社团权利能力的剥夺
  (1) The association can be deprived of its legal personality if it endangers the common good by an unlawful resolution of the general meeting or by unlawful conduct of the board.
   社团因社员大会的违法决议或因董事会的违法行为而损害公共利益的,可以剥夺社团的权利能力。
  (2) An association whose objects under its articles of association are not commercial operations may be deprived of legal personality if it pursues such objects.
   依照章程不以营利为目的的社团追求此种目的的,可以剥夺社团的权利能力。
  (3) (repealed)
   已废止
  (4) An association whose legal personality is the result of a grant can be deprived of its legal personality if it pursues objects different from those in the articles of association.
   权利能力以授权为依据的社团,追求章程所规定的目的以外的目的的,可以剥夺社团的权利能力。
  
  Section 44
  Jurisdiction and proceedings
  管辖权与程序
  (1) The jurisdiction and the proceedings in the cases set out in section 43 are decided under the law of the Land in which the association has its seat.
  在第43条的情况下,依照社团所在地州的法律确定管辖权和程序。
  (2) If the legal personality depends upon a grant by the [Bundesrat], the deprivation is by a resolution of the [Bundesrat].
  社团的权利能力基于联邦参议院的授权的,其权利能力的剥夺,以联邦参议院的决议为之。
  
楼主王道振法 时间:2009-11-09 13:01:21
  Section 45
  
  Devolution of the assets of the association
  社团财产的归属
  (1) On the dissolution of the association or the deprivation of legal personality, the assets devolve on the persons specified in the articles of association.
   社团被解散或被剥夺权利能力时,社团的财产归属于章程指定的人。
  (2) The articles of association may provide that the persons entitled to receive the assets are specified by a resolution of the general meeting or by another organ of the association.
  If the objects of the association are not commercial business operations, the general meeting may, even without such a provision, allocate the assets to a public foundation or institution.
   章程可以规定:以社员大会或其他社团机关的决议确定归属权人。社团非以营利为目的的,即使无此种规定,社员大会也可以将财产分配给公共财产团或机构。
  (3) If no persons entitled are specified, the assets, if the association according to its articles exclusively served the interests of its members, pass in equal shares to the members at the date of the dissolution or the deprivation of legal personality, and failing this to the treasury of the [state] in whose territory the association had its seat.
  归属权人未确定,且依照章程,社团专为社团的利益而存在的,财产按等份归属于在解散或剥夺权利能力时现存的社员;其他情况下,归属于社团所在地州的国库。
  
  Section 46
  Devolution on the treasury
   归属于国库
  If the assets of the association devolve on the treasury, the provisions on an inheritance that devolves on the treasury as the heir on intestacy apply with the necessary modifications. The treasury shall if possible use the assets in a manner corresponding to the objects of the association.
  社团的财产归属于国库的,准用关于归属于作为法定继承人的国库的遗产的规定。国库必须尽可能以符合社团目的的方式适用该财产。
  
  Section 47
  
  Liquidation
  清算
  If the assets of the association do not devolve on the treasury, a liquidation must take place, unless insolvency proceedings have commenced with regard to the assets of the association.
  社团的财产不归属于国库的,必须进行清算,但就社团的财产已开始支付不能程序的除外。
  
  Section 48
  
  Liquidators
  清算人
  (1) The liquidation is carried out by the board. Other persons may also be appointed as liquidators; the appointment is governed by the provisions for the appointment of the board.
   清算由董事会为之。其他人也可以被选任为清算人;对于清算人的选任,关于董事会的选任的规定是决定性的。
  (2) The liquidators have the legal status of the board, unless the purpose of the liquidation leads to a different conclusion.
   清算人具有董事会的法律地位,但基于清算的目的发生其他效果的除外。
  (3) If there is more than one liquidator, their resolutions must be unanimous unless otherwise provided.
   除另有规定,有2个以上清算人的,对于其决议,必须得到清算的除外。
  
  Section 49
  
  Duties of the liquidators
  清算人的职责
  
  (1) The liquidators must complete the current business, collect the receivables, convert the rest of the assets into cash, satisfy the creditors and pay out the surplus to those entitled to receive it. In order to complete transactions that are in progress, the liquidators may also enter into new transactions. The collection of receivables and the conversion of the rest of the assets into cash may be omitted to the extent that these measures are not necessary to satisfy the creditors or to distribute the surplus among those entitled to receive it.
   清算人必须了结债务,收取债权,变卖债权以外的财产,使债权人受清算受偿,并将剩余财产移交给归属权人。为了结尚未了结的事务,清算人也可以从事新的事务:可以不收取债权人以及变卖债权以外的财产,但以这些措施对于使债权人受清偿或在归属权人之间分配剩余财产是不必要的为限。
  
  (2) The association is deemed to continue in existence until the end of the liquidation if the purpose of the liquidation requires this.
   到清算了结时为止,社团视为继续存在,但以清算目的要求如此为限。
  
楼主王道振法 时间:2009-11-09 13:04:08
  Section 50
  Public notice
   公告
  (1) The liquidators must make public notice of the dissolution of the association or the deprivation of legal personality. In the notice, the creditors must be requested to register their claims. The public notice is made in the newspaper specified in the articles of association for this purpose, and in the absence of such a newspaper in the newspaper that is specified for public notices of the local court in whose district the association had its
   社团的解散或权利能力的剥夺,必须由清算人公告。在公告中,必须催告债权人申报其请求权。公告用章程中指定用来发通告的报纸为之;无此种报纸时,用指定用来发布社团所在地辖区的区法院的公告的报纸为之。在刊登后经过两天时或在第一次刊登时,视为生效
  
  (2) Known creditors must be requested by special invitation to register their claims.
   必须已特别通知催告已知债权人的申报请求权
  
  Section 51
  One-year waiting period
  冻结年限
  The property may not be paid out to the persons entitled to receive it until a year has passed after the public notice of the dissolution of the association or the deprivation of legal personality.
   在解散社团或剥夺权利能力的公告后1年以内,不得将社团的财产移交给归属权人。
  
  Section 52 Security for creditors
   已知债权人不申报,且存在提存权的,必须为债权人提存所欠金额。
  (1) If a known creditor does not register his claim, the amount owed, if the right to deposit exists, must be deposited for the creditor.
   债务的清偿现时不可实行,或就债务有争议的,仅在已向债权人提供担保时,才能将社团的财产移交给归属权人。
  
  (2) If the fulfilment of a liability is not possible at the time, or if a liability is disputed, the property may be distributed to the persons entitled to receive it only if security is provided to the creditor.
   债务的清偿现时不可实行,或就债务有争议的,仅在已向债权人提供担保时,才能将社团的财产转移给归属权人。
  
  Section 53 Liability of the liquidators in damages
   清算人的损害赔偿义务
  Liquidators who commit breaches of their duties under section 42 (2) and sections 50 to 52 or who, before the satisfaction of the creditors, distribute assets to the persons entitled to receive are, if they are at fault, responsible to the creditors for the damage resulting from this; they are liable as joint and several debtors.
   违反依照第42条第2款和第50条至第52条所担负义务的清算人,或在使债权人受清偿前将社团的财产移交给归属权人的清算人,自己有过错的,就因此而发生的损害向债权人负责任;清算人作为连带债务人负责任。
  
  Section 54 Associations without legal personality
   无权利能力的社团
  Associations without legal personality are governed by the provisions on partnership. When a transaction is entered into with a third party in the name of such an association, the person acting is personally liable; if several persons act, they are liable as joint and several debtors.
   无权利能力的社团,适用关于合伙的规定。基于以此种社团的名义对第三人实施的法律行为,行为人亲自负责任;2人以上实施行为的,行为人作为连带债务人负责任。
  
  
楼主王道振法 时间:2009-11-09 13:05:26
  Chapter 2 Registered associations
   已登记的社团
  Section 55 Jurisdiction over entry in the register
   登记簿登记的管辖权
  (1) The entry of an association of the kind specified in section 21 above in the register of associations must be made at the local court for the district in which the association has its seat.
   将第21条所称种类的社团登记于社团登记簿,必须在社团所在地辖区的区法院为之。
  (2) The Land governments justice administration authorities may allocate association matters by statutory order to one local court for the districts of several local courts. The Land governments may delegate the authorisation under sentence 1 by statutory order to the Land justice administration authorities.
   州司法行政部门可以将2个以上区法院的辖区的社团事件,分配给1个区法院。
  Section 55a Electronic register of associations
  电子社团登记簿
  (1) The Land governments may provide by statutory order that and to what extent the register of associations is maintained in electronic form as a computerised data file. It must be guaranteed that the principles of proper data processing are observed, in particular that precautions against a loss of data are taken, the necessary copies of the databases are kept current at least on a daily basis and the original databases and copies of them are kept in safe custody.
  the entries to be made are immediately entered into a memory and it remains permanently possible to reproduce their contents unchanged in readable form.
  the measures required by the schedule to section 126 (1) sentence 2 no. 3 of the Land Register Act [Grundbuchordnung] are taken.
  The Land governments may by statutory order assign the authorisation under sentence 1 to the Land justice administration authorities.
  各州政府可以以法规命令规定:社团登记簿的登记以机器方式作为自动化文件进行,以及在多大范围内进行。于此情形,必须保证:
  1.遵守通常的数据处理的各项原则,特别是采取防止数据丢失的措施,以及使现存数据的必要复制件至少保持每日处于最新水平,妥靠地保管原始数据及其复制件。
  2.所进行的登记能够立刻输入数据存储器,并长时间不改变内容,以可读方式复制;
  3. 采用依照《土地登记法》第126条第一款第2句第3项的附件为必要的措施。
   各州政府可以以法规命令将第1句所规定的授权托付给州司法行政部门。
  
  (2) Maintaining the register of associations in electronic as well as paper form includes creating and maintaining a list of the associations and other lists that are necessary to maintain the register of associations.
   社团登记簿的登记以机器方式进行的,也包括社团目录以及为社团登记簿的登记所必要的其他目录的编织和记录。
  
  (3) The electronic register of associations replaces one page of the previous register as soon as the entries on this page have been entered in the memory intended for the entries in the register of associations and made available as the register of associations. A note of closure must be added to the corresponding pages of the previous register of associations.
   以机器方式进行登记的社团登记簿,就登记簿的一页而言,该页的登记一经输入为社团登记簿的登记而指定的数据存储器,并作为社团登记簿交付公开使用,就代替原登记簿。原社团登记簿的相应页,必须加上停止使用的按语。
  (4) An entry comes into effect as soon as it is entered in the memory intended for the register entries and its contents can be permanently reproduced unchanged and in readable form. There must be a verification, by a confirmation message or in another appropriate way, that these requirements are satisfied. Each entry should show the date on which it came into effect.
   登记一经输入为登记簿的登记而指定的数据存储器,并能够长时间不改变内容,以可读方式复制,就发生效力。必须以认可的通知或以其他适当方法,审查这些要件是否已成就。每项登记应该记载生效日期。
  (5) The documents filed with the register of associations may, in place of the original, also be preserved as reproductions on an image recording medium or on other data media, if it is guaranteed that the reproductions or the data can be made readable within a reasonable time. When the image recording or data medium is created, a written note is to be made confirming that its contents correspond to the original.
   可确保使复制件或数据能够在适当时间内可读的,提交给社团登记簿文件,也可以为代替原件而作为图像载体或其他数据载体上的复制件保管。制作图像载体或数据载体时,必须制作关于其内容与原件相符合的书面证明。
  (6) If the register of associations is kept in electronic form as a computerised data file, the data processing can be carried out on the instructions of the competent local court on the computer systems of another government agency or on the computer systems of a legal person under public law, if it is guaranteed that the register matters will be properly dealt with. The Land governments are authorised to provide by statutory order that the data of a register of associations kept at a local court in electronic form are to be transmitted to other local courts and there too kept ready for inspection and in order to issue printouts if this serves to facilitate legal business and is compatible with efficient keeping of the register; the Land governments may by statutory order transfer the authorisation to the Land justice administration authorities.
   社团登记簿以机器方式作为自动化文件进行登记,且能够确保登记事件的通常的了结的,可以经常有管辖权的区法院委托,在其他国家机构的设备或公法上的法人的设备上进行数据处理。各州政府被授权以法规命令规定,在有利于简化法律上的往来,且与合理的登记簿登记相符合时,将在一个区法院以机器方式进行登记的社团登记簿的数据传递给其他区法院,并在其他区法院也随时供查阅和制作打印件;各州政府可以以法规命令将该项授权托付给州司法行政部门。
  
  (7) The Federal Ministry of Justice [Bundesministerium der Justiz] is authorised to enact, by statutory order with the approval of the Federal Council, more specific provisions on the details of setting up and keeping the register of associations, including the parts of it that are maintained electronically.
  联邦司法行政部门被授权以得到联邦参议院同意的法规命令,颁布关于社团登记簿的设立和登记的进行的具体事宜的细则,但也以是以机器方式进行的为限。
  
  
楼主王道振法 时间:2009-11-09 13:08:42
  Section 56
  Minimum number of members of the association
  社团的 最少社员人数
  The entry in the register should be made only if the number of members is at least seven.
  仅在社员人数最少为7人时,登记始应为之。
  Section 57 Minimum requirements of the articles of association
   章程的最低要求
  (1) The articles of association must contain the objects, the name and the seat of the association and indicate that the association is to be registered.
   章程的内容必须包含社团的目的、名称和所在地,并表明社团应予以登记之。
   (2) The name should differ appreciably from the names of the registered associations in existence in the same place or in the same local authority.
   社团的名称应该明显地区别于同一地点或同一市镇内现存的已登记社团的名称。
  
  Section 58 Recommended contents of the articles of association
   社团章程的应有内容
  The articles of association should contain provisions: on becoming a member of the association and leaving it, as to whether the members are to make contributions, and if so, in what amount, on the formation of the board, on the conditions under which the general meeting is to be convened, on the form of the convening and on the notarial recording of the resolutions.
  章程应该包含关于下列事项的规定:
  1. 社员的入社和退社
  2. 社员是否出资和出资种类;
  3. 董事会的组成;
  4. 召集社员大会的要件、召集方法以及决议录的做成。
  
  Section 59 Application for registration
  
  (1) The board must apply for registration of the association.
   董事会必须为登记而将社团申报。
  (2) The following must be attached to the application:
   the original articles of association and a copy,
   copies of the documents on the appointment of the board.
   必须附具下列文件而申报:
  1. 章程的正本和副本;
  2. 关于选任董事会的证书副本。
  
  
  (3) The articles of association should be signed by at least seven members and should state the date of their execution.
   章程应该至少由7名社员签名,并记载制定日期。
  
  Section 60 Rejection of the application
   申报的驳回
   (1) If the requirements of sections 56 to 59 above have not been met, the application must be rejected by the local court, stating the reasons.
   申报不符合第56条,第59条的要求的,必须由区法院说明理由,予以驳回。
  
  (2) (repealed)
   已废止
  Sections 61 to 63
  (repealed)
   已废止
  
楼主王道振法 时间:2009-11-09 13:10:04
  Section 64 Contents of the entry in the register of associations
   社团登记簿登记的内容
  On entry in the register, the name and seat of the association, the date of the execution of the articles, the members of the board and their powers of representation are to be stated.
   登记时,必须在社团登记簿上记载社团的名称和所在地,章程的制定日期和董事会成员及其代表权。
  
  Section 65 Addition to name
   名称的附加字样
  When the association is entered in the register, the name of the association is given the additional element "eingetragener Verein" [“registered association”].
  
   社团的名称在登记时获得“已登记社团”的附加字样。
  
  Section 66 Public notice
   公告
  (1) The local court must publish the entry in the newspaper intended for its public notices.
   区法院必须用制定用来发布其公告的报纸,公告社团的登记。
  (2) The original articles of association must be marked with the certification of entry in the register and be returned. The copy is certified by the local court and kept together with the other documents.
   章程的正本必须附记登记证明,并予发还。副本由区法院认证,和其余文件一同保管。
  
  Section 67 Changes to the board
   董事会的变更
  (1) Every change to the board must be notified by the board for registration. A copy of the document about the change is to be attached to the notification.
   董事会的任何变更,必须由董事会为登记而申报。必须对申报附具关于变更的证书副本。
  (2) Board members appointed by the court are entered in the register of the court’s own motion.
   法院选任董事会成员的登记,依职权为之。
  
  Section 68 Protection of public confidence by the register of associations
   以社团登记簿保护信赖
  If a transaction is entered into between the previous members of the board and a third party, the change of the board can be used as a defence against the third party only if at the time when the legal transaction is entered into the change has been entered in the register of associations or is known to the third party. If the change has been entered, the third party need not allow it to apply against him if he does not know of it and his lack of knowledge does not result from negligence.
  董事会之原成员和第三人之间实施法律行为的,仅在法律行为实施时董事会的变更已登记于登记簿或为该第三人所知时,才能以董事会的变更来对抗第三人。变更业经登记,而该第三人不知道该项变更,且其不知不是由于过失的,无须承认变更的效力。
  
  Section 69 Evidence of composition of the board
   社团董事会的证明
  Evidence that the board consists of the persons entered in the register is furnished to public authorities in the form of a local court certificate confirming the entry.
  董事会由被登记于登记簿的人员组成的证明,以关于登记的区法院证书对机关为之。
  Section 70 Restriction of power of representation; passing resolutions
   代表权的限制;决议
  The provisions of section 68 above also apply to provisions that restrict the scope of the power of representation of the board or that provide otherwise than the provision in section 28 (1) above for the passing of resolutions by the board.
  第68条的规定,也适用于限制董事会的代表权的范围或对董事会的决议做不同于第28条第1款规定的调整的规定。
  Section 71 Amendments of the articles of association
   章程的变更
  (1) Amendments of the articles of association are effective only when entered in the register of associations. The board shall make notification of the amendment for entry in the register. The original resolution containing the amendment and a copy shall be attached to the notification of the amendment.
   为使章程的变更有效,必须将该项变更登记于社团登记簿。必须由董事会为登记而申报该项变更。必须对申报附具包含该项变更的决议的正本和副本。
  
  (2) The provisions of sections 60, 64 and section 66 (2) apply with the necessary modifications.
   准用第60条,第64条和第66条第2款的规定。
  
  Section 72 Certificate on number of members
   社员人数的证书
  At the request of the local court at any time, the board shall file a written confirmation completed by itself on the number of members of the association.
   董事会必须随时应区法院的要求,向区法院递交董事会所做关于社员人数的证明。
  
  Section 73 Decrease in numbers of members
   低于最少的社员人数
  (1) If the number of members of the association falls below three, the local court shall, on an application by the board and, if the application is not made within three months, of its own motion, after hearing the board, deprive the association of legal personality.
   社员人数减少至3人以下的,区法院必须根据董事会的申请,在听取董事会的意见之后,剥夺社团的权利能力;董事会在3个月内不提出申请的,区法院必须依职权剥夺社团的权利能力。
  
楼主王道振法 时间:2009-11-09 13:11:49
  Section 74 Dissolution
  解散
  (1) The dissolution of the association and the deprivation of legal personality must be entered in the register of associations. If insolvency proceedings are commenced, no entry is made in the register.
   社团的解散和权利能力的剥夺,必须登记于登记簿。在开始支付不能程序的情况下,不予登记。
  (2) If the association is dissolved by resolution of the general meeting or as a result of the expiry of the time determined for the duration of the association, the board must notify the dissolution for registration. In the former case, a copy of the resolution for dissolution must be attached to the notification.
   社团因社员大会的决议,或因所定的社团存续期间届满而解散的,董事会必须为登记而将解散申报。在前一情形,必须对申报附具解散决议的副本。
  (3) If the association is deprived of legal personality under section 43 above, the entry must be made on a notice from the competent authority.
   社团被依照第43条剥夺权利能力的,登记依有管辖权的机关的通告为之。
  Section 75 Commencement of insolvency proceedings
   支付不能程序的开始
  The commencement of insolvency proceedings shall be entered in the register of the court’s own motion. The same applies to
  the reversal of the order opening the insolvency proceedings,
  the appointment of a provisional insolvency administrator, if in addition a general prohibition on disposal is imposed on the debtor or it is ordered that disposals by the debtor are effective only with the approval of the provisional insolvency administrator, and the termination of such a protective measure,
  an order of self-management by the debtor and the reversal of this order, and an order that specific legal transactions of the debtor require approval,
  the discontinuance and termination of the proceedings and
  the monitoring of compliance with an insolvency plan and the termination of the monitoring.
   支付不能程序的开始,必须依职权登记之。下列情形,亦同:
  1. 开始支付不能程序的裁定的废止;
  2. 支付不能程序中的临时管理人的选任,对债务人附加处以一般的处分禁止,或命令债务人的处分只有经支付不能程序中的临时管理人同意才有效力的,此种保全措施的废止;
  3. 关于债务人自己管理的命令和该项命令的废止,以及关于债务人的某些法律行为须要得到同意的命令;
  4. 支付不能程序的停止和废止;
  5. 支付不能方案执行的监督和此监督的废止。
  
  Section 76 Entry of the liquidators in the register
   清算人的登记
  (1) The liquidators must be entered in the register of associations. The same applies to provisions that deviate from the provision in section 48 (3) in providing for the passing of resolutions by the liquidators.
   必须将清算人登记于社团登记簿。对清算人的决议做不同于第48条第3款的规定的调整的规定,亦同。
  (2) The notification for registration must be made by the board, and in the case of later amendments by the liquidators. The notification for registration must state the extent of the power of representation of the liquidators. The notification for registration of the liquidators appointed by resolution of the general meeting must have attached to it a copy of the resolution, and the notification for registration of a provision on the passing of resolutions by the liquidators must have attached to it a copy of the document containing the provision.
   申报必须由董事会为之,嗣后发生变更的,由清算人为之。申报时,必须说明清算人的代表权。因社员大会的决议而被选任的清算人的申报,必须附具决议的副本;关于清算人的决议的规定的申报,必须附具包含此规定的副本。
  
  (3) Liquidators appointed by the court are entered in the register of the court’s own motion.
   法院选任的清算人的登记,依职权为之。
  
  Section 77 Form of notification
   申报的形式
  The notifications for entry in the register of associations are to be made by the members of the board and by the liquidators by way of notarially certified statement.
   为登记于社团登记簿而进行的申报,必须由董事会成员以及清算人借助于经公证认证的意见表示为之。
  
  Section 78 Assessment of coercive fines
   科以罚金
  (1) The local court may enjoin the members of the board to comply with the provisions of section 67 (1), section 71 (1), section 72, section 74 (2) and section 76 by imposing coercive fines.
  (2) In the same way, the liquidators may be enjoined to comply with the provisions of section 76.
   区法院可以通过科以罚金,督促董事会成员遵守第67条第一款、第71条第1款、
   可以以同样的方式督促清算人遵守第76条之规定。
  
  Section 79 Inspection of the register of associations
   查阅社团登记簿
  (1) Everyone is permitted to inspect the register of associations and the documents filed with the local court by the association. A copy of the entries may be requested; on request, the copy must be certified. If the documents are kept in safe custody under section 55a (5), only a copy of the reproduction may be requested. The copy must be certified on request. Inspection of the original is permitted only if the applicant shows a justified interest in inspecting it.
   许可任何人查阅社团登记簿以及社团向区法院递交的文件。可以要求给予登记的副本:必须根据请求对副本加以认证。文件被依照第55a条第5款保管的,只能请求复制件的副本。必须根据请求对副本加以认证。仅在陈述查阅原件的正当利益时,才许可查阅原件。
  
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