Signature event 历史性的签字(转载)

楼主:Somers2009 时间:2010-03-24 10:20:00 点击:1453 回复:4
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American politics
  美国政治
  
  Signature event
  历史性的签字
  
  President Barack Obama signs the health-reform bill into law. What comes next?
  美国总统奥巴马签署医疗改革法案从而使其正式成为法律。那么接下来会怎样呢?
  
  Mar 23rd 2010 | NEW YORK | From The Economist online
  
  AFTER the vote, the ceremony. On Tuesday March 23rd, just two days after the House of Representatives narrowly approved a health-reform bill, Barack Obama brought together assorted guests at the White House to witness his presidential signature marking the bill's passage into law. “We have now just enshrined…the core principle that everybody should have some basic security when it comes to their health care,” said Mr Obama. Although the Senate is still to pass an accompanying “reconciliation” bill, Mr Obama will begin a public tour to promote the benefits of the new legislation, which is designed to extend health insurance to millions more Americans.
  投票表决之后举行了一个仪式。3月23日周二,医疗改革法案在众议院勉强获得通过仅仅两天后,巴拉克•奥巴马邀请了一干来自各界的嘉宾齐聚白宫来共同见证他作为总统在该法案上签字使其成为法律的那一刻。他说:“我们刚刚庄严昭示了...这样一条核心原则,即每个人都应该在医疗方面享有一定程度的基本保障。”尽管仍有一项附加的“预算协调”法案需要在参议院获得通过,奥巴马将通过一次公共巡回访问来宣传这项新立法的好处,该法案的目的是让数百万原先没有医疗保险的美国人获得医疗保险。
  
  The public events are in recognition that his new law is not widely popular among voters. Pollsters suggest that more Americans dislike the bill than like it. Even those who thought it was, on balance, better to pass than not found the delays, messy compromises and the incomplete nature of the bill frustrating.
  之所以开展这些公开活动,是因为奥巴马认识到这项新法律并不受选民们的欢迎。民调显示不喜欢这项法案的美国人比喜欢这项法案的美国人多。由于该法案一拖再拖、包含着杂乱的妥协、且内容不完整,因此即便是那些两相权衡之下认为通过这项法案比不通过要好的民众,也对此感到十分沮丧。
  
  Yet Mr Obama can now lay claim to passing, after strenuous effort, a substantial piece of social legislation. The effect of this on the rest of the president’s agenda remains to be seen. Republicans are predicting they will make Mr Obama's Democratic Party pay at the mid-term elections. By Novermber voters may have forgotten the wrangling that got the bill through Congress, but worries about who will pay for expanded health care may persist.
  但是奥巴马现在能够把经过艰苦努力使一项重大的社会立法得到通过(的功劳)算在自己头上。目前还不清楚这对总统工作计划表上的其它事项会产生怎样的影响。共和党人预言他们会让奥巴马的民主党在中期选举中付出代价。到11月份选民们或许已经忘却了该法案在国会通过前的讨价还价,但对谁来为医疗扩张买单的问题或许将感到持续担忧。
  
  Ahead of the congressional elections Mr Obama must hope that economic conditions improve. Joblessness remains stubbornly near 10%: unless that number falls in the coming months, the Democrats are expected to take a battering.
  奥巴马一定希望经济形势能在国会选举临近的时候出现好转。失业率仍然在10%的水平附近高居不下,除非在未来几个月中失业率回落,否则预计民主党将一败涂地。
  
  In turn, that bodes ill for other big legislative concerns of the president, who will struggle to generate much support in Congress from across the aisle. Not a single Republican voted for the health bill. Within minutes of Mr Obama signing the bill into law, attorneys-general from 13 states launched a lawsuit against the government claiming that the health-care act was unconstitutional.
  而这将反过来给总统的其它各项重大立法考虑蒙上阴影,因为他将很难在国会获得共和党的支持。没有一个共和党人对医疗改革法案投赞成票。奥巴马将该法案正式签署生效后几分钟,13个州的总检察长发起了一项针对政府的诉讼,声称医疗改革法违宪。
  
  A much-stalled cap-and-trade legislation for greenhouse gases looks set to be re-branded as an energy bill, “Kerry-Liberman-Graham”. Besides including a Democrat, an independent and a Republican as sponsors, the bill would support nuclear power and offshore drilling, remove a threat that industrial emissions will be directly (and cumbersomely) regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency, and hand some of the proceeds of carbon-taxes directly to voters. This last piece, in particular, is needed to prevent the Republicans calling the bill a massive economy-wide tax.
  一拖再拖的针对温室气体排放的总量控制和交易立法看起来肯定将被重新包装成一项能源法案,即所谓的“克里-利伯曼-葛兰姆法案”。除了三位法案发起人分别是民主党人、独立派人士和共和党人之外,该法案将支持利用核能及开采海上油田,撤销美国联邦环保署将直接(同时也是碍手碍脚地)监管工业排放的威胁,并将一部分碳排放税的收益直接返还给选民。(民主党人)尤其需要这最后一项举措来防止共和党人给该项法案扣上“大规模的影响经济各个层面的税收”这顶帽子。
  
  Lindsey Graham, the South Carolina Republican in the Senate who is supporting the energy bill, may consider crossing the aisle to join Chuck Schumer, a New York Democrat, to promote immigration reform. Here, the proposals are largely warmed over from the Bush administration: some combination of a guest-worker programme, an amnesty for illegal immigrants who come out from hiding and stricter border controls in future. Any amnesty would enrage the same “tea party” activists infuriated by the health-care bill. And Mr Graham himself said he thought the plan would be a dead letter if the Democrats used reconciliation to pass health care.
  来自南卡罗来纳州的共和党参议员林赛•葛兰姆支持这项能源法案,他或许会考虑跟来自纽约州的民主党参议员查克•舒默跨党合作以推进移民改革。在这个议题上,改革建议基本上是继承了小布什政府的遗产:它将一项临时工人计划、大赦公开身份的非法移民、未来更加严格的边检等政策结合起来。任何(对非法移民的)大赦都会激怒同一批已经对医改法案怒不可遏的“茶叶党”(见注1)活跃分子。而葛兰姆自己也说他认为如果民主党人利用预算协调来通过医改法案的话,移民改革计划就会胎死腹中。
  
  Mr Obama also wants to overhaul financial regulation as well as the “No Child Left Behind” education law from 2001. The latter reform would give the federal government a strong hand in some areas and a lighter touch in many others. Mr Obama offers a break with traditional Democratic orthodoxy by supporting merit pay for the best teachers, a scheme traditionally opposed by the unions. In theory, some of these innovations should appeal to conservatives.
  奥巴马还想彻底改革金融监管和2001年通过的“有教无类”教育法案(见注2)。后一项改革将强化联邦政府在某些地区的作用,而在另一些地区的角色将弱化。奥巴马建议撇开民主党一贯向优秀教师支付绩效工资的传统做法。教师工会一向反对这种方案。理论上来说,这些该革中的某些部分应该对保守派颇有吸引力。
  
  But the overall picture remains that Mr Obama’s avenues for legislative success may be cut off by his victory in health-care reform. He has spent a great deal of political capital getting his health bill through Congress. With one senator too few to break a filibuster, and Repubilcans disciplined in their opposition, it will take a change in the political climate for anything ambitious to be achieved soon. John McCain, the Republicans’ presidential candidate in 2008, has suggested that “There will be no co-operation for the rest of the year. They have poisoned the well in what they've done and how they've done it.” The Republicans vow to make Mr Obama pay for his health-care reform. In the face of hardened opposition the president may concentrate on minimising his electoral losses in November.
  但是总体情况仍然是奥巴马在医疗改革上的胜利或许会阻断他成功推进(其他)立法的道路。为了使他的医疗改革法案在国会获得通过,奥巴马已经花掉了大量的政治资本。由于民主党在参议院的席位离绝对多数还差一席(见注3),而共和党人又团结一致反对他,除非政治气候改变,否则要在短期内实现任何雄心勃勃的计划都是不可能的。2008年总统选举共和党候选人约翰•麦凯恩认为:“今年剩余的时间里不会有任何的(两党)合作了。他们的行为和行为方式都充斥着人身攻击。”共和党人誓言要让奥巴马为他的医疗改革付出代价。面对强硬的反对党,总统或许可以集中精力将11月份中期选举中的损失减小到最低程度。
  
  注释:
  1,美国国内提倡自由市场,反对政府扩张的右派保守主义者自发组成的反政府运动,因效仿引发美国独立战争的波士顿倾茶事件中的波士顿茶叶党而得名。
  
  2,No Child Left Behind Act of 2001(Public Law 107-110),简称为NCLB,是2002年1月8日由小布什总统签署生效的一项美国联邦法律。该法律对教师队伍质量、学生的标准化考试成绩,公立学校择校制度、弥合少数族裔人群和白人之间的教育鸿沟等做出了相关规定。该法案在立法过程中得到了民主、共和两党的一致支持。
  
  3,美国国会立法要求法案分别在众议院和参议院获得通过。法案在参议院的通过通常需要在总共100票中获得60票赞成票,此谓绝对多数。理论上来说,假设任何一党拥有60席或更多的参议院席位,而该党参议员又都团结一致的话,那么即便反对党参议员全部投反对票,法案还是能获得通过。反过来说,如果一党在参议院的议席少于60席的绝对多数,而反对党参议员又都团结一致反对某项法案的通过,那么该法案就难以获得通过,此谓filibuster。但由于现实中一党的参议员出于各自选区利益的考虑往往没那么团结,甚至有时候会倒戈(如当了44年共和党人后去年四月突然宣布重新加入民主党的宾州参议员Arlen Specter)或者保持中立但跟反对党一起议事(如来自缅因州的共和党温和派女参议员Olympia Snowe),所以参议院的党派政治斗争极为复杂,也非常好看。
  
  《经济学人》(The Economist ( http://www.economist.com ))仅同意ECO (www.ecocn.org)翻译其杂志内容,并未对上述翻译内容进行任何审阅查对。
  
  译者:premiermao
  
  

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作者:compulsory2010 时间:2010-03-24 11:13:24
  太深奥,我过两年再来看此贴
作者:crzhao 时间:2010-03-25 11:29:24
  Mr Obama offers a break with traditional Democratic orthodoxy by supporting merit pay for the best teachers, a scheme traditionally opposed by the unions. In theory, some of these innovations should appeal to conservatives.
    奥巴马建议撇开民主党一贯向优秀教师支付绩效工资的传统做法。教师工会一向反对这种方案
  
  tell me again, what is the traditional way?
作者:crzhao 时间:2010-03-25 11:40:45
  They have poisoned the well in what they've done and how they've done it.”
  
  though there are some personal and character attack, but what this really means that Democrats passed healthcare plan by invoking reconciliation proceedure. thus denied Republicans the chance to block the bill.
  
  
  on a separate note. the explanation on simple majority and absolute majority has one misunderstanding. to pass a law only requires simple majority. however to senate needs absolute majority to end filibuster (endless debate on the proposed law). since Republicans start to filibust almost every Democrats' proposed the legislation, thus give the impression that you need absolute majority to pass a law.
  
楼主Somers2009 时间:2010-03-26 08:22:05
  谢谢crzhao老师,下面是译者的更正:
  Mr Obama offers a break with traditional Democratic orthodoxy by supporting merit pay for the best teachers, a scheme traditionally opposed by the unions. In theory, some of these innovations should appeal to conservatives.
  通过支持向最优秀教师支付绩效奖金,奥巴马撇开了民主党(在教育上)一贯的正统做法。但是教师工会一向反对这种做法。
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