Womenomics 女性经济学

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Schumpeter
  熊彼得
  
  Womenomics
  女性经济学
  
  Dec 30th 2009
  From The Economist print edition
  译者:无所居(经济学人中文论坛)
  http://www.ecocn.org/bbs/
  
  Feminist management theorists are flirting with some dangerous arguments
  女权主义派的管理理论家正在散布一些危险论调
  
  THE late Paul Samuelson once quipped that “women are just men with less money”. As a father of six, he might have added something about women’s role in the reproduction of the species. But his aphorism is about as good a one-sentence summary of classical feminism as you can get.
  
  已故经济学家保罗•萨缪尔森有一妙语:“女人就是工资低的男人。”作为六个孩子的父亲,他却没有补充说一些关于女人在人类繁衍过程中的角色。他的这句名言是传统女权主义的绝佳总结。
  
  The first generations of successful women insisted on being judged by the same standards as men. They had nothing but contempt for the notion of special treatment for “the sisters”, and instead insisted on getting ahead by dint of working harder and thinking smarter. Margaret Thatcher made no secret of her contempt for the wimpish men around her. (There is a joke about her going out to dinner with her cabinet. “Steak or fish?” asks the waiter. “Steak, of course,” she replies. “And for the vegetables?” “They’ll have steak as well.”) During America’s most recent presidential election Hillary Clinton taunted Barack Obama with an advertisement that implied that he, unlike she, was not up to the challenge of answering the red phone at 3am.
  
  较早几代的成功女性强调要获得和男性一样的评判标准。她们对于要给“姐妹们”特殊待遇这种说法嗤之以鼻,坚持要靠工作更努力,想法更精明来获得成功。撒切尔夫人从不隐瞒她对身边那些窝囊男人的轻蔑。(有个笑话说的是撒切尔夫人和她的内阁去吃饭。侍者问:“牛排还是鱼?” “当然是牛排。”她回答说。“那蔬菜呢?” “他们还是吃牛排。”①)前不久的美国总统大选期间,希拉里•克林顿借用一个广告嘲弄奥巴马,意指奥巴马,不像她自己,不能胜任在凌晨3点接听红色危机电话②的挑战。
  
  Many pioneering businesswomen pride themselves on their toughness. Dong Mingzhu, the boss of Gree Electric Appliances, an air-conditioning giant, says flatly, “I never miss. I never admit mistakes and I am always correct.” In the past three years her company has boosted shareholder returns by nearly 500%.
  
  很多商界女性的先锋人物都以自己的强硬作风为豪。空调业巨头格力电器总裁董明珠断然说道:“我从来没有失手过。我从不认错。我永远是对的。”过去三年,她的公司让股东的投资回报增长了将近500%。
  
  But some of today’s most influential feminists contend that women will never fulfil their potential if they play by men’s rules. According to Avivah Wittenberg-Cox and Alison Maitland, two of the most prominent exponents of this position, it is not enough to smash the glass ceiling. You need to audit the entire building for “gender asbestos”—in other words, root out the inherent sexism built into corporate structures and processes.
  
  但一些现在最具影响力的女权主义者强调女性如果照男性世界的法则行事,就永远不可能充分发挥她们的潜力。阿维•维滕贝格考克斯和艾莉森•迈特兰德是该观点的其中两位首要拥护者。他们认为,仅仅打破玻璃天花板是不够的,你需要搜查整个企业建筑,找到“性别石棉”③——也就是说,要将存在于企业结构和进程中的固有性别偏见连根拔起。
  
  The new feminism contends that women are wired differently from men, and not just in trivial ways. They are less aggressive and more consensus-seeking, less competitive and more collaborative, less power-obsessed and more group-oriented. Judy Rosener, of the University of California, Irvine, argues that women excel at “transformational” and “interactive” management. Peninah Thomson and Jacey Graham, the authors of “A Woman’s Place is in the Boardroom”, assert that women are “better lateral thinkers than men” and “more idealistic” into the bargain. Feminist texts are suddenly full of references to tribes of monkeys, with their aggressive males and nurturing females.
  
  新女权主义主张女性有和男性完全不同的特质。男人具侵略性,女人寻求共识;男人喜欢竞争,女人喜欢团结协作;男人热衷权力,女人向往群体。加州大学欧文分校的茱蒂•罗森纳认为女人擅长“转型管理”和“互动管理”。《女性应进入董事会会议室》的作者佩尼娜•汤姆森和杰西•格雷厄姆认定女人“横向思维比男人更强”,而且“更理想主义”。一时之间,女权主义文章中都在借用猴子部落的例子,即雄性好战,雌性慈爱。
  
  What is more, the argument runs, these supposedly womanly qualities are becoming ever more valuable in business. The recent financial crisis proved that the sort of qualities that men pride themselves on, such as risk-taking and bare-knuckle competition, can lead to disaster. Lehman Brothers would never have happened if it had been Lehman Sisters, according to this theory. Even before the financial disaster struck, the new feminists also claim, the best companies had been abandoning “patriarchal” hierarchies in favour of “collaboration” and “networking”, skills in which women have an inherent advantage.
  
  而且,这种观点还认为这些据说是女性特有的品质在商业中越来越重要。不久前的金融危机就证明了男人引以为豪的那些品质,比如冒险和残酷的竞争,会招致灾难。照这种说法,雷曼兄弟换做是雷曼姐妹就不会破产了。新女权主义者还称,在金融危机发生前,一些最优秀的公司就已经开始抛弃“家长式”的层级制度,转而青睐于“协作”和“网络”结构,而女性在后者中有先天优势。
  
  This argument may sound a little like the stuff of gender workshops in righteous universities. But it is gaining followers in powerful places. McKinsey, the most venerable of management consultancies, has published research arguing that women apply five of the nine “leadership behaviours” that lead to corporate success more frequently than men. Niall FitzGerald, the chairman of Reuters and a former boss of Unilever, is as close as you can get to the heart of the corporate establishment. He proclaims, “Women have different ways of achieving results, and leadership qualities that are becoming more important as our organisations become less hierarchical and more loosely organised around matrix structures.” Many companies are abandoning the old-fashioned commitment to treating everybody equally and instead becoming “gender adapted” and “gender bilingual”—in touch with the unique management wisdom of their female employees. A host of consultancies has sprung up to teach firms how to listen to women and exploit their special abilities.
  
  这个观点听起来有点像那些冠冕堂皇的大学里的两性研讨会,却吸引了一些很有分量的追随者。鼎鼎有名的管理咨询机构麦肯锡发布的研究表明,带来企业成功的九项“领导行为”中,有五项女性使用的频率比男性高。路透集团董事长、前联合利华老板、企业机构的中心人物尼尔•费哲罗表示,“女性获取成功的方式和男性不同,我们的组织以矩阵结构为中心,等级制度正在弱化,组织方式变得宽松,女性的领导特质也随之变得越来越重要。”许多公司都不再提倡传统的对每个员工一视同仁,取而代之的是“因性适用”和“两性合作”——以利用女性员工独特的管理智慧。现已涌现了一大批咨询机构教导企业如何听取女性的意见和利用她们独特的能力。
  
  The new feminists are right to be frustrated about the pace of women’s progress in business. Britain’s Equality and Human Rights Commission calculated that, at the current rate of progress, it will take 60 years for women to gain equal representation on the boards of the FTSE 100. They are also right that old-fashioned feminism took too little account of women’s role in raising children. But their arguments about the innate differences between men and women are sloppy and counterproductive.
  
  新女权主义者们有理由对女性在商界的进展感到失望。据英国公平和人权委员会计算,以现在的速度,要再过60年女性才能在富时100企业的董事会中取得和男性相同的席位。她们也有理由认为传统女权主义没有顾及到女性在抚养孩子过程中的角色。但是,她们那些关于男女先天不同的论调是草率而具反效果的。
  
  People who bang on about innate differences should remember that variation within subgroups in the population is usually bigger than the variation between subgroups. Even if it can be established that, on average, women have a higher “emotional-intelligence quotient” than men, that says little about any specific woman. Judging people as individuals rather than as representatives of groups is both morally right and good for business.
  
  揪着先天不同说个不停地人们应该记得,人口子群体内部的差异通常大于子群体之间的差异。即使能够证明平均而言,女人的情商比男人高,那也不说明任何一个特定女人的情况。将人们作为个体而不是群体的代表来评判,是合情合理的,也是有利于商业的。
  
  Caring, sharing and engineering
  
  关爱,分享和管理
  
  Besides, many of the most successful women are to be found in hard-edged companies, rather than the touchy-feely organisations of the new feminist imagination: Areva (nuclear energy), AngloAmerican (mining), Archer Daniels Midland (agribusiness), DuPont (chemicals), Sunoco (oil) and Xerox (technology) all have female bosses. The Cranfield School of Management’s Female FTSE 100 Index reveals that two of the industries with the best record for promoting women to their boards are banking and transport.
  
  另外,许多最成功的女性存在于作风硬朗鲜明的企业里,而不是新女权主义者臆想中的感情丰沛的机构:阿海珐(核能源),英美资源集团(矿业),阿彻丹尼尔斯米德兰(农产品加工),杜邦(化工),太阳石油(石油业)和施乐(科技)都有女性老板。克兰菲尔德管理学院的女性富时100指数显示,提拔女人进入董事会记录最好的两个行业分别是银行业和交通业。
  
  Women would be well advised to ignore the siren voices of the new feminism and listen to Ms Dong instead. Despite their frustration, the future looks bright. Women are now outperforming men markedly in school and university. It would be a grave mistake to abandon old-fashioned meritocracy just at the time when it is turning to women’s advantage.
  
  女同胞们最好不要受新女权主义的诱惑,而是应该听董女士的。尽管现状不如人意,但前景是美好的。女性在中学和大学里的表现远远超过男性。传统的精英管理制度对女性越来越有利,现在抛弃它真是大错特错了。
  
  译者注:
  ①关于steak和fish有个stereotype, 即steak is manlier than fish. 这个笑话中撒切尔夫人是在嘲弄那些男人就只会显示自己很manly.
  
  ②red phone: 起源于连接华盛顿和莫斯科用于两国总统沟通的电话,后来意指带来危机消息的电话。这里的广告中希拉里意在说明奥巴马不足以应对危机。
  
  ③gender asbestos: 上文提到的那两个人写的书why women mean business中的一个词。asbestos是石棉,衣服布料中通常会含有肉眼分辨不出的石棉成分。这里用石棉暗喻企业建筑内部看不见但盘根错节的性别歧视。

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作者:crzhao 时间:2010-01-05 11:38:12
  for that steak joke, even with comment translator still didn't get the punch line correct.
  
  same with Lehman Brothers. it is not about the name, it is about the gender of the leadership.
作者:crzhao 时间:2010-01-05 11:46:08
  has published research arguing that women apply five of the nine “leadership behaviours” that lead to corporate success more frequently than men
  带来企业成功的九项“领导行为”中,有五项女性使用的频率比男性高
  
  what the research show is that women in leadership position are more often utilize more successful leadership behaviors than male leaders.
  
  it is not about which five leadership behaviors that adopted by women more often than by men.
  
  HTH.
  
楼主Somers2009 时间:2010-01-05 12:32:38
  谢谢crzhao老师,顺便贴上我们论坛yannanchen老师的评论:
  Margaret Thatcher made no secret of her contempt for the wimpish men around her. (There is a joke about her going out to dinner with her cabinet. “Steak or fish?” asks the waiter. “Steak, of course,” she replies. “And for the vegetables?” “They’ll have steak as well.”) 原译:撒切尔夫人从不隐瞒她对身边那些窝囊男人的轻蔑。(有个笑话说的是撒切尔夫人和她的内阁去吃饭。侍者问:“牛排还是鱼?” “当然是牛排。”她回答说。“那蔬菜呢?” “他们还是吃牛排。”①)
  评论: 这一句这么妙, 竟然无人评点。 我来试试。
  Vegetables 的字面意义(literally)是蔬菜, 比喻意义(figuratively )是植物人, 或是窝囊人。
  重译:撒切尔夫人从不隐瞒她对身边那些窝囊男人的轻蔑。【有个笑话说的是撒切尔夫人和她的内阁成员(都是男人)去吃饭。侍者问她:“牛排还是鱼?” “当然是牛排。”她回答说。“那蔬菜类要什么呢? (那窝囊的男人们要什么呢?)” “他(它)们也是要牛排。”】
  
  Feminist management theorists are flirting with some dangerous arguments
  标题原译:女权主义派的管理理论家正在散布一些危险论调
  评论:女权主义管理理论家正在轻率地玩弄(flirt with)一些危险论调
  
  THE late Paul Samuelson once quipped that “women are just men with less money”. As a father of six, he might have added something about women’s role in the reproduction of the species. But his aphorism is about as good a one-sentence summary of classical feminism as you can get. 原译:已故经济学家保罗•萨缪尔森有一妙语:“女人就是工资低的男人。”作为六个孩子的父亲,他可能还补充说了一些关于女人在人类繁衍过程中的角色。但他的这句名言是传统女权主义的绝佳总结。
  评论: less money 不是 less wage (rate)
  One-sentence 没有译出。
  重译:已故的保罗•萨缪尔森曾经俏皮地说过:“女人就是差钱的男人。”作为有六个孩子的父亲,他也许还对女人在人类繁衍中起的作用说了些别的什么。但是, 就以一(短)句总结经典女权主义而言, 这句箴言已是登峰造极。
  
  But some of today’s most influential feminists contend that women will never fulfil their potential if they play by men’s rules. According to Avivah Wittenberg-Cox and Alison Maitland, two of the most prominent exponents of this position, it is not enough to smash the glass ceiling. You need to audit the entire building for “gender asbestos”—in other words, root out the inherent sexism built into corporate structures and processes. 原译:但一些现在最具影响力的女权主义者强调女性如果照男性世界的法则行事,就永远不可能充分发挥她们的潜力。阿维•维滕贝格考克斯和艾莉森•迈特兰德是该观点的其中两位首要拥护者。他们认为,仅仅打破玻璃天花板是不够的,你需要搜查整个企业建筑,找到“性别石棉”③——也就是说,要将存在于企业结构和进程中的固有性别偏见连根拔起。
  评论: exponent 译成鼓吹者会不会更好点?
  it is not enough to smash the glass ceiling. You need to audit the entire building for “gender asbestos” 这句话整个是比喻。 把一个公司看成是一座大厦。 石棉因为会引起矽肺病, 在西方严格禁用, 但旧的建筑材料很多含有石棉。 如有员工报告, 政府会马上派人检查。 限期改正。
  重译:光光打破玻璃天花板是不够的,需要检查(搜查太可怕了一些)整座大厦,以找到“性别石棉”。
  corporate structures and processes : 应是指公司的组织结构和生产过程。
  
  The new feminism contends that women are wired differently from men, and not just in trivial ways.原译: 新女权主义主张女性有和男性完全不同的特质。
  评论: not just in trivial ways 漏译。
  重译:: 新女权主义主张男女两性有别, 不仅只表现在一些微末的小事上, 而且还是因为男女有不同的本质特征。
  
  with their aggressive males and nurturing females. 原译:即雄性好战,雌性慈爱。
  评论: 雄性对外好战, 雌性对子慈爱。
  
  This argument may sound a little like the stuff of gender workshops in righteous universities. 原译:这个观点听起来有点像那些冠冕堂皇的大学里的两性研讨会,
  评论: righteous 这里的意思应同于self-righteous, 自诩道德达标
  重译:这个观点听起来有点像那些(自诩)道德达标的大学里有关(促进)两性(平等)研讨会里谈到的东西。
  
  Many companies are abandoning the old-fashioned commitment to treating everybody equally and instead becoming “gender adapted” and “gender bilingual”—in touch with the unique management wisdom of their female employees. A host of consultancies has sprung up to teach firms how to listen to women and exploit their special abilities.原译:许多公司都不再提倡传统的对每个员工一视同仁,取而代之的是“因性适用”和“两性合作”——以利用女性员工独特的管理智慧。现已涌现了一大批咨询机构教导企业如何听取女性的意见和利用她们独特的能力。
  评论: gender adapted 是“因性别而调整配适”
  Gender bilingual 性别双语, 什么意思? 男语女语两套系统, 不一样。 我想这不是真正指用语上, 这只是比喻而已。 实际上, 跟gender adapted 是同义, 指得都是对男女员工区别对待,且向女方倾斜。 我想, 也可以比喻性地译成“因性别而用两种不同语言”
  重译: 许多公司都不再承诺传统的对每个员工一视同仁的政策,取而代之的是“因性别而作调整配适”和“因性别而用两种不同语言”——从而利用女性员工独特的管理智慧。
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
楼主Somers2009 时间:2010-01-05 12:34:05
  欢迎crzhao老师来我们论坛参与讨论:
  http://www.ecocn.org/bbs/
  

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