The joy of dirt 享受肮脏的乐趣

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Filth
  污秽
  
  The joy of dirt
  享受肮脏的乐趣
  
  Dec 17th 2009 | PARIS
  From The Economist print edition
  译者:horace(经济学人中文论坛)
  http://www.ecocn.org/bbs/
  
  Why cleanliness may be going out of fashion
  为什么清洁将会过时?
  
  GRUB, filth, grime, muck, gunk, slag, grit, grunge, smut, dross, dust, sludge, squalor. Insulted, hounded and despised, dirt these days has nowhere to hide. A constant shower of advertising and health warnings orders you to scrub, cleanse or purify every corner of the body, office or home. Bugs lurk at every turn. Skin, as much as household surfaces, must be scoured, sterilised and sprayed. The latest scare is the computer keyboard: supposedly it contains nearly 70 times more microbes than the average lavatory seat.
  肉蛆,污秽,积垢,湿粪,粘液,熔渣,沙砾,尘垢,油烟,残渣,灰尘,污泥,肮脏邋遢。这些年来肮脏被辱骂,烦扰,鄙视以至于无处可藏。一波又一波的广告以及健康警示让你用力去擦,去清洗,去清洁身体中,办公室内,家里的每一个角落。病菌无所不在。人的皮肤, 就跟房屋及其家具的表面一样, 要搓檫, 要消毒, 要喷洒。 最新的吓人消息是电脑键盘: 据说, 平均而言, 比起马桶座板, 键盘细菌的数量多了将近70倍。
  
  The effort to remove dirt, and imbue bodies and bathrooms with the scent of tangerine, mint or almond instead, is big business. Each year, the world spends $24 billion on soap bars or liquid gels and wash, according to Euromonitor International, a research firm. Another $106 billion goes on cleaning laundry, dishes, lavatories and other surfaces, including the baths and showers the bodies themselves get scrubbed in. Shock studies periodically expose and deplore sloppy habits. Fully 76% of kitchen sink cloths are infested with germs. One in three American men does not wash his hands after using a public lavatory. Worries about the spread of swine flu are currently doing wonders for the market in pocket-sized antimicrobial handwash.
  尽力去除肮脏污秽,使肌肤和浴室带有橘子,薄荷,或是杏仁的味道,这一行蕴藏着 巨大商机。根据欧睿信息咨询有限公司的报告,全球每年用在购买肥皂,液体凝胶洗液的花费高达240亿美元。另外有1060亿美元则花在清洗衣服,盘子,厕所或者其他东西的表面,包括浴缸和淋浴间这些人的身体借之得以刷洗的地方。令人震惊的研究频繁的曝光并强烈反对邋遢的习惯。76%的厨房洗涤盆布上的细菌多得成灾。1/3的美国男人在公共厕所如厕后不洗手。对广泛传播的禽流感的担忧或许会造成口袋装杀菌手洗剂的销售奇迹。
  
  There is nothing fixed, however, about Western fascination with dirt—or terror of it. As recently as 1965 only half of British women wore an underarm deodorant. Back in 1940 just over half of American households had a proper bathroom. In 1951 nearly two-fifths of English households lacked a bath—and not only for reasons of post-war poverty.
  西方人对于肮脏的痴迷也好,恐惧也好,从来不是什么一成不变的。较近的1965年仅有一般的英国妇女打腋下除臭剂。追溯到1940年,仅有一半的美国主妇拥有合适的浴室。1951年将近2/5的英国人并不完全因为战后的贫穷而没有浴缸。
  
  Regular all-over bathing, elaborated in ancient Greece and Rome and celebrated in luxurious contemporary ensuite bathrooms, was distrusted for about 400 years in the second millennium. Water was thought to carry disease into the skin; pores nicely clogged with dirt were a means to block it out. In the 17th century the European aristocracy, who washed little, wore linen shirts in order to draw out dirt from the skin instead, and heavy perfumes and oils to mask bad smells.
  古希腊古罗马精心而为的经常性全身浸浴, 在现代社会的高级浴室套间里发扬光大。但是全身浸浴在第二个千禧年里却有大约400年的时间被人们所疑虑不信。水被认为会携带疾病侵入皮肤;毛孔让污垢好好的堵住被认为可以将疾病拒之门外。17世纪的欧洲贵族很少洗澡,他们贴身穿亚麻衬衫以吸附皮肤上的污垢,并搽浓香水抹油脂来遮掩体臭。
  
  The meaning of dirt is as slippery as a bar of wet soap. Attitudes to hygiene in the West have evolved not only with modern medicine and microbiology. The history of cleanliness is also the story of the development of household appliances and furnishing, of mass consumer marketing and global brands.
  肮脏的定义就如同一块水湿的肥皂那样滑手。西方人对卫生的态度不仅随着现代医学和微生物学而演变。清洁的历史同时也是家用电器和屋内陈设发展的历史, 而且也是大众消费营销和全球品牌发展的历史。
  
  Too posh to wash
  太高贵而不能洗
  Paradoxically, it was fear of disease, including syphilis and the Black Death, that put water out of favour, as Virginia Smith explains in “Clean: A History of Personal Hygiene and Purity”. A particular danger was thought to lie in public baths, reintroduced to Europe by crusaders returning from Turkey and the Arab world, and which had become popular in medieval Germany and Switzerland, as well as Florence, Paris and to a lesser extent London. Medical opinion had it that such exposure to hot water could open up the skin and let the plague, or other ills, in. Moralists also denounced depraved behaviour in the baths. By 1538, François I had closed the French bath houses. Henry VIII shut the “stews” of Southwark in 1546.
  正如Virginia Smith在“清洁:一部个人卫生和洁净的历史”这本书里所解释的那样,对包括梅毒和黑死病之类疾病的恐惧, 似非而是地,使水失宠了。一种特别的危险 当时被人们认为就躲在公共浴池中;十字军战士前此从土耳其和阿拉伯世界又将公共浴池引回欧洲,曾在中世纪德国、瑞士、佛罗伦萨和巴黎大受欢迎,尽管在伦敦欢迎程度稍差一点。医学界的观点认为这种暴露于热水中的行为将会导致皮肤孔的打开,并使瘟疫或其他病菌进入。道学家也谴责发生在公共浴池里的淫荡堕落行为。到1538年,François一世已经关闭了法国的浴池。Henry八世则在1546年关闭了Southwark内的“汤浴”。
  
  Thus began an era when rich folk and poor rubbed along with dirt just fine. Even private baths were judged suspect. According to meticulous notes kept by Jean Héroard, the French court physician, the young Louis XIII, born in 1601, was not given a bath until he was almost seven. Throughout the 17th century, writes Georges Vigarello, in “Le Propre et le Sale”, it was thought that linen had special properties that enabled it to absorb sweat from the body. For gentlemen, a wardrobe full of fine linen smocks or undershirts to enable a daily change was the height of hygienic sophistication. Racine and Molière owned 30 each.
  从此开启了一个时代, 无论贫富, 均与肮脏朝夕相处,相安无事。 即使是个人的浴池也被判定为可疑的。根据法国御医Jean Héroard一丝不苟的记录,1601年出生的路易斯八世7岁前也没能洗一次澡。在17世纪期间,Georges Vigarello,在 “清洁和肮脏”中认为亚麻制品有一种奇特的物质可以从身体中吸收汗水。对一名绅士而言,能有一衣柜的亚麻罩衣或者贴身内衣供日常换洗, 那才是个人卫生讲究的巅峰。拉辛和莫里哀(Racine and Molière)就各自拥有30套这样的衣服。
  
  Indeed, bathing, certainly in hot water, was considered a veritable health risk. France’s Henri IV was famously filthy, “stinking of sweat, stables, feet and garlic”. Upon learning that the Duc de Sully had taken a bath, the king turned to his own physician, André du Laurens, for advice. The king was told that the poor man would be vulnerable for days. So a message was dispatched informing Sully that he was not to go out, or he would endanger his health. Instead, he was told, the king would visit his Paris home: “so that you come to no harm as a result of your recent bath.”
  事实上,在浴池洗澡, 尤其是洗热水澡, 被认为是真正有害健康的。法王亨利四世(France’s Henri IV) 以肮脏著称:“全身恶臭,散发着汗水味、马厩味、臭脚味和大蒜味”。有一次国王听说苏力公爵(Duc de Sully )下浴池洗了澡, 他就跑去征求自己的私人医生安德烈(André du Laurens)的意见。他被告知说那个可怜人此后好几天都容易感受风寒。 一道圣旨当即传下, 告诉苏力不应出门,否则就会危害健康。他还被告知, 国王反而会亲自到他巴黎家中造访:“以确信苏力虽最近在浴池洗澡但身体仍然无恙”。
  
  In England, Elizabeth I bathed only once a month and James I, her successor, seems to have washed only his fingers. One medical pamphlet printed at the time by Thomas Moulton, a doctor of divinity and Dominican friar, advises particular caution during outbreaks of the plague: “use no baths or stoves; nor swet not too much, for all openeth the pores of a manne’s body and maketh the venomous ayre to enter and for to infecte the bloude.”
  在英国,伊丽莎白一世一个月仅洗一次澡,而他的继任者詹姆斯一世则只洗自己的手指头。多米尼加的天主教修士也是神学医生Thomas Moulton在那时印了一本医学册子,上面建议对瘟疫的爆发应该特别小心:“不要用浴池也不要用火炉;不要出大汗,因为这几样东西都会使皮肤的毛孔打开并让各种毒气进入而感染我们的血液。”
  
  The myth of the danger of water was long-lived, and its demolition during the 18th and 19th centuries protracted. Louis XIV had sumptuous bathrooms built at Versailles but not, explains Mathieu da Vinha in “Le Versailles de Louis XIV”, in order to clean the body. Valets rather rubbed his hands and face with alcohol, and he took therapeutic baths only irregularly. Yet a century later Napoleon and Josephine both relished a hot bath, and owned several ornate bidets. In “Clean: An Unsanitised History of Washing”, Katherine Ashenburg notes that bathing was tied to diplomacy: the more tense the moment, the longer the soak. As the Peace of Amiens fell apart in 1803, Napoleon lay in the tub for six hours.
  关于水的危险的错误看法如此长寿,一直拖到18,19世纪才被消灭。路易斯十四世在凡尔赛修建了豪华的浴池,Mathieu da Vinha却解释说这座在凡尔赛的浴池不是为了清洁路易斯十四世的身体的。仆人用酒精擦他的手和脸,他只不定期地做理疗池浴。然而半个世纪后Napoleon and Josephine尽情的在热水浴中享受着,并且拥有数个精致的浴盆。“干净: 洗涤历史未删本”,Katherine Ashenburg将洗澡和外交联系起来:越是紧张的局势,泡澡时间越长。亚眠和约在1803年崩解的时候, 拿破仑在浴缸里连躺了六小时。
  
  The quest for cures helped to bring water back into fashion. Europe’s aristocracy took the waters at mineral spas, often on the sites of former Roman baths, to subject the ailing body to water treatment, rather than to cleanse away dirt. During the 19th century, germ theory combined with foreign trade, colonial administration and travel spread all manner of new ideas: hammams from Turkey and north Africa, “champu” (shampoo) from India, or bidets and olive-oil-based savon de Marseille from France. Water, and hygiene, were trickling back, and dirt was the new pest.
  对治疗的追求将水再一次进入潮流。欧洲的贵族在含矿物质的温泉里洗澡,这些温泉经常就是前罗马浴池所在之处,目的是要病体接受水的治疗,而不是为了将污垢洗掉。在19世纪期间,细菌理论伴随着国外贸易,殖民地的统治和履行通过渠道将新思想传播开来:土耳其和北非的蒸气浴、印度来的洗发水、还有来自法国的坐浴盆和马赛橄榄油香皂。水和卫生又慢慢回来, 肮脏开始成为新的有害之物。
  
  Suds you like
  你喜欢的肥皂沫
  The English language demonises dirt. It is packed with phrases such as “to do the dirty”, “to dish the dirt” or “dirty money” or “dirty word”. In England, policemen are denounced as “the filth”. All politicians seek to avoid “washing their dirty laundry in public”. Those of humble origins were born “dirt poor”, and the wealthy are often “filthy rich”.
  英语将肮脏这一词汇妖魔化了。和它有关的词语,如:“做龌龊的事”,“散布流言蜚语”或者是“赃款”或“脏话”。在英国,警察被谴责为“垃圾”。所有的政客都寻求避免“家丑外扬”。那些草根出身“土气”,而富有的人通常“一身铜臭”。
  
  Getting rid of dirt, or merely its absence, by extension, is a good thing. “A clean bill of health”, “a clean record”, “clean sweep”, or “good clean fun” evoke wholesome flawlessness, renewal or order. The act of washing, whether of a corpse in Jewish culture or of the hands and feet of the happy couple in a Hindi wedding ceremony, carries ritual symbolism in many cultures and faiths. Many religions link ablution to absolution.
  去除污垢是件好事, 引申地说,仅仅污垢不存在本身就是件好事。“一份无传染病的健康证书”,“一份干净的记录”,“大胜利”,或“有趣的事”都可以联想到完美无限的健康,重获新生或井然有序。洗礼,不管是犹太的死尸或是北印度地区结婚典礼上幸福夫妻的双手双脚上,都承载着宗教仪式的象征。许多宗教将洗浴等同于赦罪和宽恕。
  
  Such associations seem to have penetrated deep into the Western imagination. “In cleaning”, writes Mindy Lewis, editor of a recent collection of essays entitled “Dirt”, “we make sense of our lives, sort our messes, restore order to our psyches, work out our anger and frustration, rediscover the beauty in our lives, and express our love for (and resentment toward) others.” Cleaning away dirt, her contributors suggest, can be healing or oppressive, comforting or obsessive, or each of these at different times.
  洗浴和赦罪这种联系似乎在西方的印象中深深植入。最近收集的题为“肮脏”随笔的编辑Mindy Lewis写道:“在清洁身体中,我们找到生活的感觉,将杂乱分类,回复心灵的秩序,解决愤怒与挫败,重新发现生活中的美,表达我们的爱(或不满)”。女编辑的约稿人写道,“洗涤身体有时可疗伤止痛,有时却压抑沉闷,有时给人舒适慰藉,有时却令人迷恋不舍,要么在不同时侯只经受一种感觉。”。
  
  One essayist in “Dirt” describes how her neurotic desire to keep her house spick and span led to the break-up of her marriage: “For me, the act of cleaning house came to represent my endless pursuit of control, in a life where virtually none existed.” Another contributor explains how cleaning became an expression of self-worth. “The truth is, cleaning gives me a sense of purpose at times when it doesn’t seem like I have a role in this world,” she writes. “At home, there are always things to be dusted, sucked up, disposed of.”
  一位作者在“肮脏”中描述他神经质般的渴望保持家里井井有条甚至粉碎了她的婚姻。“对于我来说,清理房间的举动正式我永无止境追求控制的表现,事实上这种控制在生活中却并不存在”。另外一位投稿人解释说清洁可以让他实现自我价值。“事实上,清洁在我觉得自己是这个世界多余人的时候给了我一种目标感,在家里,总有些东西要去灰,吸尘,丢弃。”
  
  Plainly, today’s aversion to dirt has some scientific basis. Ever since Louis Pasteur in France and Robert Koch in Germany developed the germ theory of disease in the 1860s and 1870s, basic hygiene has helped to curb the spread of disease. The discovery lent scientific credibility to the work of 19th-century sanitary reformers, whose early efforts had had only mixed success. At the time, indifference to dirt was widespread. “Of all the civilised nations, ours is one of those which cares least about cleanliness,” declared a report commissioned by the French Ministry of Public Education in 1884. It went on: “even among the well-to-do classes, strict bodily cleanliness does not always extend beyond the visible parts of the body.” As for the rural poor, it points to the “terror that the recommendation of a bath inspired in most peasants.”
  很显然,如今对肮脏的厌恶显然带有某种科学根据。自从法国的Louis Pasteur和德国的Robert Koch在十九世纪60到70年代期间发展了疾病的细菌理论起,基本的卫生(措施)在阻止疾病传播上已经帮助良多。细菌的发现给19 世纪卫生改革者们的工作带来了科学的可信度,他们早期的努力有得有失成败互见。在那时,对肮脏的漠视已经司空见惯。1884年,法国公众教育部的报告声称:“在所有文明的国家中,我们是最不在乎清洁的。即使在富有阶层当中,严格的洁身措施常也不施及到身体暴露的部分。” 至于乡下的穷人, 该报告则指出:“一旦向他们建议池浴就会引起大部分人的恐惧。”
  
  By the end of the 19th century, public-health reform had led to the building of public baths and wash houses, once common in medieval Europe. New York City constructed 25 public baths in the Progressive era, a time when waves of poor immigrants from Europe were arriving. “The greatest civilising power that can be brought to bear on these uncivilised Europeans crowding into our cities lies in the public bath”, declared the Chicago Free Bath and Sanitary League in 1897.
  直到19世纪末期,公众健康改革才促使曾经在中世纪欧洲很普遍的公众浴池和洗房的建立。纽约在进步纪元年代修建了25个公众浴池,这个时间是欧洲贫穷移民潮到达的时段。芝加哥自由洗浴与卫生联盟称:“那些蜂拥而入我们城市未开化的的欧洲人就在公共澡堂里起影响作用的最伟大的文明力量。”
  
  
  By itself, the construction of public baths was not enough to persuade people to go and wash in them. George Orwell wrote about working-class life in the industrial towns of Yorkshire and Lancashire in 1937, in “The Road to Wigan Pier”, and claimed that basic hygiene was uncommon. Some houses, he suggested, “were so appalling that I have no hope of describing them adequately:
  对于建造公共浴池这件事,是远远不足以劝说人们去洗澡的。George Orwell在1937年写过有关Yorkshire and Lancashire工业城镇的工人阶级的生活,名字叫“通往Wigan Pier之路”,他认为“基本卫生是不寻常的,甚至是极糟的,我甚至对完整描述他们都不抱希望。”
  
  A tub full of filthy water here, a basin full of unwashed crocks there, more crocks piled in any odd corner, torn newspaper littered everywhere, and in the middle always the same dreadful table covered with sticky oilcloth and crowded with cooking pots and irons and half-darned stockings and pieces and pieces of stale bread and bits of cheese wrapped round with greasy newspaper!
  这里一个充满污秽的浴缸,那里一盆没有洗过的坛子,瓦罐在墙角任意的堆砌,撕碎的报纸费屑到处都是。中间则总摆放着令人生畏的桌子:桌子上面覆盖着黏糊糊的油布,堆满了锅碗瓢勺和织了一半的袜子,一片一片腐坏的面包,油腻的报纸上还裹着一口奶酪!
  
  As Orwell goes on to ponder the question, “do the ‘lower classes’ smell?”, he points out that: “the habit of washing yourself all over every day is a very recent one in Europe, and the working classes are generally more conservative than the bourgeoisie. But the English are growing visibly cleaner, and we may hope that in a hundred years they will be almost as clean as the Japanese.”
  如同Orwell深思的问题:“难道低收入阶级闻不出来吗?”,他指出:“每天洗澡现在在欧洲很平常,但是工人阶级比中产阶级更为保守。但是英国人越来越干净了,我们甚至希望一百年后他们比日本人还白。”
  
  Just as public-health reform in 19th-century industrial England and America concentrated on the need for basic hygiene, so do today’s efforts at curbing disease in the poorest bits of the world. Pumping clean water into villages and slums, and encouraging hand-washing is considered one of the most efficient means of reducing infant mortality. Each year, according to the United Nations Children’s Fund, 3.5m children die from diarrhoea or related diseases that could be prevented by simple hygiene.
  如同19世纪英国和美国公众健康改革把焦点放在基本卫生的需求上一样,今天我们在贫穷地区防御疾病的努力仍然是一样的。我们把清洁的用水引入村庄或者贫民窟,并且鼓励洗手并认为这是减少婴儿致死率最有效的方法之一。每年,根据美国国家儿童基金会的报道,3500万的儿童死于腹泻或者与之相关的疾病,而简单的卫生保健学就可以阻止它的发生。
  
  Yet, in the West, standards of cleanliness seem to have moved beyond science into the realm of fashion and fad. Certainly, the array of sprays, gels and lotions, to be applied in vast shrine-like bath tubs or under today’s power showers, would have appalled much of Europe for most of the past millennium.
  然而,在西方,清洁的标准似乎超过了科学而进入到了一种流行或者时尚的潮流中。可以肯定的是,一排排的水花,泡沫,洗浴液应用在巨大的神圣的洗浴盆中或者是现在强力喷淋浴下面,肯定会吓坏上个世纪大多数的欧洲人。
  
  In 1879 a mid-western American entrepreneur named James Gamble launched a gentle, all-purpose white soap bar. Harley Procter, the son of his associate, named it “Ivory”, and it is one of Procter & Gamble’s best-selling soap brands today. America led the crusade against dirt. Better plumbing, a taste for innovation, and a mission to civilise immigrants all played a part. In the last decades of the 19th century, writes Ms Ashenburg, “cleanliness had become firmly linked not only to godliness but also to the American way.”
  1879年美国中西部一个名叫James Gamble的企业家发明了一种多用途的白色肥皂。他的同事的儿子Harley Procter则将其命名为“象牙”。到现在为止都是P&G公司销量最好的品牌之一。美国人被说服抵抗肮脏了。更好的探索,创新的尝试,一系列使移民更文明的任务都在起着作用。在19世纪的最后十年,Ashenburg先生写道:“清洁不仅仅是与虔诚信仰有关,同时也代表了美国的方式。”
  
  Advertising Archives
  广告档案
  
  In Finland and other Nordic countries, the culture of the steam sauna kept up levels of hygiene. But, in general, with their cranky bathroom plumbing and indifference to body odour, Europeans were considered irredeemably backward. There seemed to be no end, by contrast, to the inventiveness of American firms when it came to setting new hygienic standards. All-over washing, the application of deodorant, the shaving of armpits, dental mouthwash: each was transformed into essential rituals for the self-respecting modern American woman.
  在芬兰等一些北欧国家,蒸汽桑拿浴的传统使他们保持较高的卫生水平。但是,欧洲人,因为他们浴室管道系统毛病甚多,而且对自己身上的体味毫不在乎,总的来说,被认为是落后到无可救药。相比之下,在卫生新标准确立这点上,美国公司的创新似乎永无止境。全身上下的清洗,使用除味剂,腋毛刮刀和洁齿漱口液:这每一样都已经成为美国现代自重女性不可或缺的例行日课。
  
  “But I’m 31…I’ll never get married now!” wails Frances, a glossy-haired young woman leaning forlornly against a tree, in a 1936 advert for Lux soap in the Woman’s Home Companion. Fortunately, her girlfriend has a tip to help her win back her beau: washing her underwear in Lux. “Avoid Offending!” instructs the ad. “Many girls lose out on friendship, romance, happiness—because of one shocking, unforgivable fault…perspiration odour in underthings.” Thanks to Lux, Fran learned to wash her underwear in fragrant suds, and thus to hold on to the man of her dreams.
  “可是,我都31岁了,已经不会嫁出去了!”一位头发光泽的法国女子依着一棵树,哭得甚是伤心。这是1936年力士香皂为《妇女家庭运动》拍摄的广告。幸运的是,她的伙伴帮她赢得了情郎:用Lux香皂洗内衣。广告建议道:“逃离恶臭!”“很多女孩失去了友情,爱情,幸福—只是因为他们令人震惊的,不可原谅的错误…内衣上的臭汗味。”幸亏有了Lux,那个广告上的女孩在芳香的泡沫中洗了她的内衣裤,之后找到了她的白马王子。
  
  American soapmakers devised an ingenious way to market their product. They sponsored drama series on radio, and later television, designed for the suburban housewife, known as soap operas. Procter & Gamble was behind “The Guiding Light”, first broadcast on radio in 1937, and which became the world’s longest-running soap opera. Lever Brothers and Colgate-Palmolive were also enthusiastic sponsors.
  美国香皂生产商(他们)先是在无线电台,后来在电视台上赞助专为郊区家庭主妇制作的电视连续剧,也就是肥皂剧。1937年,P&G公司在广播上赞助的“指路明灯”则成为世界上最长的肥皂剧。Lever Brothers和Colgate-Palmolive同样是狂热的赞助者。
  
  A spotless body went hand in hand with a spotless home. The post-war move to the suburbs, and the spread of fitted kitchens and bathrooms, supplied ever more surfaces to be scrubbed and wiped. The mass production of the automatic washing-machine freed women, or their staff, from many hours spent elbow-deep in the laundry sink. Advertisements, usually featuring a man in a scientific white coat and an enthralled housewife, repeatedly raised the bar: clothes needed to be whiter than white, fabrics ever softer, surfaces to sparkle and shine.
  光洁的身体当然少不了一尘不染的家庭。战后移居郊区后,开始流行配有按照(厨房和浴室)空间大小定制的器具设备的厨房和浴室,也提供了越来越多需要清洗的地方。洗衣机大量的生产把妇女和从业者从每天耗费数小时在齐肘深的池子里刷洗的功夫解放出来。这种广告的特点是一个身披科学外衣的男人和一个迷人的家庭主妇,不断重复地举起手中的牌子:衣服白又白,纤维还柔软,表面更闪亮。
  
  Dirt-hounding has even become a spectator sport, judging from the success of prime-time reality-TV shows, such as Britain’s “How Clean is Your House?”. In this series, Kim and Aggie, the queens of clean, descend upon suspect houses armed with mops, scourers and wagging fingers. When swabs from surfaces reveal stratospheric levels of bacteria, up go howls of disapproval and in comes the industrial cleaning equipment.
  从黄金时间真人电视秀节目中可以推断,除垢曾经还变成了壮观的运动。英国的:“如何打扫你的房子?”就是个很好的例子。在这个系列中,装备拖把,洗刷工具的清洁女王Kim and Aggie突然检查房间,并且摇晃着手指表示不满。当她们用试纸检测出表面的细菌水平含量时,不满意的咆哮之后便是工业化清洗设备的登场。
  
  Dishing the dirt on clean
  消除肮脏
  
  These days, marketing has turned to the need to get rid not just of dirt but stress too. Bathrooms have become temples of relaxation. Mosaic tiles and sunken baths nod to Greek and Roman inspiration; organic bath essences promise spa-like regeneration. Americans still buy more bars of soap than Europeans each year. But, if liquid washes are included, Europeans today only just trail Americans in spending per person.
  最近,推销不仅要面对解决肮脏,还要消除压力。浴室变成了放松的神殿。马赛克瓷砖和下沉式浴缸向希腊和罗马人民致意;洗浴用有机精油给浴者带来温泉浴复苏身体般的希望。美国人仍然比欧洲人购买更多的肥皂。但是如果算上液体洗浴用品的话,今天的欧洲人平均花费仅次于美国人。
  
  Attitudes to dirt still vary hugely. To the bafflement of visitors, the French ban baggy swimming trunks from all public pools on hygiene grounds, insisting that skin-tight attire is cleaner. The British and Argentinians are particularly assiduous about putting on deodorant, says Unilever, which makes the stuff; but Asians, including the Japanese, far less so. Whereas an average of 72% of men in 12 big countries worldwide wear deodorant, says one study, only 14% of Chinese men do.
  对于肮脏的态度仍然大不相同。根据联合利华的报道,另游客迷惑不解的是,法国以个人卫生为依据禁止穿宽松的游泳衣在公共泳池游泳,并坚持穿紧身衣会更干净。而英国人和阿根廷人则更专心的使用除臭剂;但是包括日本人在内的亚洲人则远不会这样。世界范围内12个大国男人的平均除臭剂使用率高达72%,而在中国只有14%。
  
  This could, however, just be a matter of time and income. Between 2007 and 2012, sales of bath and body products will jump by 21% in Asia, making it by then the world’s biggest market, according to Euromonitor. As more people move to cities or out of slums, into homes with hard floors, lavatories and plumbing, so the crusade against dirt wins new recruits. “Between now and 2015 there will be an extra 400m toilets,” notes Keith Weed, head of home-care and hygiene at Unilever, with enthusiasm: “The more toilets, the more surfaces that need cleaning.”
  这或许只是时间和收入的问题。根据欧睿的预测,在2007到2012年间,亚洲个人护理产品销量将会增加21%,一跃成为全球最大的市场。越来越多的人们走出贫民窟,搬进带有硬木地板、洗手间和管道设备的房子, 清洗肮脏的设备越来越多的走进家庭。Keith Weed,联合利华家庭护理与卫生的首席长官充满激情的说:“从现在到2015年,将会产生4亿个厕所。厕所越多,需要清理的表面就越多”。
  
  Today, the message is not just to disinfect surfaces but to avoid contact with them at all. There are automatic-flushing lavatories, foot-operated taps and strange-looking devices that enable you to open door-handles by applying pressure with the forearm. “With all the advances in restroom hygiene, it’s hard to grasp why the door handle has been so universally ignored,” declares a maker of such products. Japanese high-tech lavatories have a built-in temperature-controlled nozzle that squirts water to wash your bottom, then dries it with warm air, delivering a “hands-free clean”.
  如今的信息将不是怎么去对表面消毒,而是如何避免接触它们。自动冲洗的马桶,脚控龙头和看起来很奇怪的装置能够让你用前肢的应用压力来开门。生产这样东西的人员声称:“在厕所里那么多先进的卫生产品,很难理解长久以来单单把门把手忽视了”。日本科技盥洗室已经制造出内嵌温度控制的喷嘴可以喷撒在你屁股上,之后以暖暖的风烘干,实现了“无手清洁”。
  
  Has the persecution of dirt, however, gone too far? Some immunologists believe that children now growing up in hyperclean, sterile environments are failing to develop immune systems properly because of inadequate exposure to bacteria. This idea, known as the hygiene hypothesis, is a possible explanation for growing incidences of eczema and other allergic diseases in rich countries, which are rare in poorer ones. Various studies have shown that children growing up with older siblings, who bring germs into the house, or on farms, where they come into daily contact with animals, muck and unpasteurised milk, are less likely to develop hay fever or asthma, though the scientific evidence is not conclusive.
  我们对肮脏的迫害,是否有些过头了呢?一些免疫学家认为现在的孩子生长的环境太清洁,因为不足以暴露在细菌环境中,这种无菌环境会使免疫系统不能充分的发展。这种卫生学假说,可能解释了为什么在发达国家湿疹和过敏症状发生率要远高于穷国家。各种各样的研究显示孩子和他们子弟长大的环境中将细菌带进房子,或者在农场接触动物,淤泥或者未经巴氏消毒的牛奶,都不太容易患有干草热或者哮喘,尽管科学还没有最终定论。
  
  A recent experiment by dermatologists at the University of California, San Diego, suggests a molecular basis for the hygiene hypothesis. They found common bacteria living on the surface of skin that can help wounds to heal by releasing a special molecule to stop outer-skin cells getting inflamed. Bacteria-free skin, in other words, may provoke inflammation and slow healing.
  圣地亚哥加州大学的皮肤病学家最新的研究暗示了一种建立在分子理论基础上的卫生假说。他们发现在皮肤表面生长的普通细菌可以通过释放一种特殊的分子阻止外层细胞发炎来帮助伤口复合。换言之,无菌皮肤可能会引起发炎和推迟伤口治愈。
  
  First-time parents, writes Mary Ruebush, an American immunologist and author of “Why Dirt is Good”, frantically try to keep their babies away from dirt. “When that pacifier falls on the floor, the parents cannot throw themselves on it quickly enough to wash it off, soak it in bleach, run it through the dishwasher, the microwave, you name it.” The trouble is, she adds, such a baby will not have the contact with germs that are needed to build up a strong immune system. Children rather should be encouraged to play in the dirt.
  《为什么肮脏有好处》一书的作者,美国免疫学家Mary Ruebush提出,一些第一次做父母的人,狂热的将自己的孩子排斥在肮脏之外。“当奶嘴掉到地上的售后,家长恨不得马上冲洗,漂洗它,并将它放在微波炉里烘干。只要你能想到的他都会去做”。但是这种做法带来的麻烦就是,孩子无法接触到细菌,因此也就没办法构筑强健的免疫系统。孩子还是应该去鼓励在不干净的环境中玩耍。
  
  The idea is gaining some ground. Unilever, for instance, has an advertising campaign for OMO, its laundry-cleaning brand, entitled “Dirt is good!”. The firm’s market research showed that mothers were frustrated by the message that dirty clothes are bad. “We wanted to reposition dirt as an expression of freedom,” explains Mr Weed. Let children get dirty, goes the message, safe in the knowledge that OMO will clean up afterwards.
  这种想法获得了一些支持。例如,联合利华发动了对奥妙的广告战,它旗下的衣服清洁品牌冠之以“脏就是好!”公司市场调查显示,广告传递脏衣服不好的信息常使母亲感到沮丧。Weed先生解释道,“我们要将肮脏重新定位,把它看作是一种自由的表达”。我们要传达的信息是这样的: 让孩子们玩脏自己, 这不碍事的 , 因为我们知道奥妙洗衣粉随后就会洗干净的。
  
  Some researchers in Britain have even found what they think might be dirt that can make people happy. An experiment on mice showed that certain bacteria normally found in soil stimulated neurons in the brain that produce serotonin, which influences mood. The results, says Chris Lowry, at Bristol University, “leave us wondering if we shouldn’t all be spending more time playing in the dirt.” From demon and pest to guarantor of happiness and childhood health? Not bad for humble grime.
  英国的一些研究者已经发现肮脏可能会令人更高兴。在老鼠的实验中他们发现土壤中的某些细菌会刺激神经产生血清素,这可以影响情绪。Bristol大学的Chris Lowry说: “这让我们开始考虑是否应该在泥巴里多玩那么一会儿。”从恶魔和有害之物摇身变为幸福快乐以及孩子健康的担保人?这对于卑微的污垢来说, 还不错吧。

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作者:情绪在腐烂 时间:2010-01-10 16:11:01 广东
  呵。大千世界,这种现象从古至今无不蔓延,应该说正常??
作者:crzhao 时间:2010-01-14 13:09:53 美国
  strict bodily cleanliness does not always extend beyond the visible parts of the body.
  严格的洁身措施常也不施及到身体暴露的部分。
  
  try again.
作者:crzhao 时间:2010-01-14 13:15:07 美国
  “The greatest civilising power that can be brought to bear on these uncivilised Europeans crowding into our cities lies in the public bath”,
  “那些蜂拥而入我们城市未开化的的欧洲人就在公共澡堂里起影响作用的最伟大的文明力量。”
  
  civilizing power: power to civilize (enlighten) the uncivilized people.
  
  HTH.
  
作者:crzhao 时间:2010-01-14 13:26:04 美国
  America led the crusade against dirt.
  美国人被说服抵抗肮脏了。
  
  think again.
  
作者:crzhao 时间:2010-01-14 13:38:29 美国
  repeatedly raised the bar: clothes needed to be whiter than white, fabrics ever softer, surfaces to sparkle and shine.
  这种广告的特点是一个身披科学外衣的男人和一个迷人的家庭主妇,不断重复地举起手中的牌子。
  it is not the figures in ads that literally raise the banner, it is the ads that pushing the definition of cleanness higher and higher.
  
  HTH.
  
作者:crzhao 时间:2010-01-14 13:48:45 美国
  so the crusade against dirt wins new recruits.
  (越来越多的人们走出贫民窟,搬进带有硬木地板、洗手间和管道设备的房子,) 清洗肮脏的设备越来越多的走进家庭
  
  this is stretched too much. this is only saying more people will have to (or willingly) to start doing (more) cleaning. (though buying more cleaning products would be a logical consequence).
  
  HTH.
  
作者:crzhao 时间:2010-01-14 14:00:20 美国
  Has the persecution of dirt, however, gone too far?
  我们对肮脏的迫害,是否有些过头了呢?
  
  oh, yeah, translation like this is way too easy.
楼主Somers2009 时间:2010-01-14 15:55:38 四川
  回复crzhao老师:
  Thanks!
  
  关于最后一句,其实译者的原译是:“肮脏是否一直会受到迫害呢?”
  我觉得那里不大合适,感觉原文在那个地方不是在强调时间,而是程度。当时又没能联系上译者,就自己动手改了一些地方,包括这一处,老师觉得太口语话了吗?
楼主Somers2009 时间:2010-01-14 15:56:49 四川
  我说的最后一句是指被指出来的最后一句:“Has the persecution of dirt, however, gone too far?”
作者:crzhao 时间:2010-01-15 11:04:18 美国
  感觉原文在那个地方不是在强调时间,而是程度。you are absolutely right.
  
  however, my beef is about the translation of word "persecution". persecution of dirt, means going extreme about cleaning dirt (or care too much of cleaning). can you find some better words than 迫害, i'm sure smart person like you can and will.
  
  HTH.
  
  
楼主Somers2009 时间:2010-01-15 21:28:33 四川
  我们对肮脏的纠缠,是否有些过头了呢?
  这句怎样?
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