Unit 4 A Intensive Reading
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Nostalgia (disambiguation).
For the use of the term Nostalgia on Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Nostalgia.
The term nostalgia describes a yearning（渴望，尤其是不大好实现的渴望） for the past, often in idealized form. The word is a learned formation of a Greek compounds, consisting of ν?στο?, nóstos, "returning home", a Homeric（荷马的，荷马风格的） word, and ?λγο?, álgos, "pain" or "ache". It was described as a medical condition, a form of melancholy（1111）, in the Early Modern period（中世纪之后革命年代之前）, and came to be an important topic in Romanticism.
Nostalgia, in its most common meaning, caused the old front desk of The Beverly Hills Hotel (from 1942 to 1979) to be made into a bar.
In common, less clinical usage, nostalgia sometimes includes a general interest in past eras and their personalities and events, especially the "good old days" of a few generations back recast【】 in an idyllic light, such as the Belle époque（美好时代，法国人指代普法战争之后一战之前的时代）, Merry England（英国人工业革命前的时代）, Neo-Victorian（？） aesthetics, the US "Antebellum" Old South（美国，内战前的美国南方）, etc. Sometimes it is brought on by a sudden image, or remembrance（怀念，另一个是意思是为了不忘却） of something from one's childhood.
As a medical condition
Further information: Homesickness
The term was coined【铸币，造词】 in 1688 by Johannes Hofer (1669–1752) in his Basel dissertation（论文）. Hofer introduced nostalgia or mal du pays（也是恋旧的意思） "homesickness" for the condition also known as mal du Suisse "Swiss illness（瑞士病）" or Schweizerheimweh（德语，瑞士病） "Swiss homesickness", because of its frequent occurrence in Swiss mercenaries（雇佣兵） who in the plains of lowlands of France or Italy were pining for【渴望】 their native mountain landscapes. English homesickness is a loan translation（直译） of nostalgia. Allegedly, the first use of the word in a publication was in Sir Joseph Banks' journal of the first voyage（长途旅程） of Captain Cook in the Pacific, when, near Java, he stated that the sailors "were now pretty far gone with the longing for home which the physicians have gone so far as to esteem【确立，尊重】 a disease under the name of Nostalgia."
Cases resulting in death were known and soldiers were sometimes successfully treated by being discharged【遣散】 and sent home. Receiving a diagnosis（症状） was, however, generally regarded as an insult（1111）. In 1787 Robert Hamilton (1749-1830) described a case of a soldier suffering from nostalgia, who received sensitive and successful treatment:
"In the year 1781, while I lay in barracks（1111） at Tin mouth（） in the north of England, a recruit（新兵） who had lately joined the regiment（部队建制，团）,...was returned in sick list, with a message from his captain, requesting I would take him into the hospital. He had only been a few months a soldier; was young, handsome, and well-made（？） for the service; but a melancholy hung over【笼罩着】 his countenance（1111）, and wanness（1111） preyed on his cheeks. He complained of a universal weakness, but no fixed（可以确定的） pain; a noise in his ears, and giddiness（1111） of his head....As there were little obvious symptoms（症状） of fever, I did not well know what to make of【】 the case...Some weeks passed with little alteration...excepting that he was evidently become more meager（1111）. He scarcely took any nourishment（滋养物）...became indolent（懒惰）...He was put on a course of strengthening medicines; wine was allowed him. All proved ineffectual. He had now been in the hospital three months, and was quite emaciated（因缺乏食物或者饥饿导致的站不稳的）, and like one in the last stage of consumption... On making my morning visit, and inquiring, as usual, of his rest at the nurse, she happened to mention the strong notions he had got in his head, she said, of home, and of his friends. What he was able to speak was constantly on this topic. This I had never heard of before...He had talked in the same style, it seems, less or more, ever since he came into the hospital. I went immediately up to him, and introduced the subject; and from the alacrity（1111） with which he resumed it.. I found it a theme which much affected him. He asked me, with earnestness（热望）, if I would let him go home. I pointed out to him how unfit he was, from his weakness to undertake such a journey [he was a Welchman（？）] till once he was better; but promised him, assuredly, without farther hesitation, that as soon as he was able he should have six weeks to go home. He revived【1111】 at the very thought of it... His appetite soon mended; and I saw in less than a week, evident signs of recovery."
By the 1850s nostalgia was losing its status as a particular disease and coming to be seen rather as a symptom or stage of a pathological（病理的） process. It was considered as a form of melancholia（） and a predisposing【诱发的】 condition among suicides. Nostalgia was, however, still diagnosed among soldiers as late as the American Civil War. By the 1870s interest in nostalgia as a medical category had all but（几乎） vanished. Nostalgia was still being recognized in both the First and Second World Wars, especially by the American armed forces. Great lengths were taken to study and understand the condition to stem【停止】 the tide of troops leaving the front in droves（成群的人） (see the BBC documentary Century of the Self).
As a description
Nostalgia is often triggered by【被激发】 something reminding the individual of an event or item from their past. The resulting（所导致的） emotion can vary from happiness to sorrow. The term of "feeling nostalgic" is more commonly used to describe pleasurable emotions associated with and/or a longing to go back to a particular period of time.
Swiss nostalgia was linked to the singing of Kuhreihen（一种歌舞形势）, which were forbidden to Swiss mercenaries because they led to nostalgia to the point of desertion, illness or death. The 1767 Dictionnaire de Musique by Jean-Jacques Rousseau claims that Swiss mercenaries were threatened with severe punishment to prevent them from singing their Swiss songs. It became somewhat of a topos in Romantic literature, and figures in the poem Der Schweizer by Achim von Arnim (1805) and in Clemens Brentano's Des Knaben Wunderhorn (1809) as well as in the opera Le Chalet by Adolphe Charles Adam (1834) which was performed for Queen Victoria under the title The Swiss Cottage（村舍）. The Romantic connection of nostalgia, the Kuhreihen and the Swiss Alps was a significant factor in the enthusiasm for Switzerland, the development of early tourism in Switzerland and Alpinism（登山技术，尤其是登阿尔卑斯山） that took hold of the European cultural elite in the 19th century. German Romanticism coined an opposite to Heimweh, Fernweh "far-sickness", "longing to be far away", like wanderlust（四处漂泊的欲望） expressing the Romantic desire to travel and explore.
In a slight variation from the conventional（传统的，约定成俗的） usage of the word nostalgia, some intend to convey（传达出） the meaning of "a feeling of appreciation for the past or something related to the past, often in an idealized form." This differs from the standard usage in that it does not necessarily include a longing or yearning to return to the past, but instead simply an appreciation for it.