[翻译]翻译时时练——《经济学家》读译参考(更新中……)

楼主:东城水岸 时间:2006-02-23 01:17:00 点击:14156 回复:151
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楼主东城水岸 时间:2006-06-20 00:50:42
  ☆★第28篇☆★
  
  Klinsmann's castle
  
  克林斯曼的去留(陈继龙 编译)
  
  (译者按:“castle”一词乍一看是“城堡”的意思,但似乎与全文主旨并无多大关系。所以,需要注意“castle”另一个意思,那就是指国际象棋中的“车”,它可以顺着平行于棋盘边的路随便走多少方格,假如没有其它棋子阻挡的话,也可译为“rook”。而文章的中心思想恰好就是“改革遭遇阻力的克林斯曼何去何从”。另外,注意中国象棋中的“车”为“chariot”。)
  
  
  Jun 8th 2006 | BERLIN
  From The Economist print edition
  
  EVERY time Germany wins football's World Cup, some pundits[1] assert, the country takes a turn for the better. Thus 1954 saw the start of the economic miracle, 1974 the birth of modern Germany and 1990 unification. The causality seems implausible, although some economists are talking up the 2006 tournament, which starts this weekend, and is being staged (like 1974's) in Germany. (1)A clearer link exists between the country and its football association (DFB), since they display similar strengths and weaknesses.
  
  
  权威人士断言,每逢德国赢得世界杯足球赛冠军,这个国家的状况就会好转,例如,1954年开始的经济奇迹,1974年现代化德国的诞生以及1990年实现统一。某些经济学家现在正大肆宣扬本周末将在德国举行(与1974年一样)的2006年世界杯(译者按:talk up意为“to make something appear more important, interesting, successful etc than it really is”,即“大加吹捧,大肆宣扬”),但这里面的因果联系看似并不可信,倒是该国与其足协(DFB)之间存在一种较为明显的联系,因为它们有着相似的优缺点。
  
  
  The DFB, with 6.3m members, acts like a state within a state. In common with other German sports organisations, it has its own rules and enforcement methods.(2) Even more than the political system, it is built for stability, not speed. It has its own parliament, which meets every three years and is made up of delegates from 21 regions. Its presidents' average age and tenure in office almost match those of popes.
  
  德国足协拥有6300万会员,其职能相当于“国中之国”。同德国其它体育组织一样,它有自己的规定和执行办法。相比政治体系,建立该组织的目的更多地是为了保持稳定,而不是寻求快速发展。它拥有自己的议会,由21个地区的代表组成,每三年开一次会。历届足协 的平均年龄和任期堪比罗马教皇。
  
  
  Predictably, change comes slowly to the DFB. It was not until 1970 that it approved an official women's league. Only in 2001 did the DFB allow the top clubs to create their own subordinate governing body. Were it not for the World Cup, especially the staging of the final in the stadium originally built for the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin, the DFB would still not have officially admitted its questionable activities during the Third Reich1.
  
  
  足协的改变姗姗来迟,这并不意外。直到1970年它才批准正式举办女子足球联赛,而直到2001年才允许顶尖俱乐部设立各自的下属管理机构。若非因为世界杯,特别是决赛将在1936年奥运会时修建的柏林体育场举行,德国足协可能仍然不会正式认可纳粹德国时期在该体育场举办的“问题赛事”。
  
  Yet until recently the DFB was highly successful.(3)Because it saw market forces as incompatible with amateur sport, the DFB started a single professional league, the Bundesliga, only in 1963. This gave birth to the most modern league of the time, which may be why Germany was so good at football, says Thomas Kupfer, who has written a book on football management.
  然而也只是在最近一段时间,足协的变革才大获成功。眼见市场力量与业余体育运动相冲突,德国足协遂于1963年发起了一项职业联赛,即德国足球甲级联赛(Bundesliga,德语“联邦联赛”),一时成为最有现代水准的联赛。曾写过一本足球管理著作的托马斯?库弗尔说,德国足球水平之所以高可能就因为职业联赛的举行。
  
  (4)It was only a matter of time before stability turned into disadvantage. In 1990 the national coach, Franz Beckenbauer, promised that “working together with the eastern Germans, we will be invincible for years.” But the DFB failed to make top clubs professional enough or to foster modern training methods. Nor was young talent encouraged and brought on. German football, like the economy, began to decline, which became obvious when the team was thrashed[2] by England in 2001. Three years later, it took a drubbing[3] at the 2004 European championships.
  过于求稳而导致自己处于不利地位,这是迟早的事。1990年,国家队主教练弗朗茨?贝肯鲍尔保证说,“团结东德人民,我们将所向披靡”。可是,德国足协未能进一步推动顶尖俱乐部的职业化,也没有创造先进的训练方法,对优秀青年球员的培养和扶持也不够。于是,德国的足球水平跟它的经济一样开始走下坡路,到2001年国家队惨败英格兰队后表现尤为明显。三年后,它在2004年欧洲杯上再次铩羽而归。
  
  Enter Jürgen Klinsmann, a former star footballer, hired as national coach mainly because of a lack of alternatives—just as Angela Merkel became boss of the Christian Democrats2 in 2000. Mr Klinsmann planned not only to win the World Cup, but also to reform the entire DFB. (5)Always a maverick, he capped his career as a player by moving to California to start a sports consulting business.
  
  
  再说说尤尔根?克林斯曼,他曾是一位足球明星,能担任国家队主教练主要是因为没有别的合适人选——恰逢安吉拉?默克刚刚在2000年成为基督教社会主义民主党的领导人。克林斯曼不但计划夺取世界杯,还打算对整个德国足协进行改革。独树一帜的他在职业生涯结束后前往加利福尼亚,成功创办了一家体育运动咨询公司。(译者按:maverick是指“an unusual person who has different ideas and ways of behaving from other people, and is often very successful”,即“观点和行为脱俗且往往获得成功的人”。“to cap…by something”指“to have something very good or very bad at the end of an event”,也就是“给……画上圆满的句号”。)
  
  
  He has indeed proved a reformer. He has centralised power so that he can prepare his team properly. He has decreed a more offensive strategy, and tried out many younger players. He has hired trainers versed[4] in modern methods, including an American fitness guru[5]. He is fond of management fads, communicating by e-mail and using motivational training. (6)Despite (or perhaps because of) this, Mr Klinsmann has been vilified—not least for continuing to live in California. The DFB's board has rejected his candidate as chief talent scout, even though this job is central to his plans.
  
  事实证明,他的确是一名改革家。他要求大权独揽,以便于对国家队进行全面调教。他制定了攻击性更强的战术,并且选拔了许多年轻球员。他雇请了包括一名美国体能教练在内的许多深谙现代足球规律的教练员。管理上,他追逐时尚,比如用电子邮件进行联络、采用走训制。尽管(也许正因为)如此,克林斯曼还是遭到了非议——很重要的一个原因是他仍居住在加利福尼亚。(译者按:“not least”这里是用来强调“某事十分重要”,not least for就是指“相当重要的原因是……”。)足协董事会已经拒绝他竞选“首席选秀官”,即便这一工作是其计划的重中之重。(译者按:talent scout意为“人才发掘者”,也就是常说的“选秀”。be central to表示“more important and having more influence than anything else”,即“对……很重要,有较大影响”,注意介词“to”,不是“for”。)
  
  Will Mr Klinsmann stick around after the World Cup? Conventional wisdom says that the answer depends on how well Germany does. But he may also wonder if the DFB can ever change. Even were Germany to win, which looks unlikely, Mr Klinsmann might prefer to go back to California. That would make it hard to tout[6] any victory as a harbinger[7] of further reform, not just of Germany's football association, but of the country as a whole.
  
  世界杯后克林斯曼会继续留任吗?舆论认为,这要看德国队在世界杯上表现如何。(译者按:“stick around”是指“to stay in a place a little longer, waiting for something to happen”,意为“逗留,继续等待”。conventional wisdom指“the opinion that most people consider to be normal and right, but that is sometimes shown to be wrong”,即“大多数认为合理正确、有时候也可能被证明是错误的意见”。)不过,他也许反而对德国足协能否有所改变感到彷徨。德国队就算是胜利了——这看上去不太可能,克林斯曼可能仍然宁愿重返加利福尼亚。这样一来,无论对于德国足协,还是对于整个德国,要想借助吹捧胜利来推动进一步改革就很难了。
  
  [NOTES](LONGMAN)
  1. pundit n. someone who is often asked to give their opinion publicly of a situation or subject提出意见者;评论家;专家
  2. thrash vt. to defeat someone very easily in a game轻易击败 如:Brazil thrashed Italy 5-0.巴西以5:0轻取意大利。
  3. drubbing n. an occasion when one team easily beats another team in sport:痛宰,彻底击败
  4. versed adj. be (well) versed in something to know a lot about a subject, method etc精通
  5. guru n. someone who knows a lot about a particular subject, and gives advice to other people博学的指导者
  6. tout vt. to praise something or someone in order to persuade people that they are important or worth a lot吹捧(be touted as something)
  7. harbinger n. a sign that something is going to happen soon先兆,预兆
  [TIPS & BACKGROUND]
  1. 第三帝国(the Third Reich):在德国1000多年的历史上曾经历过三个帝国,这期间也有一个共和国。德国历史上的第一帝国是指公元962-1806年的神圣罗马帝国。1806年,帝国被拿破仑一世推翻。第二帝国是指1871年-1918年的德意志帝国,它是普鲁士通过三次王朝战争统一起来的。1870年在普法战争中,普鲁士击败法国,1871年1月18日普鲁士国王威廉一世在法国凡尔赛宫加冕为德意志皇帝。1914年开始的第一次世界大战以德国的失败和第二帝国的瓦解而告终。战争也导致德国第一次建立了联邦共和国。由于共和国宪法是在魏玛城召开的国民议会上通过的,一般称之为《魏玛宪法》,因此这个共和国又称为魏玛共和国。1933年1月30日,以希特勒为首的德国国家社会主义工人党(即纳粹党)上台执政,建立了法西斯独裁统治,宣告了魏玛共和国的终结。 第三帝国是指1933-1945年的法西斯德国,希特勒自称第三帝国。于1939年9月1日发动了第二次世界大战。1945年5月8日,德国在投降书上签字,第三帝国宣告完结。德国为美、英、法、苏四国分区占领。
  2.基督教民主党或基督教民主联盟(the Christian Democrats):德国实行多党制,主要的政党有:德国社会民主党(Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands),简称社民党;联盟90/绿党(Buendnis 90/Die Gruenen); 基督教民主联盟(Christlich-Demokratische Union Deutschlands),简称基民盟,最大的政党;基督教社会联盟(Christlich-Soziale Union in Bayern e.V.),简称基社盟;自由民主党(Freie Demokratische Partei),简称自民党;民主社会主义党(Partei des Demokratischen Sozialismus),简称民社党;德国的共产党(Deutsche Kommunistische Partei);共和党(Die Republikaner)。
  3.1936年柏林奥运会:http://blog.hjenglish.com/chenjilong/articles/342541.html
  
  
楼主东城水岸 时间:2006-06-20 00:56:06
  ☆★☆★第29篇☆★☆★
  
  The kindest cut
  
  最友善的砍伐(陈继龙 编译)
  
  
  
  May 25th 2006
  From The Economist print edition
  
  
  
  DEPRESSING reports about how quickly the world's tropical forests are being felled are commonplace. But depressing reports about the state of the trees that are still standing are much rarer. In fact, a new study from the International Tropical Timber Organisation (ITTO), an offshoot of the United Nations, claims to be the first exhaustive survey of tropical-forest management ever undertaken. (1)Its findings, although grim, do contain a kernel[1] of hope.
  
  
  
  有关全球热带森林遭到乱砍滥伐、令人痛心的报道极为常见,但是痛陈现存林木状况的报道却少之又少。事实上,联合国分支机构——国际热带木材组织(ITTO)新近开展的一项研究,据称是首次对热带森林管理现状进行深入调查。其发现虽然令人沮丧,但从中我们还是看到了一线希望。
  
  The ITTO examined “permanent forest estate”, meaning land that the governments of its 33 members have formally set aside for forests, and is therefore subject to some form of regulation or protection. The category includes both national parks and timber concessions, in both public and private hands. It covers 814m hectares, and accounts for roughly two-thirds of the world's tropical forests.
  
  
  ITTO调查的对象是“永久性森林地产”,也就是被ITTO所属33个成员国政府正式划作森林地域,从而受到某种形式的管理或保护的土地。它涉及国家森林公园和木材的特许经营,包括国营和私营。地产总面积达8.14亿公顷,约占全球热带森林面积的三分之二。
  
  The concept is important, explains Duncan Poore, one of the authors of the report, because it is not always possible, or desirable, to protect every last grove against encroaching[2] farms or homes. Instead, governments should concentrate on maintaining the forests that are the most commercially and scientifically valuable. Yet the ITTO's researchers found that only 15% of the permanent forest estate has a management plan, and less than 5% of it is sustainably managed. That still amounts to an area the size of Germany, the report notes, and represents a dramatic improvement since 1988, when an earlier and less extensive survey found that only one country in the tropics—Trinidad and Tobago—had any well-run forests at all. But (2)relative to the area of forest that has disappeared over the same period, the well-managed area is negligible.
  (未完待续)
楼主东城水岸 时间:2006-06-20 00:59:21
  此项研究报告的作者之一邓肯•玻尔解释说,这一概念意义重大,因为我们不可能,也不值得对每一片濒临消失的小树林都一直进行保护以避免其被农田或住宅侵占。相反,政府应当集中精力养护好那些最具有商业和科学价值的森林。可是ITTO的研究人员却发现,在“永久性森林地产”中,仅15%有着相应的管理方案,而能坚持贯彻执行这一方案的只有5%。报告中提到,整个地产所涵盖的区域相当于一个德国的大小,自从1988年以来已经得到了极大改善。当年一项粗略的早期调查发现,热带地区国家中只有特立尼达和多巴哥对森林管理较为完善。但是,相对于同期已然消亡的森林而言,这片管理得当的森林是微不足道的。
  
  
  The crux[3] is bad government. Poor countries do not always have good forestry laws. (3)Even when they do, they rarely have the capacity to enforce them. It is no coincidence that Malaysia, the country with the highest proportion of prudently managed forest in the study, is also one of the richest. Countries with the worst run forests, meanwhile, are war-torn places such as Congo and Cambodia.
  
  (未完待续,没办法,只好分段发)
楼主东城水岸 时间:2006-06-20 01:01:07
  问题出在政/ 府/ 管/ 理/ 不/ 力。穷国常常缺乏有效的森林法规,即便是有,大多情况下也无力强制实施。本研究中提到的马来西亚得到妥善管理的森林面积比例最大,而它恰恰也是热带地区最富裕的国家之一,这不能说是巧合。与此同时,对森林管理最为不善的国家都曾遭到战争破坏,比如刚果和柬埔寨。
楼主东城水岸 时间:2006-06-20 01:04:10
  [NOTES](LONGMAN)
  1. kernel n. 1)the most important part of a statement, idea, plan etc [= core]核心,要点,精髓(kernel of)如:This evidence is the kernel of the defendants' case. 2)a very small part or amount of something少许(kernel of)如:There may bea kernel of truth in what he says.他的话可能有一点点是真的。
  2. encroach vt. to gradually cover more and more land 侵占(土地),蚕食(encroach into)如:The fighting encroached further east.
  3. crux n. the most important part of a problem, question, argument etc症结;关键点
  4. earmark vt. to decide that something will be used for a particular purpose or have something done to it in the future指定用途;拨款作……用
  
楼主东城水岸 时间:2006-06-20 01:11:29
  忍无可忍,为什么要设这么多限制? 翻译了好几篇都无法贴出!
  
  
  
  
楼主东城水岸 时间:2006-06-20 01:14:04
  只好请大家到我的博客里批评指教了:
  
  http://blog.hjenglish.com/chenjilong
作者:estyle779 时间:2006-06-20 16:27:36
  顶呀
  顶呀
  
  
  这是迄今偶在天涯上专业领域看到的最认真最谦虚目前最有水平的翻译帖子系列!!!!
  
  
  
作者:王荣欣 时间:2006-06-23 03:52:00
  The DFB, with 6.3m members, acts like a state within a state.
  德国足协拥有6300万会员
  
  》》》630万。
作者:王荣欣 时间:2006-06-29 00:25:53
  Enter Jürgen Klinsmann, a former star footballer, hired as national coach mainly because of a lack of alternatives—just as Angela Merkel became boss of the Christian Democrats2 in 2000.
  再说说尤尔根?克林斯曼,他曾是一位足球明星,能担任国家队主教练主要是因为没有别的合适人选——恰逢安吉拉?默克刚刚在2000年成为基督教社会主义民主党的领导人。
  》》》正如安吉拉.默克在2000年成为基督教民主党的领导人。
  有点疑问:社会主义民主党???不是“恰逢”,也不是“刚刚”。
  
楼主东城水岸 时间:2006-07-17 22:26:53
  ☆★☆★第31篇☆★☆★
  
  Deadly beauty
  
  致命美景(陈继龙 编译)
  
  Jun 8th 2006 | SAN FRANCISCO
  From The Economist print edition
  
  KEVIN HINES, a manic-depressive, was 19 and in one of his weekly downswings on an overcast Monday morning in 2000. He went to the nearby Golden Gate Bridge to kill himself mostly because, with only a four-foot (1.2-metre) railing to leap, “I figured it was the easiest way.” He dived over, but flipped and hit the water at 75mph with his feet first. His legs were crushed, but he somehow stayed conscious and started paddling[1] with his upper body until the Coast Guard fished him out.
  凯文•海因斯是一个19岁的躁狂抑郁症患者。在2000年一个天气阴沉的星期一早晨,他像往常一样感到浑身不得劲。于是,他走到附近的金门大桥,之所以选择在那里了断余生,主要是因为只需要翻过一排四英尺(1.2米)高的栏杆,“我觉得这样自杀最简单。”他越过栏杆,纵身跳下,但在空中翻了几个跟头之后,他的脚先碰到了水面,腿摔折了,不过意识还有些清醒,于是上身开始用力扑腾,直到海岸巡逻队队员把他捞上岸。[/replyview]
  
  Mr Hines is one of 26 people who have survived suicide attempts at the bridge, but 1,223 are known to have succeeded (ie, were seen jumping or found floating). People are throwing themselves off the bridge at the rate of two a month, which makes it the most popular place in the world for suicides. (1)One book on the subject says that the Golden Gate is “to suicide what Niagara Falls is to honeymooners”.
  在金门大桥自杀未遂的一共有26人,海因斯就是其中之一,不过据知还有1223人都“成功”了(也就是说,人们目睹他们跳入海中或者发现他们的尸体漂浮在海上)。每个月就有两人从这座桥上跳下,它也因此成为世界上最有名的自杀场所。对此,有一本书写道,金门大桥“之于自杀者的意义就如同尼亚加拉瀑布之于度蜜月的人”。(“自杀者就像人们喜欢到尼亚加拉瀑布度蜜月一样喜欢光顾金门大桥。”)
  
  Many San Franciscans think that the solution is to emulate[2] the Empire State Building, the Sydney Harbour Bridge, the Eiffel Tower, St Peter's basilica[3] and other such places and put up a simple barrier. (2)This, however, is a decision for the 19 board members of the Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District, an entity that oversees the bridge itself and the buses and ferries that operate in the area. Most of its revenues come from tolls and fares, and the district loses money. A barrier would cost between $15m and $25m.
  许多旧金山人认为,解决这一问题的办法就是要仿效帝国大厦、悉尼港湾大桥、埃菲尔铁塔、圣彼得大教堂和其它一些地方的做法,建造一个简易的防自杀屏障。不过,这得金门大桥高速公路运输行政部门(负责监管大桥以及该地区营运公车和渡船的机构)董事会的19名董事来拿主意。该部门的收入主要来自过路过桥费和车船乘载费,但通常都入不敷出,而修建防自杀屏障将耗资1500~2500万美元。
  
  So the Psychiatric Foundation of Northern California, which has adopted the barrier as its cause, considers it a success that the board has merely allowed a feasibility study, for which various private and public donors have raised $2m. Mel Blaustein, a director at the foundation, has heard several arguments against a barrier over the years—too ugly, too expensive, and so forth—(3)but the most persistent has been that people would simply kill themselves somewhere else, so why bother? This is nonsense, he says; “Most suicides are impulsive and preventable.” A bridge without a barrier, adds Pat Hines, Kevin's father, is “like leaving a loaded gun in the psychiatric ward.”
  尽管董事会只是同意就修建防自杀屏障开展可行性研究,而且许多私人和政府也为此捐助了200万美元。但是热衷于修建防自杀屏障的北加利福尼亚精神病基金会认为,这说明事情有了进展。多年来,基金会主管梅尔•布劳斯特恩屡次听到反对修建防自杀屏障的声音,说那样太不美观、太昂贵等等,不过说的最多的还是,人们完全可以在别的地方自杀,何必管太多呢?他说,这是一派胡言,“大多数人自杀都是出于一时冲动,完全是可以阻止的。”凯文的父亲帕特•海因斯也说,一座没有防自杀屏障的桥,就“好比把一支装好子弹的枪丢到精神病房里。”
   [NOTES](LONGMAN)
  1. paddle v. to swim with short, quick movements(以短暂而快速的动作)游水
  2. emulate vt. to do something or behave in the same way as someone else, especially because you admire them [= imitate]仿效
  3. basilica n. 长方形基督教堂
   [TIPS & BACKGROUND]
  金门大桥(the Golden Gate Bridge):Joseph B. Strauss在1917年提出建造金门大桥的构想,但由于渡口船家担心生计,军事领袖和工商业界关心造桥影响港口运输等因素影响,在历经十二年的强烈反弹之后,到1930年才通过了建桥计划。1933年开工,造价约3300万美元, 于1937年5月27日开放通车. 它不仅能承受21英呎(水平)及10英尺(垂直)幅度的摇晃,亦能在一口气承载满满六线车道的各式大小车辆,以及站满了行人步道的人群之后,屹立于狂风巨浪而不摇。金门大桥是加州唯一不受州法管辖的桥梁. 它目前由Golden Gate Bridge Highway and Transportation District 管理与维护, 所收取的3元美金过桥费主要用于大众交通运输, 渡口及公交车等服务,从而减少交通堵塞.
  
楼主东城水岸 时间:2006-07-17 22:29:04
  ☆★☆★第32篇☆★☆★
  
  Busy signal
  信号忙(陈继龙 编译)
  
  Jun 8th 2006
  From The Economist print edition
  
  LONDON responded to terrorist attack on July 7th in true Blitz style: rescuers were heroic, and ordinary citizens showed compassion and fortitude. (1)Or so the politically correct version goes. A report this week from the London Assembly takes a sterner line. In fact, radios failed to work, medical supplies were lacking, some ambulances arrived inexplicably[1] late and traumatised people were left to wander off.
  伦敦方面应对7月7日恐怖袭击时的情景跟当年遭遇德军闪电般空袭时如出一辙:救援人员英勇无比,平民百姓富有同情心而且不屈不挠。从政治角度来看,这么做大概无可非议。不过,伦敦议会本周发表的一份报告则较为苛刻地指出了其中存在的问题,比如无线电通讯不畅,医疗支援不足,有的救护车还莫名其妙地姗姗来迟,以至于受伤群众无人过问。
  
  This is the third official report into the bombs on tube and bus that killed 56 people last year and injured hundreds more. In May the Home Office offered a “narrative” of events but cast blame only on the terrorists. (2)A parliamentary investigation concluded that the intelligence services, stretched thin, had done their best. The London Assembly's take on the matter will not satisfy those who want an independent public inquiry. But it has, at least, got beneath the gloss[2].
  这是关于去年造成56人死亡、数百人受伤的地铁和公共汽车爆炸事件的第三份官方报告。今年五月,英国内政部首先对此事件进行了“陈述”,但把全部责任都归咎于恐怖分子。后来,英国议会组织对事件进行调查后认为,人手捉襟见肘的情报部门并没有玩忽职守。对于那些希望进行独立公众调查的人而言,伦敦议会对该问题的态度并不能让他们感到满意,不过它至少让问题浮出了水面。(译者按:sb's take on sth是指“someone's opinion about a situation or idea”,即“某人对……的见解”)
  
  The response to the July 7th bombings was chaotic, and in ways that ought to have been preventable. The emergency services had no coherent plan in place to care for those who survived, the report suggests. (3)But most crippling were the communication failures.
  “七•七”爆炸事件发生时,有关方面成了无头苍蝇,方寸大乱。报告指出,各紧急救援部门没有一个适当的、协调一致的幸存者救护方案。不过,最关键的问题还是通讯故障。
  
  Police, ambulance workers and firefighters were unable to talk to each other underground; only the radios of the transport police worked in the tunnels. The emergency services had to rely on runners to pass information to and from disaster areas. Yet a report on a big fire at King's Cross tube station had drawn attention to precisely this problem in 1988.
  在地下,警察、救护人员、消防员之间无法相互沟通。在隧道里,只有交警的无线电才能正常使用。各紧急救援部门只好靠人跑步把信息送到或送出事发地点。1988年,一份关于地铁国王十字站发生大火的报告就恰恰曾指出过这一问题,然而时至今日却未能引起重视。
  
  Communications above ground were not much better. (4)Rescue workers competed with bewildered bystanders for access to overloaded mobile-phone networks. The City of London Police, for its part, asked one wireless operator to favour certain rescue workers by limiting service for ordinary users. Earlier, a body headed by the Metropolitan Police had decided this was unnecessary.
  地面的通讯也好不到哪去。救援人员竭力疏散不知所措的旁观人群,希望避免手机信号网络过于拥堵。伦敦市警察局则委派一名无线电报员通过限制大众用户的通讯服务来保证救援人员通讯无阻。然而之前大伦敦警察厅下属的一个机构已经认定此举毫无必要。
  
  Richard Barnes, who chaired the assembly's July 7th review committee, says the report is not meant to disparage [3] the work of the rescuers but rather to fix the problems they encountered. Almost a year later, the situation has barely improved: a new digital radio network for London's underground, for example, is running behind schedule. (5)The assembly plans new hearings in November to hold various feet to the fire.
  伦敦议会“爆炸事件调查委员会” 理查德•巴恩斯称,报告无意贬损救援人员所做的工作,而是希望解决他们遇到的问题。事发近一年了,情况依然没有明显好转——原计划在伦敦地下建立的一套新型数字无线电网络,但这一计划至今仍被束之高阁。伦敦议会打算在11月召开新一轮听证会,以期引起各方面对这一问题的高度重视。(译者按:to hold various feet to the fire,就我的理解看,可能相当于“让人如坐针毡”)
   [NOTES](LONGMAN)
  1. inexplicable adj. too unusual or strange to be explained or understood [= incomprehensible, strange]:无法理解的,莫名其妙的
  2. gloss n.(beneath the gloss of) an attractive appearance on the surface of something that may hide something less pleasant 表面地或虚假的吸引人的形象;假象
  3. disparage vt. to criticize someone or something in a way that shows you do not think they are very good or important 毁谤,贬损
  
楼主东城水岸 时间:2006-07-17 22:32:17
  ☆★☆★第33篇☆★☆★
  
  Bad news about bad guys
  关于坏蛋的坏消息(陈继龙 编译)
  
  Jun 15th 2006 | WASHINGTON, DC
  From The Economist print edition
  
  
  AMERICANS worry about crime. In a big country with hyperactive media, any sensational horror is quickly broadcast from coast to coast, making many people nervous. Last year, for example, after a teenager shot dead ten people in and around a Minnesota high school, pollsters asked a sample of Americans how likely it was that a similar massacre might occur in their own town. Nearly three-quarters said it was “very” or “somewhat” likely.
  美国人为犯罪发愁。在一个媒体极为活跃的大国,任何骇人听闻的恐怖事件很快就能广为人知,让许多人紧张不安。比如说,去年一位少年在明尼苏达一所中学里及其周边地区开枪打死10人之后,民调者对美国人进行了随机抽样调查,询问类似的杀人案件在他们当地发生的可能性有多大,近四分之三的人说“很有可能”或“大概会”。
  
  The FBI's announcement this week that violent crime rose by 2.5% between 2004 and 2005 will soothe[1] no nerves. Nor will the news that murders jumped by 5%—the biggest spike[2] in 15 years. The new numbers should be treated with caution; they do not yet take account of population growth, which is about 1% a year. (1)But still, some experts worry that America's long run of success in reducing crime may be over.
  FBI本周宣布,暴力犯罪活动在2004年到2005年间增加了2.5%,这令所有人都感到坐立不安。同样令人不安的还有,有消息称谋杀犯罪发生率上升了5%,为15年来之最。应该谨慎对待这些数字——它们未将每年大约1%的人口增长因素纳入考虑范围。不过,有些专家仍然担心,美国长期以来在减少犯罪方面取得的成就可能就到此为止了。
  
  Why did it fall? Some credit “zero-tolerance” policing. (2)Some think long jail terms keep the worst offenders out of circulation. Others look at demographic factors, such as the legalisation of abortion in 1973, which some argue, controversially, prevented many potential criminals from being born. Now their number is rising again.
  为什么以前犯罪率会下降呢?有的人把它归因于“毫不留情”的执法,有的人认为是长期关押让那些坏透了的罪犯无法到处流窜,还有人则考虑到人口统计因素,比如1973年饱受争议的流产合法化让许多潜在的犯罪分子无法降临人世。现如今,这些数字又增加了。
  
  The sharpest increases in murders last year occurred in the Midwest, in cities such as Omaha and Milwaukee. (3)Granted, a 55% increase in Omaha is only 11 more murders. But the numbers highlight a trend for the big gangs of New York and Los Angeles to spread into heartland towns. “A small group of youths are carrying guns, wearing colours and killing each other over trivial disputes,” says George Kelling of the School of Criminal Justice at Rutgers University. Mostly, it is not about turf[3], but about “dissing[4]”, he says.
  去年谋杀犯罪率上升最为显著的是在中西部地区城市如奥马哈和密尔沃基。就奥马哈而言,谋杀犯罪率上升55%,也就相当于多了11件谋杀案,这毋庸讳言,但是对于纽约和洛杉矶来说,这些数字则充分表明大批犯罪分子已经开始向中心城市涌动。(译者按:“granted”一般用来表示“you admit that something is true”,即“承认某事没错”,是一个副词。这句话的含义可以通过一个例子来理解:某地原本只发生了1件谋杀案,后来又发生了1件,增长率就是50%。如原本有100件,增长率则只有不到1%。也就是说,奥马哈的犯罪率本来不高,增加多一点,不是很严重,但象纽约、洛杉矶这些犯罪率本来就高的城市,再增加一点,就很严重了,说明那里犯罪几乎无处不在了。)Rutgers大学刑事司法院的乔治•凯林说:“一小伙年轻人背着枪,佩戴着各色标志,为了一点点小事不和就你打我杀。”他说,这与帮会斗争无关,而是“犯上作乱”。(译者按:“colour”这里是指“a flag, shirt etc that shows that someone or something belongs to or supports a particular team, school, club, or country”,也就是“表明某人或某物属于或支持某一特定队伍、学校、俱乐部或国家的旗帜、衣服等,常用复数。)
  
  [NOTES](LONGMAN)
  1. soothe v. to make someone feel calmer and less anxious, upset, or angry使平静,安慰,缓解(压力)
  ★ACTIVATE YOUR LANGUAGE
  缓解(某人)的不安、悲伤、焦虑等,可用下列词汇:
  Comfort安慰 • make somebody feel better • cheer somebody up使振奋 • console 慰藉• reassure 使安心;打消疑虑• soothe • cheer up振奋 • don't worry别担心
  2. spike n. a sudden large increase in the number or rate of something(数字或比例)激增;骤增
  3. turf n. 区域,势力范围,活动范围;帮派,帮会;地盘
  4. diss v. to say unkind things about someone you know对(认识的人)出言不逊
  ★ACTIVATE YOUR LANGUAGE
  当表达“某人对老师、父母无礼”时,可用下列词汇:
  形容词—— disrespectful 失礼的 • cheeky无礼的,放肆的 • impertinent无礼的,鲁莽的 • impudent 放肆无礼的,厚颜无耻的• insolent 傲慢无礼的• sassy 无礼的,厚脸皮的
  动词—— disrespect 不尊敬• diss 出言不逊
  
  [TIPS & BACKGROUND]
  Midwest(美国中西部):美国中北部五大湖区及密西西比河上游河谷周围的地区。通常认为包括俄亥俄州、印第安那州、伊里诺斯州、密歇根州、威斯康星州、明尼苏达州、爱荷华州、密苏里州、堪萨斯州及内布拉斯加州。该地区以肥沃的耕地及高度工业化的工业中心而闻名。
  Omaha(奥马哈):美国内布拉斯加州东部一城市,位于密苏里河与衣阿华州交界附近。在1854年随着内布拉斯加地区的开放而建立的,并在向西部移民的过程中成为一供应站,尤其是在1869年铁路延伸到奥马哈后,情况更是如此。它在1855年至1867年间是地区首府。
  Milwaukee(密尔沃基):美国威斯康星州东南部一城市,位于密执安湖。1795年成为一皮毛贸易点,19世纪后半期成为德国移民的主要聚居地,其酿酒厂和肉类加工厂久负盛名。是该州最大的城市。
  New York(纽约):美国纽约州南部的一个城市,位于哈得逊河口的纽约湾。由荷兰始建时叫新阿姆斯特丹,后来以纽约郡基督的名义改为英语名字。它是全国最大的城市和金融、文化、商业、船运和通运中心。最初只包括曼哈顿岛,1898年重新划定包括今天曼哈顿的五个行政区:布隆克斯、布鲁克林、昆士和斯特提岛。
  Los Angeles(洛杉矶):美国加利福尼亚州南部一城市,位于一大片都市地区中,太平洋沿岸。所谓的天使之城由西班牙人于1781年建立,并几次作为殖民地首府。19世纪70,80年代铁路修通和90年代在该地区发现石油后,该城开始真正的成长。如今是一个重要的造船业、制造业、通讯、金融和集散中心,其娱乐业尤为著名。
  
  
楼主东城水岸 时间:2006-07-17 22:35:04
  ☆★☆★第34篇☆★☆★
  
  Blogging off
  走出博客(陈继龙 编译)
  
  Jun 15th 2006 | NEW YORK
  From The Economist print edition
  
  “I LOVE Microsoft and Microsoft did not lose me,” protested Robert Scoble, a little too loudly, on his blog last week, in a bid to end feverish speculation in the blogosphere about why, exactly, he had decided to leave Microsoft. The software giant's “technical evangelist”, Mr Scoble has become the best-known example of a corporate blogger. On his blog, called Scobleizer, which he started in 2000, he writes about Microsoft's products, and has sometimes criticised them fiercely—(1)thereby both establishing his credibility and, by its willingness to tolerate him, helping to humanise his employer.
  “我热爱微软,微软也没有失去我。”罗伯特•斯考伯上周在他的博客上义正词严地说。他这么说是希望博客界不要再对他为何决定离开微软妄加臆测。作为这一软件巨头的“技术专员”,斯考伯先生已经成为企业博客最知名的典范。他的博客名叫Scobleizer,始建于2000年,主要写一些与微软产品有关的文章,有时候也会对其提出严厉批评——如此一来,不但树立了他的声望,也藉微软对他的宽容大度体现了微软的人性化。
  
  (2)As blogging's influence has grown, so has Mr Scoble's—both inside and outside Microsoft. Last year, after he blogged against Microsoft's decision to abandon support for a law prohibiting discrimination against gays, the company's managers backed down[1]. He helped write a book, “Naked Conversations: How Blogs are Changing the Way Businesses Talk With Customers”, published in January, that has become essential reading for any boss trying to define a new-media strategy for his business.
  博客的影响力越来越大,斯考伯的博客也不例外——无论是在微软内部,还是在外界。去年,他在博客中抨击了微软关于不再支持一项禁止歧视同性恋的法律的决定,公司管理人员后来只好收回成命。他还参与著述了《推心置腹的对话——博客是怎样改变与客户的商务交流方式的》一书,今年1月出版,现已成为所有试图在生意上建立一个新型媒体战略的公司老板的必读之书。
  
  
  
  So why leave? Mr Scoble has denied several of the theories circulating in the blogosphere, including that he had become fed up with having his expenses challenged or with sharing an office; that Microsoft challenged his views too often; that he had become frustrated; and that the firm had not tried hard enough to keep him. Still, his friend Dave Winer, another blogger, described Microsoft as a “stifling[2] organisation” before observing that “when he finally decided to leave, it's as if a huge weight came off him, and all of a sudden, the old Scoble is back.” He views Mr Scoble's departure as evidence that Microsoft has been unable to move with the times: “I'm glad to see my old friend didn't go down with the ship.” Another blogger says that his departure heralds the “end of honest blogging”. 那他为什么要离开微软呢?博客界流传着好几种说法,有的说他受够了别人对自己的业务开支说三道四,有的说他无法容忍与别人共用一个办公室,有的说微软公司三番五次对他的观点提出质疑,有的说他遭到了挫折,有的说公司没有竭尽全力挽留他,对此他都予以了否认。此外,他的朋友戴夫•温纳(也是博客作家)说,“他下定决心离职时感到如释重负,刹那间人们熟悉的那个斯高伯又回来了。”然后又说微软是一个“不开明的公司”。他认为,斯考伯的离去证明微软公司无法与时俱进,“很高兴看到我的老朋友没有与微软一起走向没落。”另一个博客作家说,他的离开昭示着“诚实博客的终结”。
  
  (3)The real reason may be less sinister—though troubling for the growing number of employers encouraging their employees to blog. Blogging allows staff to build a personal brand separate from that of their firm; if they are good at it, and build up a readership, that brand may be more valuable to them elsewhere. Mr Scoble is off to join PodTech.net, a rising star in video podcasting, which is now far more fashionable than blogging and potentially far more lucrative[3]. It seems that Mr Scoble is most impressed by Rocketboom, one of whose founders, Amanda Congdon, is said to be drawing 300,000 viewers a day to her videoblog, and is about to start charging advertisers $85,000 a week—almost as much, Mr Scoble is reported as saying, “as I made in an entire year working at Microsoft.”
  真正的原因也许并没有多少不祥的兆头——尽管它令越来越多鼓励员工写博客的老板们不胜其烦。(译者按:“sinister”表示“预兆不祥的,不吉的”,恰好跟上段最后一句中的“herald”呼应,意指“人们纷纷揣测斯考伯离职是因为这样那样的对微软乃至对整个博客界不利的原因,甚至“他的离开可能预示着以后的博客不再敢于说真话了”,而事实上他离职的真正原因是本段后面所说的“另谋高就”,意图寻找更赚钱的工作,比如播客。)博客让员工可以创造一个独立于公司之外的品牌,假如做得不错并拥有一定的读者群,这一品牌或许对公司能起到“无心插柳柳成荫”的作用。斯考伯之所以离职,是因为准备加入PodTech.net公司(注:位于硅谷),这是一家新兴的视频播客公司,而播客如今比博客更时尚,也更有利可图。给斯考伯先生印象最深的还是Rocketboom公司。该公司创始人之一阿曼达•康登的播客据说每天拥有30万的浏览量,她正打算开始向广告客户收取每周85000美元的广告费——有报道引用斯考伯的话说,这几乎等于“我在微软公司干一年挣的钱”。
  
  
  [NOTES](LONGMAN)
  1. back down to admit that you are wrong or that you have lost an argument作出让步;认输
  2. stifling adj. a situation that is stifling stops you from developing your own ideas and character (环境)令人窒息的;压抑的;沉闷的
  3. lucrative adj. a job or activity that is lucrative lets you earn a lot of money [= profitable]有利可图的;赚钱的
  ★ACTIVATE YOUR LANGUAGE
  words for describing a job that you earn a lot from用来表达“赚钱”的词汇:
  well-paid/highly paid • pay well • lucrative
  when a business produces a profit(当生意赚钱时)
  profitable • lucrative • money-spinner赚大钱的人(事) • goldmine财源
  
  
  [TIPS & BACKGROUND]
  1.博客起源及blog一词的理解和使用:
  http://blog.hjenglish.com/chenjilong/articles/358503.html
  2.何为播客?(起源、种类、发展及中国播客现状):
  http://blog.hjenglish.com/chenjilong/articles/358508.html
  
  
楼主东城水岸 时间:2006-07-17 22:36:19
  ☆★☆★第35篇☆★☆★
  
  Ulterior motives
  
  
  
  居心叵测(陈继龙 编译)
  
  
  
  Jun 22nd 2006 | OTTAWA
  From The Economist print edition
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  IN ONE of the more shameful episodes of its past, Canada imposed a hefty head tax _______① all Chinese immigrants in 1885, then banned their entry altogether from 1923 to 1947. For the 15,000 or so Chinese men who had come to build Canada's transcontinental railway and the many more that came thereafter, (1)it became first prohibitively expensive and then impossible to send for their wives and children.
  
  
  
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  以下为回复可见内容
  1885年,加拿大开始向所有华人移民征收沉重的人头税,后来又在1923年至1947年间完全禁止华人移民入境,这是该国历史上发生的较不体面的事件之一。对于到加拿大修建横跨大陆铁路(即太平洋铁路)的大约15000名以及其后到来的更多中国男子而言,要想把他们的妻小接到加拿大,先是代价高得令其望而却步,后来连一点可能也没有了。[/replyview]
  
  
  
  _______② decades, Canadians of Chinese descent have demanded an apology and redress[1]. Successive federal governments ignored them, apologising to various other groups, including 14,000 Japanese-Canadians, who also received C$21,000 each for their internment and property expropriation during the second world war. (2)Fearing this might open the floodgates, a Liberal government declared in 1994 that the past was the past and that no further compensation would be forthcoming.
  [replyview]数十年来,加拿大华裔一直要求道歉和赔偿,可继任的各届联邦政府都置之不理,倒是向其它许多种族进行了道歉,其中包括14000名日裔加拿大人,并给每人发放了21000加元,作为对其在二战时期身遭拘禁和财产被征用的赔偿。由于担心一发不可收拾,1994年自由党政府宣布,过去归过去,以后不会再有进一步的赔偿了。[/replyview]
  
  
  
  (3)Given this, the decision this week by Stephen Harper, the Conservative prime minister, to offer both an apology and compensation to Chinese-Canadians might seem surprising—but not if the politics behind it are taken into account. While only about 20 of those who paid the head tax are still alive and fewer than 300 of their widows, Chinese-Canadians now form a community of around 1m with considerable political and economic clout. And its members form a crucial link _______③ Canada's burgeoning trade with China.
  [replyview]若果真如此,本周保守党总理斯蒂芬•哈珀关于要对华人进行道歉和赔偿的决定就有点出人意料,但要想想其背后隐藏的政治因素,就一点也不会感到奇怪了。虽然当年缴纳人头税的只有大约20人和不到300名遗孀仍健在,但如今加拿大华人已经构成了一个拥有100万左右成员的社团,有着相当大的政治和经济影响力。而且,这些人已成为中加贸易发展的重要纽带。[/replyview]
  
  
  
  Before January's general election, the former Liberal government angered the group by offering a programme of acknowledgment and education to cover all wronged ethnic groups, but no explicit apologies. Mr Harper, whose party lacks support in urban and immigrant communities, adroitly[2] stepped in with a campaign promise both to apologise and to compensate.____________________. (他说到做到。)
  [replyview]在一月份的大选前,上一任自由党政府提出了一项面向所有曾遭受不公平待遇的种族的承认(历史)和教育计划,但并未明确表示歉意,这让华人社团很是愤怒。哈珀的保守党本来是得不到城市居民和侨民团体支持的,这一次他灵机一动站了出来,在竞选中许诺要进行道歉和赔偿。他说到做到。[/replyview]
  
  
  
  Whether this will set a precedent for many other aggrieved[3] groups is doubtful. Some, like the Canadian Jewish Congress, want only acknowledgment rather than financial compensation (for the government's refusal to allow the 907 German Jewish refugees _______④ board the St Louis to land in Canada in 1939). The federal government did set aside C$2.2 billion in the last budget to compensate the children of aborigines[4] who were taken from their parents and abused in residential schools.(4) But that was to resolve a mountain of lawsuits that it was in danger of losing.
  [replyview]这是否会成为其它许多受过不公平对待的种族的先例尚且无法确定。有些团体比如加拿大犹太人代表大会就不需要赔款,只希望政府承认曾于1939年拒绝让圣•路易斯号船上的907名德裔犹太人登陆加拿大。联邦政府确实从上年度财政预算中划拨了22亿加元,用以赔偿那些被强迫离开父母并在寄宿学校遭到虐待的原住民儿童,可这么一来它就要处理一大堆极有可能输掉的官司。(译者注:第一个that指代的是上一句所提到的赔款,第二个that引导的是一个定语从句,修饰a mountain of lawsuits,后者作为从句中lose的宾语,it指代上一句中的the federal government,即the government was in danger of losing a mountain of lawsuits. lose a lawsuit意为“败诉”。)[/replyview]
  
  
  
  Still, there is hope for others if they follow the Chinese-Canadians' lead. A federal election is expected as early as next spring, when Mr Harper hopes to turn his minority _______⑤ a majority. (5)An immigrant group concentrated in an urban area is certain to get the ear of any Conservative candidate. And perhaps an apology too.
  [replyview]其他人如果步加拿大华人的后尘,也是有希望的。联邦选举预计最早将在明年春天举行,哈珀希望到时自己能从少数派成为多数派。所有保守党的候选人肯定都会洗耳恭听市区聚居的侨民团体的诉说,也许还要道个谦吧。(译者注:“get/have somebody's ear”表示“to be trusted by someone so that they will listen to your advice, opinions etc”,即“得到某人信任从而愿意听取你的意见和建议”。第二句为省略句,省略了上句中的主语和谓语以及定语,可还原为“…… is certain to get an apology of any Conservative canditate too”。)[/replyview]
  
  
  
  [QUIZ]
  1. 在文中空白处填入适当的介词:
  
  
  
  2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文):
  
  
  
  3.汉译英(根据译文提示和上下文,在空白处填入相应英文):
  [NOTES](LONGMAN)
  1.redress n. money that someone pays you because they have caused you harm or damaged your property [= compensation]赔款;赔偿
  2. adroit adj. clever and skilful, especially in the way you use words and arguments (用词、论辩)机敏的;熟练的
  3. aggrieved adj. having suffered as a result of the illegal actions of someone else 受虐待的,受侵害的
  4. aborigines n.原住民;土著
  [KEY TO QUIZ]
  [replyview]1. ①on;②For;③in;④on;⑤into
  2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正)
  3.He has been true to his word(注:答案肯定不是唯一,但至少你可以学习作者的写法)
  
楼主东城水岸 时间:2006-07-17 22:39:23
  ☆★☆★第36篇☆★☆★
  
  
  
  Brothers in arms
  袍泽之情(陈继龙 编译)
  
  Jun 29th 2006 | TORONTO
  From The Economist print edition
  
  RAY BLANCHARD, a researcher at Toronto's Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, was reviewing some data a few years ago when he noticed something odd: gay men seemed to have more older brothers than straight men.
  几年前,多伦多毒瘾与心理健康中心研究员雷•布朗夏尔在回顾一些数据时注意到一个奇怪的现象——同性恋男子的哥哥似乎比异性恋男子多。[/replyview]
  
  Intrigued—and sceptical—he decided to investigate. He recruited 302 gay men and the same number of heterosexual controls and inquired about their families. How many siblings[1] did they have, _______① what sex, and how had the births been spaced? How old had their parents been when they had had them? Dr Blanchard found that only one detail seemed to predict sexual orientation: the more elder brothers a man had, the more likely he was to be gay. (1)Neither elder sisters nor younger siblings of either sex had any effect, but each additional elder brother increased his chance of being gay by about 33% from the population average of one man in 50.
  由于对此感到好奇和怀疑,他决定做个调查。他招募了302名同性恋男子和一样多的异性恋男子,并问及一些与家庭有关的问题:有几个兄弟,几个姐妹,前后出生间隔多长时间?出生时父母多大年龄?布朗夏尔博士发现,预示性取向的似乎只有一个细节:哥哥越多,成为同性恋的可能性就越大。姐姐以及弟妹的数量对某人的性取向没有任何影响。一般而言,平均50个男人中就有1人可能成为同性恋,每多一位哥哥,此人成为同性恋的可能性就增加33%左右。(译者注:这句有些费解,我的理解是:from the population average of one man in 50中的“from”与前面的“increase”相对应,也就是在此基础上增加了33%。这个基础就是指“平均每50个男人中就有一个人可能成为同性恋”,这是一般而言的,如果这“一个”人多一位哥哥,他成为同性恋的可能性就增加33%,也就是这个“50分之一”发生的可能性增加33%。有点乱,仅供参考。)
  
  
  
  It was a rather perplexing discovery. It implied either that being brought _______② with a lot of elder brothers affects a boy's sexual orientation, or that a mother's body is somehow able to keep count of how many sons she has conceived, and that this count affects the orientation of future children. (2)Hard as it was to explain, though, the finding was replicated again and again, across different cultures, eras and even psychiatric groups.
  这一发现很是令人费解。它意味着和许多哥哥一起成长会影响某个男孩的性取向,抑或是指母体有可能计下了其曾经孕育的男孩数,而这一计数过程则会影响后出生男孩的性取向。这一现象虽难解释,但是在不同文化、不同时期甚至不同心理状况的人身上都得到了反复再现。
  
  
  
  Those who argued for a social explanation suggested that having lots of elder brothers makes a boy more likely to engage _______③ same-sex play, and might also increase the chance he is a victim of sexual abuse. But, regardless of whether either of these conjectures[2] is true, neither playing with other boys nor sexual abuse has been scientifically linked to homosexuality.
  那些认为应该从社会学角度解释这一现象的人指出,哥哥多会使得一个男孩与同]性别的人在一起玩耍的可能性加大,也更有可能使之成为不正当性行为的受害者。不过,不管这两个猜测哪一个正确,从科学的角度看,同别的男孩一起玩耍或者不正当性行为都与同性恋毫无关联。
  
  
  
  Anthony Bogaert of Brock University in St Catharines, Ontario, therefore decided to examine the other hypothesis—that the phenomenon is caused by something that happens in the womb. He has just published his results in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
  因此,安大略省圣卡他林斯布罗克大学的安东尼•博加尔特决定验证一下另一个假说,亦即此现象是由子宫中发生的某种情况所引起的,其验证结果刚刚发表在《国家科学院学报》上。
  
  
  
  Dr Bogaert reasoned that if the effect were social, elder brothers would wield[3] the same power even if they had not been born _______④ the same mother. Lots of half- or step-siblings, or adopted brothers, for instance, would also cause their younger brothers to be gay. On the other hand, if the effect were really due to birth order, biological brothers would make their younger brothers more likely to be gay even if they did not grow up together; indeed, even if the younger boy grew up without any older boys around at all.
  博加尔特推论,如果影响来自社会生活,哥哥们即便不是出生自同一个母亲,也会对其弟弟造成同样的影响。例如,许多同父异母或被收养的哥哥也能导致其弟弟成为同性恋。从另一点看,如果影响来自出生顺序,那么嫡亲哥哥更可能使其弟弟成为同性恋,就算他们不是在一起长大,亦即年纪小的男孩成长过程中周围没有任何年长男孩。
  
  Dr Bogaert collected a new sample of several hundred men, this time specifically recruiting those who had grown up with “brothers” to whom they were not biologically related. He collected information on how long they had been reared with each sibling, as well as about biological siblings _______⑤ whom they had been separated.
  博尔加特集中研究了另外700名男子,此次专门招募了那些未曾和与自己有血缘关系的“哥哥”一起成长的人。他收集了他们与每一个兄弟共同被抚养的时间以及是否有亲兄弟但被隔离开来等有关资料。
  
  He found that only the number of biological elder brothers had an impact on a later-born boy's sexual orientation; non-biological siblings had no effect. This was true even when a boy had grown up surrounded by an enormous gaggle[4] of non-biological elder brothers. (3)By contrast, elder brothers raised in a separate household “influenced” their younger brothers' sexual orientation in exactly the same way as they would have done had they been living with them.
  他发现,仅亲哥哥的数量对后出生男孩的性取向有影响,而非亲兄弟则没有。就算一个男孩成长中周围有一大群嬉笑打闹的非亲哥哥也是如此。相比之下,生在兄弟彼此分离的家庭环境中的哥哥对其弟弟性取向的影响,实际上同与之共同生活时一样。
  
  Like many of the best pieces of research, this one raises questions, as well as answering them. One is, how does the mother's body keep count of how many sons she has conceived? A second is, how does that change the environment in the womb? A third is, how does that change affect sexual orientation? And a fourth is, is this an accidental effect, or has it evolved for some reason?
  像众多杰出的研究一样,这一研究在提出问题的同时也解决了问题。第一个问题是,母体如何数怀孕过男孩的数目?其二是,这样会造成子宫发生何种改变?其三是,这种改变如何影响性取向?第四个问题则是,这种影响是偶然性的,还是出于某种发育进化上的原因?
  
  To these questions, Dr Bogaert has no answers, though in some cases he has his suspicions. He speculates that, for reasons as yet unknown, a mother's immune system takes note of the number of male offspring and that each succeeding male fetus is subjected to increased levels of antibodies. These somehow affect its development. (4)Clearly, something strange is going on, because things other than sexual orientation are also affected by birth order. Boys with elder brothers are also likely to have larger-than-normal placentas while in the womb. And despite that apparent nutritional advantage (for a larger placenta should be able to draw more food from the mother's bloodstream), they are also likely to have lower birth-weights than would otherwise be expected. 博加尔特博士并没有回答这些问题,但就某些个案提出了自己的猜想。他推测,由于一些尚不为人知的原因,母体免疫系统可监测男性子代的数量,并且升高的抗体水平会影响每一个后孕男胎。这些对胎儿的发育会有一定的影响。不过显然,出生顺序并不单单会影响性取向,因此奇怪的现象层出不穷,比方说,有哥哥的男孩在子宫中的胎盘可能比正常大,而且,尽管具有明显的营养优势(因为大胎盘能从母体血流中摄取更多的养料),他们出生时的体重仍可能比预计的要轻。
  
  (5)Dr Blanchard, meanwhile, calculates that about one gay man in seven can chalk his orientation up to having elder brothers. But _______⑥ the question of whether there is some evolutionary advantage for a mother who has many sons to include a gay one among them, neither he nor Dr Bogaert has an answer.
  与此同时,布朗夏尔统计发现,大约七分之一的同性恋男子认为其性取与自己有哥哥有关。(译者注:chalk sth. up to是指“把……记在……”,引申为“把……归因于”)但是,至于是否存在某种进化优势而使得多子母亲的儿子中出现一个同性恋,无论他还是博尔加特博士,均未给出答案。
  
  [QUIZ]
  1. 选择适当的介词或副词填入文中空白处:
  ①a. from b. with c. of d. by
  ②a. about b. forth c. out d. up
  ③a. in b. on c. with d. for
  ④a. by b. from c. to d. in
  ⑤a. by b. from c. to d. with
  ⑥a. for b. with c. on d. to
  
  
  2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文):
  
  [NOTES](LONGMAN)
  1. sibling n. 兄弟姐妹
  2. conjecture n. 推断;臆说;猜测
  3. wield v. 行使权力,施加影响;挥舞
  4. gaggle n. (吵闹的)一群人;鹅群
  
  [KEY TO QUIZ]
  [replyview]1. c(of what sex ……性别);d(bring up抚养长大);a(engage in从事于);c(to);b(be separated from);d(an answer to)
  2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正)
  
  
楼主东城水岸 时间:2006-07-17 22:41:09
  ☆★☆★第37篇☆★☆★
  
  A stilted story
  踩高跷的故事(陈继龙 编译)
  
  Jun 29th 2006
  From The Economist print edition
  
  
  IF THERE were a Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Ants, Matthias Wittlinger of the University of Ulm, in Germany, would probably be top of its hate list. The reason is that Dr Wittlinger and his colleagues have, as they report in this week's Science, been chopping the feet off ants. And not only that. They have been making other ants walk around on stilts.
  假如有一个皇家防止残害蚂蚁协会的话,德国乌尔姆大学的马提亚•威特林格可能会首当其冲地成为其憎恨对象。这是因为威特林格博士和他的同事们在本周《科学》杂志上报道说他们砍去了一些蚂蚁的脚。这还不算,他们还让别的蚂蚁踩着高跷走路。
  Saharan desert ants of the genus Cataglyphis have to travel long distances to discover food in their impoverished, sandy environment. How they find their way home once they have done so is a mystery. Ants in more temperate climates often lay down chemical trails, but Cataglyphis, apparently, does not. Like honeybees and ancient mariners, they can navigate by the sun, so they know the general direction in which to travel. But, also like ancient mariners (who knew their latitude, but not their longitude), such solar reckoning cannot tell them when to stop.
  撒哈拉沙漠的箭蚁不得不在贫瘠的沙质环境中长途跋涉寻找食物。它们找完食物后如何返回蚁巢却一直是个谜。温和气候环境下的蚂蚁往往会在路途中留下化学记号,可箭蚁显然不会。它们跟蜜蜂和古代海员一样,可以通过日照导航,从而知道出行的大致方向。但是也跟古代海员一样(他们只会辨认纬度不会辨认经度),这种根据太阳测算位置的方法无法告知它们该在何时结束行程。
  
  
  
  Dr Wittlinger, therefore, decided to investigate a century-old hypothesis that desert ants have internal pedometers—in other words, they count their steps out, and they count them back. When one total matches the other, they are home. To test this idea he trained his ants to walk from their nests to a feeding station through a ten-metre-long channel. When they had picked up the food, he caught them and made them return through a different channel, which also led to the nest. (1)When they made this return journey, they began their characteristic nest-searching behaviour, quartering the ground in detail looking for the entrance, after travelling about ten metres.
  所以,威特林格博士决定验证一下一个世纪猜想——沙漠蚂蚁体内含有步数计(里程表),换言之,它们在出行时算好步数,然后再一步步数着返回。等到两者总数吻合时,就“到家”了。为此,威特林格博士对其养殖的蚂蚁进行了训练,让它们经过一条十米长的沟从蚁巢走到一个饲喂点。当它们获取食物后,就把它们捉住,让它们通过另一条通往蚁巢的沟返回。返回时,它们特有的觅巢行为就开始了,即在行走了大约10米远后,它们会在地上仔细地刻下指向蚁巢入口的标记。
  
  
  
  Once the ants had mastered this trick, the experiment proper began. Some ants, when they arrived at the feeding station, had the ends of their legs amputated[1], to shorten their stride length. Others were fitted with stilts in the form of pig-bristles[2] glued to their feet. Both lots were then returned to the feeding station, to make the journey home.
  等到蚂蚁学会了这一窍门,实验才真正开始。有的蚂蚁抵达饲喂点后,就将其腿部末端切除,以缩短其步长。其它的蚂蚁则在其脚部粘上猪鬃,做成高跷。然后,两群蚂蚁均被放还至饲喂点,让其返回蚁巢。
  
  
  (2)As predicted, the ants on stilts, whose stride-length meant their internal pedometers[3] had not clicked enough times, walked blithely[4] past their nests, and were left stranded almost five metres on the far side before they started looking for the hole. Meanwhile, the poor stumped[5] ants travelled only about six metres before they started their search.
  不出所料,踩高跷的蚂蚁由于其步长造成体内步数计无法运作足够次数,因此竟似闲庭信步一般走过了蚁巢,结果在离蚁巢近5米远的地方愣住了,然后才开始继续寻找洞穴。与此同时,遭“截肢”的那些可怜的蚂蚁只走了大约6米远就开始寻找洞穴。
  
  
  
  The story, however, has a happy ending. Having proved his point, Dr Wittlinger returned both stumped and stilted ants to the nest and gave them a few days to recover. Then he let them out for another run. Now that they could re-count their outbound journeys, they were able to calculate the journey home correctly. Ants may not be very bright, but it seems they have a head for figures.
  不过,这个故事的结尾还是令人高兴的。威特林格博士证实其猜想后,又把“截肢”蚂蚁和踩高跷蚂蚁都放回蚁巢,给它们几天时间来康复。然后,他把它们放出去开始又一轮试验。这一次它们可以重新计算出行步数,因此也就可以准确地计算出返程的步履了。蚂蚁也许并不太聪明,但似乎天生就是算术高手。
  
  
  [NOTES](LONGMAN)
  1. amputate v. 切除(手臂、腿等)
  2. pig-bristle n. 猪鬃
  3. pedometer n. 步数计
  4. blithely adv. 无忧无虑地;悠然自得地
  5. stump v. 脚步沉重地行走;绊倒;难住
  
  
楼主东城水岸 时间:2006-07-17 22:43:45
  ☆★☆★第38篇☆★☆★
  
  Come to sunny Colombia
  
  
  
  到阳光明媚的哥伦比亚来吧!(陈继龙 编译)
  
  
  
  Jun 29th 2006 | CIUDAD PERDIDA, COLOMBIA
  From The Economist print edition
  MENTION Colombia, and most people think of cocaine, kidnappings and guerrilla violence. (1)These have served to keep all but the most danger-loving tourists away for decades. But under Álvaro Uribe, Colombia's president since 2002, violence has fallen steadily and many parts of the country have become safe. Now the government is trying to r_______① conventional images of Colombia with different ones: white-sand beaches, colonial cities, jungle-clad mountains and placid coffee farms.
  
  
  
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  以下为回复可见内容
  一说起哥伦比亚,大多数人都会想到可卡因、绑架案和游击队。几十年来,除了那些特别喜欢冒险的人之外,几乎所有游客都对这里望而却步。不过,在2002年上任至今的哥伦比亚总统阿尔瓦罗•乌里韦治下,暴力事件已经稳步减少,大部分地区都已变得安全。政府现在正努力改变哥伦比亚的传统形象,给人们呈现一派迥然不同的景象:洁白的沙滩,殖民时代风格的都市,丛林密布的山岳,还有那静谧的咖啡庄园。[/replyview]
  
  
  
  The tourism campaign has begun at home. This month, during the mid-year school holidays, thousands of Colombians have enjoyed the newly-recovered freedom to travel, using specially policed routes from major cities to favourite holiday spots.________________________(就现在来看,此举旨在打消外国游客的顾虑。)With a promotional b_______② of just $4m this year, the tourism agency is concentrating its efforts on tour operators and cruise[1] and airline executives. This spring, it invited 130 of them to see the country's beaches, its coffee farms and the Amazon region.
  [replyview]旅游发展计划已率先在国内实施。本月正值学校年中假期,成千上万的哥伦比亚人沿着警方专门指定的路线,从大都市走向他们最喜爱的度假胜地,享受着新近恢复的旅游自由。就现在来看,此举旨在打消外国游客的顾虑。今年政府预拨了400万美元用以发展旅游业,有了这笔款项,旅游局得以把主要精力集中到旅行社以及游船和航空公司的管理人员身上。今春,它邀请其中的130位参观了哥伦比亚海滩、咖啡庄园以及亚马逊河流域。[/replyview]
  
  
  
  Mr Uribe has himself l_______③ bosses of cruise-ship firms. (2)This seems to have paid off. In May, Royal Caribbean announced that from next year some of its ships would call at Cartagena, a colonial walled port on the north coast. The Florida Caribbean Cruise Association held its annual meeting in the city last week.
  [replyview]乌利比总统本人也已游说了游船公司的老板,结果看来是一帆风顺。(译者注:根据LONGMAN,“if something you do pays off, it is successful or has a good result”,因此文中的“pay off”是指游说成功,因为其与船有关,故引申为“一帆风顺”。)今年5月,皇家加勒比海公司宣布,明年起其部分船只将停靠卡塔赫纳(位于哥伦比亚北海岸、殖民时期建造的港口城市)。佛罗里达加勒比海游船协会上周还在该市召开了年会。[/replyview]
  
  
  
  Tourism officials expect 1.5m foreign visitors this year, more than 50% up from the 925,000 in 2005. (Mexico, Latin America's top tourist destination, a_______④ 20m foreigners a year.) Lonely Planet, a travel publisher, has chosen Colombia as one of its top ten travel hotspots for 2006, in large part because of the improvement in safety.
  [replyview]旅游官员预计今年将有150万名外国游客前来观光,比2005年的92.5万多出50%以上。(拉丁美洲地区最大的旅游目的地墨西哥平均每年吸引2000万游客。)“孤独行星”旅游出版公司已将哥伦比亚评为2006年度“十大旅游热点地区”之一,这主要得益于其安全状况的改善。[/replyview]
  
  
  
  But care is still needed. Lonely Planet advises tourists to steer clear of[2] Chocó on the Pacific coast, Putumayo in the far south and “anywhere east of the Andes”, where there are still guerrillas. America's State Department and the British Foreign Office also w________⑤ travellers against wandering into rural areas.
  [replyview]不过还是要留点神。“孤独行星”公司建议游客避开太平洋沿岸的乔格、最南端的普土马由河地区以及“安第斯山脉东部各地区”,因为这些地方仍有游击队出没。美国国务院和英国外交部也提醒游客不要到乡下去。[/replyview]
  
  
  
  Even so, groups of foreign h________⑥ have recently taken to visiting Ciudad Perdida, one of the largest and oldest pre-Columbian settlements in the Americas, in the jungles of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. The area is still home to leftist[3] guerrillas and remnants of their arch-enemies[4], the right-wing paramilitary militias. (3)But the fact that many other parts of what is a large and physically beautiful country are now safe to visit amounts to progress.
  [replyview]即便如此,成群结队的外国徒步旅行者最近还是纷纷前往位于内华达山脉圣马尔塔的丛林中的,美洲地区最大、最古老的早期土著定居地丘达特-佩尔地达。该地区至今仍是左翼游击队和右翼民兵残余势力(左翼的死敌)的大本营。但是,在这个疆域辽阔、风景秀丽的大国,其它大部分地区都是可以放心游览的,而且实际状况仍在不断改善之中。(译者注:physically是指“按自然性质地”。)[/replyview]
  [QUIZ]
  1. 根据首字母以及括号内的词性提示和英文释义填入单词(注意复数、时态形式变化等):
  ①r________(v. to put something new in the place of something old, damaged, or broken)
  ②b________(n. the money that is available to an organization or person)
  ③l________(v. to try to persuade the government or someone with political power)
  ④a________(v. to make someone interested in something, or make them want to take part in something)
  ⑤w________ (v. to tell someone about something before it happens so that they are not worried or surprised by it)
  ⑥h_________ (n. someone who walks long distances in the mountains or country for pleasure)
  2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文):
  3.汉译英(根据译文提示和上下文,在空白处填入相应英文):
  [NOTES](LONGMAN)
  1. cruise n. 乘船游览;(在大船上度过的)假期
  2. steer clear of 避开,绕开
  3. leftist n.&adj. 左翼(的);左派(的);左撇子(的)
  4. archenemy n.主要敌人
  [KEY TO QUIZ]
  [replyview]1. ①replace 替换,替代(近义词:renew,change)
  ②budget 预算;
  ③lobbied 游说(lobby for/against;lobby sb. to do sth.)
  ④attracts 吸引;
  〔附注〕
  (1)“使某人喜欢或想要做某事”可用:attract, tempt, seduce
  (2)“使某人想去某地”可用:attract, draw, bring in, lure
  (3)“两性之间有吸引力”,“迷人、魅惑”可用:be attracted to, fancy, be interested in, want, lust after
  ⑤warn 提醒
  〔附注〕“提醒(警告)某人某事”可用:warn • give somebody a warning • warn off • caution • tip off • alert • sound/raise the alarm • forewarn • I told you!/I told you so!
  ⑥hikers 远足者;徒步旅行者
  2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正)
  3.The aim now is to convince foreigners.(注:答案肯定不是唯一,但至少你可以学习作者的写法)
  
  
楼主东城水岸 时间:2006-07-17 22:45:13
  ☆★☆★第39篇☆★☆★
  
  Selling the sage of Qufu
  
  推销孔圣人(陈继龙 编译)
  
  Jul 6th 2006 | TOKYO
  From The Economist print edition
  
  
  THE old man would surely be proud. This week some 300 representatives, from 35 different countries, gathered in Beijing's Great Hall of the People for the first-ever Confucius Institute conference. (1)This was no philosophical pow-wow[1], but the world's largest-ever conference on teaching Chinese as a foreign language. Confucius Institutes are China's answer to the Alliance Française, Germany's Goethe Institut and the British Council, and officials hope they will help meet a growing global demand for Chinese-language education.
  孔老夫子肯定会感到自豪。本周,来自35个国家的近300名代表在北京人民大会堂召开了首届孔子学院大会。这不是一次讨论哲学思想的会议,而是迄今为止最大的一次研究对外汉语教学的大会。孔子学院的意义如同法兰西联谊会、德国歌德学院和英国文化协会,中国官员希望它将有助于满足全球对汉语教学日益增长的需求。(译者注:“sb’s answer to somehitng”是指“someone or something that is considered to be just as good as a more famous person or thing”,即“与……一样有名、出色”、“具有与……等同的意义或重要性”)
  
  Confucius Institutes have got off to a roaring start. The first was established in Tashkent in Uzbekistan in June 2004, the 75th in Cracow in Poland exactly two years later. No other Chinese international franchise has done as well. Officially, they are overseen by Hanban, the agency charged by the Education Ministry with promoting the teaching of Chinese overseas. (2)But Hanban's staff of only around 50 can barely cope with the volume of applications, on top of[2] its other duties which include administering Hanyu Shuipin Kaoshi, the standard test of proficiency in Chinese.
  孔子学院一开始发展就非常迅猛。(译者注:get off to a bad/good start意为“开局不顺/顺利”,roaring表示“迅猛的”)第一所孔子学院于2004年6月在乌兹别克斯坦塔什干成立,短短两年后在波兰克拉科夫就成立了第75所。目前中国还没有哪一家国际机构能与之媲美。这些孔子学院的官方主管部门为国家汉办(国家汉语国际推广领导小组办公室),后者是教育部下属机构,负责海外汉语教学推广。不过,仅有50名左右工作人员的汉办实在难以应付纷至沓来的办学申请,而且它还担负其它一些职责比如汉语水平考试管理(考查汉语掌握程度的标准考试)。
  
  So Hanban has let the network grow organically. One key to its success has been the use of joint ventures. The institutes are not run by Hanban, but by partnerships between Chinese universities and local universities in the host country. The host university takes the responsibility for housing the institute; its Chinese partner provides the teaching staff and materials.
  因此,汉办循序渐进地扩大办学网络。其成功的秘诀之一是采取合资办学的方式。这些学院不归汉办管理,而归一些中国大学和所在国大学联合主办。所在国大学负责安排校舍,而中方则负责提供师资和教材。
  
  (3)A second advantage is the institutes' ability to adapt to local demands, rather than following a set curriculum. Thus, in Nairobi, you can learn how to make Tianjin dumplings, while in Singapore you can sign up for a 14-day study tour of the sage's hometown, Qufu, in Shandong province.
  这种做法的第二个好处在于,学院可以因地制宜,而不用遵循固定课程模式。这样一来,在内罗毕可以学做天津包子,而在新加坡则可以报名参加赴孔圣人故乡——山东曲阜的为期14天的学术旅行团。
  
  (4)Hanban claims that the primary role of the Confucius Institutes is to teach Chinese, but their name is also evocative of China's former influence in Asia, and its growing presence now. Despite the iciness of official relations between China and Japan, universities there are falling over each other to set up the next institute. Already there are four, the most in any Asian country; the number is set to double by the end of the year. Even in the 21st century, Confucius is proving to be China's best ambassador.
  汉办称,孔子学院的首要任务是汉语教学,但是它们的名字也让人想起了中国在亚洲曾经拥有的影响力及其越来越重要的地位。虽然目前中日官方之间关系冷淡,但是日方的大学都在争先恐后地申办孔子学院。日本现已有4所孔子学院,居亚洲各国之首,到今年年底这一数字肯定还会翻一番。虽说已经到了21世纪,但事实表明孔子仍是中国最杰出的使者。
  
  
  [NOTES](LONGMAN)
  1. pow-wow n. (北美印第安人)议事会;会议,聚会
  2. on top of 另外,紧接着(祸不单行)
  
  
楼主东城水岸 时间:2006-07-17 22:47:47
  ☆★☆★第40篇☆★☆★
  
  The bane of Italy
  
  祸起意大利(陈继龙 编译)
  
  Jun 29th 2006
  From The Economist print edition
  
  
  
  ALEXANDER STILLE'S new book on Silvio Berlusconi, the flamboyant[1] former Italian prime minister, is neither a biography nor a work of investigative journalism. Its real value is that it represents the first attempt, in English at least, to recount in a readable fashion the story, not of Mr Berlusconi himself, but of Berlusconi-ism. (1)That gives it a wide appeal, for, as its author argues persuasively, Berlusconi-ism is the extrapolation[2] to grotesque[3] extremes of a phenomenon that has gradually, and all too imperceptibly, become widespread.
  亚历山大•斯蒂莱的新作写的是个性张扬的意大利前任总理西尔维奥•贝鲁斯科尼,但它并非是一本传记,也不是新闻调查作品。其真正的价值在于,它首次尝试以一种可读性较强的风格,记述了“贝鲁斯科尼主义”而不是贝鲁斯科尼的生平。这也是本书独具魅力之所在,因为诚如作者很有说服力地论证的那样,“贝鲁斯科尼主义”是对某种现象怪诞至极时的推论,这种现象日趋普遍而所有人却都浑然不觉。
  
  
  
  Mr Stille is at his best when he describes how a man with a corporation with billions of dollars of debt succeeded in less than eight months, between 1993 and 1994, in turning himself into his country's leader. (2)Along the way, he identifies various keys to Mr Berlusconi's success.
  斯蒂莱先生最出彩的描写是,一个拥有一家债台高筑的公司的人,如何在1993年至1994年间的短短8个月内,成功地使自己成为国家领导人。他在书中一一揭示了贝鲁斯科尼的成功要诀。
  
  
  
  One was the unprecedented application of modern business methods to Italian politics. Mr Berlusconi's campaign organisers set up pay-as-you-go[4] phone numbers so voters paid to listen to Mr Berlusconi and the stars of his television empire. Party candidates were required to spend the equivalent of $800 on a kit, similar to a salesman's kit, with a manual on how to communicate with voters. Advice included: “If you use a public toilet and it's dirty, clean it, otherwise those who come after you will think you dirtied it.”
  其一,史无前例地将现代商业手段运用于意大利政治。贝鲁斯科尼的竞选策划人开通了付费电话,选民可以付费打电话给贝鲁斯科尼及其所属电视集团的明星们。党内各候选人必须花800美元购置一个工具包(类似于销售员的工具包),包里面揣一本选民沟通指南。其中指导建议包括:“要是你上公共厕所,但厕所很脏,那就弄干净它,否则随后进来的人会以为是你弄脏的。”
  
  
  
  (3)Then there was Mr Berlusconi's own exploitation of “anti-politics”, his depiction of himself as an outsider—a technique that allowed him to tap into a rich vein[5] of support among mainly poor, rural and poorly educated voters who distrusted the institutions. Finally, of course, there was television. Mr Stille produces evidence to demonstrate its influence: “A study of female former Christian Democrat voters showed that an astonishing 75% of those who watched four or more hours of TV a day cast their ballot for Berlusconi, while only 40% of those who watched two hours or less did so.”
  其次,贝鲁斯科尼独创了“反政治学”,亦即把自己说成是“一个局外人”——这一伎俩使他赢得了贫困、乡村以及没怎么受过教育的选民的支持,这些人往往都不信任政府机构。最后,当然还有电视。斯蒂莱先生充分举证了贝鲁斯科尼的影响力:“对前基督教民主党女性选民的调查显示,每天收看4小时以上电视节目的女选民中,竟有75%的人投票给贝鲁斯科尼,而收看2小时以下的只有40%。”
  
  He acknowledges that his subject's rise to power (and, to an even greater extent, his return to power in 2001 after six years in opposition) was fostered by some of the specific characteristics of Italian society. Italians were, and are, largely unconcerned by Mr Berlusconi's conflicts of interest. Indeed, a survey during the 2001 election found that almost a quarter of voters thought that Mr Berlusconi's personal interests meant he would “govern the country better”. (4)Nor are Italians overly concerned by the sort of illegality of which their former leader has been repeatedly accused by the judiciary. Above all, though, Mr Stille argues, Italy is a “weak democracy with few institutional checks and balances.”
  贝鲁斯科尼承认,他之所以能掌权(并且从更大程度上说他能在下野6年后于2001年再次掌权),完全拜某些意大利社会特色所赐。过去和现在的意大利人大都对贝鲁斯科尼的利益纷争无动于衷,事实上2001年选举期间开展的一项调查也发现,几乎1/4的选民认为贝鲁斯科尼的个人利益就是指他会“把国家管好”。意大利人对司法部一再指控他们的前任领导人所谓的违法行为也漠不关心。不过,斯蒂莱先生认为,主要还是因为意大利是一个“机构上几乎缺乏相互制衡的脆弱的民主国度”。
  
  Mr Stille's book is ill-timed: Mr Berlusconi has just been voted out of office and, at 69, his chances of returning are slim. But the Berlusconi formula, which Mr Stille sums up as “money + media + celebrity = political power”, is by no means applicable only to Italy. Some or all of the same basic elements are there in other politicians, particularly in America: in Arnold Schwarzenegger, Michael Bloomberg and Jesse Ventura, a former professional wrestler who became governor of Minnesota. (5)“Silvio Berlusconi”, writes Mr Stille, “may appear at times a caricature, but in fact he is a reflection of ourselves in a fun-house mirror, our features distorted and exaggerated but distinctly recognisable.”
  斯蒂莱先生的这本著作没赶上好时候——贝鲁斯科尼刚刚落选离任,69岁的他要想东山再起机会渺茫。不过,斯蒂莱先生归纳的“贝鲁斯科尼公式”,即“金钱+媒体+名流=政权”,绝不仅仅适用于意大利。其中一些或者所有的基本组成要素同样存在于其他政客,尤其是在美国——阿诺•施瓦辛格、迈克尔•彭博以及耶西•文图拉(前职业拳手,后成为明尼苏达州州长)。斯蒂莱先生写道:“西尔维奥•贝鲁斯科尼可能时常成为人们讽刺的对象,但实际上他好比一面哈哈镜,从他身上,我们看到了我们自己,看到我们扭曲、夸张而又清晰可辨的一面。”
  
   [NOTES](LONGMAN)
  1. flamboyant adj. behaving in a confident or exciting way that makes people notice you自命不凡的;神气活现的;浮华的;耀眼的;引人注目的
  2. extrapolation n. 推论,推知;外推
  3. grotesque adj. 非常讨厌的;无礼的;怪诞的,奇异的
  4. pay-as-you-go adj. 付费的(电话或网络服务)
  5. a (rich) vein of (很)有几分
  
作者:王荣欣 时间:2006-09-01 17:16:24
  喜欢简洁的译文。
  
  
  第四篇   Feb 16th 2006 Stuff of dreams
   Barry's prolific historical paintings demonstrate his ambition to rival the painters of antiquity and the Renaissance and to practise what the then president of the RA, Sir Joshua Reynolds, always preached—that history painting was the noblest form of art.
  他的众多历史性画作都表明,他热望与古代以及文艺复兴时期的画家相抗衡,始终信奉历史画乃是最为尊贵的艺术形式,而这恰恰也是皇家美术学院当时的院长约书亚.雷诺兹爵士所一直倡导的。
  
  》》》 Barry的不少历史画 表明了 他想与古代及文艺复兴的画家比肩的雄心,并实践了“历史画是最尊贵的艺术形式” 的说法(时任皇家美术学院院长的约书亚.雷诺兹爵士一直倡导)。
   何为“热望”?没有“始终信奉”的意思。
  
  His melodramatic “King Lear Weeping over the Body of Cordelia” and his sexually charged “★Jupiter and Juno on Mount Ida[7]”, now both part of a retrospective of the artist's work in Cork
  巴里的情景画《泪洒Cordelia亡体的李尔王》以及他那幅洋溢着性爱的《艾达峰上的朱庇特和朱诺》,现已成为科克城(爱尔兰南部港口城市)艺术家作品回顾展的一部分。
  》》》sexually charged 该怎么翻译?“洋溢着性爱”?读不懂。
  
  The ★erotic[23] drawings and prints by him and his pupil Theodor von Holst are so explicit that the Tate has hung a veil between them and Fuseli's popular fairy paintings nearby, which are a favourite with children.
  
  由于富塞利及其学生霍尔斯特的素描和版画色情描绘过于直接,泰特美术馆就悬挂起一块幕布,将在这些画与近旁富塞利那些迎合大众的、尤其是孩子们最爱看的仙女画隔开。
  》》》Fuseli和他学生Holst的素描和版画 表现色情太明显了,Tate美术馆就挂起幕布,与旁边Fusel受欢迎的、孩子们最喜爱的仙女画隔开。
  何为“将在”?没有“迎合大众”的意思。
  
  
  第九篇 Feb 16th 2006 Ready, fire, aim
  No doubt (2)the good people ▲at politicalgraveyard will soon update their site. Ever since Dick Cheney took aim at a quail on February 11th and hit a 78-year-old lawyer instead, America has been talking of little else.
  政治墓园网站指定要更新他们的网页了。2月11日,迪克•切尼瞄准一只鹌鹑,结果却击中一位78岁的律师。自那以后美国人无不对此议论纷纷。
  》》》政坛坟场网无疑会迅速更新网页了,自从2月11日切尼瞄准一只鹌鹑,却换成击中一位78岁的律师,美国人 大谈特谈。
  何为“指定”?
  
  
  第十篇Feb 23rd 2006  Ominous 不祥之兆
  
  It is easy to see why some believe that bird flu could turn out to be primarily a development—rather than just a health—issue for the whole African continent.
   所以不难理解,为什么有人认为,禽流感所引发的不仅仅是健康问题,更主要的还是发展问题。
  》》》很容易看出,禽流感引发的主要是发展问题,整个非洲大陆的问题,并非仅是卫生问题。
  
  第二十五篇
  The evidence in the case comes from prosecutors in Naples who are looking into 19 games that were played in Italy's top division in the 2004-05 season.
  证据来自那不勒斯检察官,他们对意大利足球甲级联赛2004~2005赛季中的19场比赛进行了调查
  》》》19场。
  
  第二十七篇
  
  Even living artists are selling for unprecedented sums.
  就连健存画家的作品也创下了前所未有的高价。
  
  》》》在世的画家。
  
  
作者:中山慕容 时间:2006-09-01 18:16:17
  楼主精神可嘉, 水平也很高. 但可惜"ECONOMIST"是一本对母语是英语的人来说也不容易看懂的杂志, 倒不是英语有多深,是所讲的内容之广和深奥. 楼主贴到天涯, 恐怕懂欣赏的人不多啊. 其实对国人来说, 翻译最难的倒是中译英, 有机会楼主能否开个中译英的贴子?
作者:sevenyears_zuo 时间:2006-10-27 21:27:49
  难得的强贴,一定要顶......
楼主东城水岸 时间:2007-05-18 23:06:52
  ★★第41篇★★
  
  Little love lost
  爱意难寻(陈继龙 编译)
  
  Jun 29th 2006 | PARIS
  From The Economist print edition
  
  “THIS is a marriage of reason,” said Joseph Kinsch, chairman of Arcelor, when he presented the proposed merger of the Luxembourg-based steelmaker and Mittal Steel to the press on June 26th. It was certainly not love at first sight. For almost five months Mr Kinsch and Guy Dollé, the company's chief executive, used every defence they could to rebuff[1] Mittal's hostile bid. They mobilised politicians, bankers, public-relations advisors and—in what was meant to be the fatal blow to Mittal's bid—a white knight in the guise of[2] Severstal, a Russian steelmaker. But clarity came after a nine-hour meeting on June 25th when Arcelor's board at last agreed to sell the company to Mittal Steel for cash and stock valued at €25.6 billion ($32.2 billion).
  6月26日,阿塞洛公司董事长约瑟夫•金希向新闻界宣布该钢铁公司(总部位于卢森堡)与米塔尔公司的合并计划时说:“这是一次理智的联姻。”这肯定不是一见钟情。近5个月来,金希和该公司CEO盖伊•道勒千方百计阻止米塔尔公司不怀好意的收购。他们发动政治家、银行家、公共关系顾问来帮忙,甚至请俄罗斯Severstal钢铁公司扮演“白衣骑士”,意欲给米塔尔的收购以致命的一击。不过,6月25日,经过长达9个小时的会议之后,一切都水落石出。会上,阿塞洛董事会最终同意将公司以“现金加股票”的方式卖给米塔尔,总价为256亿欧元(约合322亿美元)。
  
  The merger will create by far the world's largest steelmaker in terms of market value, revenue and output. It is good news for Arcelor, for Mittal—and the whole steel industry. The two companies complement each other in geography and the types of steel they produce. Their union is likely to inspire more mergers and takeovers that will increase the industry's efficiency. One banker in the deal says all steelmakers are now asking themselves what they should do next.
  综合市场价值、销售收入和钢产量来看,此次并购将造就迄今为止世界上最大的钢铁公司。这对阿塞洛、米塔尔乃至整个钢铁工业来而言都是好消息。两家公司在地理范围和产品类型方面都有较强的互补性。它们的联合有可能激励更多的公司实施并购和接管,从而将提高整个产业的生产效率。参与此次并购的一位银行家说,现在所有的钢铁公司都在盘算下一步的行动。
  
  Because about half of the global steel market is still parochial[3] and fragmented, size brings many advantages. Big companies have more power to negotiate with suppliers and are better able to withstand the industry's cycle. They can exploit synergies in purchasing, and in manufacturing as well as in marketing and trading. Some small producers with a focus on a niche in the market, such as Sweden's SSAB, a company specialising in high-strength steel, are very profitable. But small steelmakers without their own technological edge are unlikely to survive.
  由于全球近半数的钢铁市场仍带有较强的地方色彩,而且都处于各自为政的状态,因此企业规模可以带来许多有利条件。大型公司在与供应商谈判时更有底气,也更善于应对产业周期带来的冲击。它们在采购、制造以及营销和贸易等方面可以充分发挥协同作用。一些小型公司则瞄准一些利基市场,比如瑞典的瑞钢集团就是专营高强度钢铁,利润十分可观。但是缺乏自身技术优势的小钢铁公司则将难以立足。
  
  Further consolidation is likely to make the industry healthier. After a painful crisis it has returned to profitability thanks to robust economic growth. In Europe consolidation came to a halt after three big mergers at the end of the last decade. Thyssen and Krupp of Germany joined forces in 1997. Two years later British Steel and Hoogovens of the Netherlands formed Corus. And in 2001 Arcelor was born after Usinor of France merged with Luxembourg's Arbed and Aceralia of Spain. Corus is considered a takeover target while ThyssenKrupp is determined to stay independent—at least for the moment. Hence most of the mergers will probably be in emerging economies. For instance, although China accounts today for one-third of global demand, Baosteel, its biggest producer, is much smaller than Arcelor.
  进一步的行业整合将会令整个钢铁工业更加健康。由于经济增长有力,钢铁工业虽然会经历一段痛苦的危机,但很快就能获得较好的回报。在欧洲,自从上世纪90年代末三次强强联手以后,行业整合便已告一段落。1997年,德国Thyssen和Krupp联合。两年后,英国钢铁公司与荷兰的Hoogovens合并为Corus公司。2001年,法国Usinor与卢森堡Arbed和西班牙Aceralia并组建成了阿塞洛公司。现在有公司正考虑接管Corus,而Thyssen-Krupp公司则决定独善其身——至少目前是这样。所以,未来大多数并购可能发生在一些新兴经济体系。例如,中国的钢铁需求量现占全球市场的三分之一,但其最大的钢铁公司宝钢仍然比阿塞洛小许多。
  
  Lakshmi Mittal, the boss of Mittal Steel, believes that ultimately the industry is likely to be dominated by a handful of producers of more than 100m tonnes a year. His proposed behemoth[4], at any rate, will produce some 120m tonnes a year. But the deal is not quite done yet. First, on June 30th, at least half Arcelor's shareholders must vote against the proposed merger with Severstal to stop it.
  米塔尔公司老总拉克什米•米塔尔认为,钢铁工业最终将会成为少数年钢产量超过1亿吨公司的天下,而他一手策划的钢铁巨擘年产量至少将达到1.2亿吨。不过,此项收购尚未大功告成。首先必须要做的是,阿塞洛公司至少半数的股东必须于6月30日通过投票反对与Severstal钢铁公司的合并。
  
  That seems likely. Mr Mittal's bid is now 49% higher than it was in January. He has made further concessions to get Arcelor's bosses to concede defeat, contenting himself with a 43.6% stake in the new company. He gave Arcelor four of the seven seats on the management board. Mr Kinsch will be chairman of Arcelor Mittal, as the company will be called, and a bitterly disappointed Mr Dollé will depart.
  这看来是有可能的。米塔尔现在的出价要比一月份时高出49%。为了让阿塞洛高层人员投子认输,他还作出了进一步让步,即甘愿只要新公司43.6%的股份。新公司将命名为阿塞洛-米塔尔公司,他将新公司董事会的7个席位留了4席给阿塞洛。金希将担任新公司总裁,而失望透顶的道勒则将离职。
  
  Several shareholders, including Romain Zaleski, Arcelor's biggest, with a 7.8% stake, have decided to vote against a merger with Severstal. Even if the Russian deal is approved, Mr Mittal can still scupper[5] it, by buying 73% of Arcelor shares through his own tender offer before it expires in July. Again, Mr Zaleski has promised his backing.
  包括罗曼•扎尔斯基(阿塞洛最大股东,拥有7.8%股份)在内的几位股东已经决定投票反对与Severstal的合并。即便与俄罗斯人的合并案获得通过,米塔尔仍可以在7月份收购要约失效以前通过购买阿塞洛73%的股权来达成自己的目标。扎尔斯基对此再次表示了支持。
  
  Mr Kinsch, for one, seems resigned to the merger going ahead. He said that he hopes that it will eventually become a marriage of hearts. He also denied any regret for the insults he and his lieutenants hurled[6] at the Indian-born entrepreneur's company and culture, including a dismissal[7] of Mittal shares as “monkey money[8]”. Such behaviour was forgotten, he declared, as soon as everyone sat down together at the same table. That sentiment would have sounded more convincing coming from Mr Mittal.
  单就金希来说,他似乎已经默许了这次合并。他说他希望这最终会是一次真心诚意的联姻。可对于他和他的副手曾经恶语中伤这位印度企业家的公司和文化,以及将米塔尔所占股份看成是“猴子钱”而对其不屑一顾,他并不感到后悔。他声称,等到大家坐到一起的时候,就会把这些事忘掉。如果这是米塔尔的感想,听上去就会更加令人心悦诚服了。
  
  [NOTES](LONGMAN)
  1. rebuff v. 回绝;怠慢
  2. in the guise of 打着……的幌子
  3. parochial adj. 受地方限制的;狭隘的
  4. behemoth n. 庞然大物
  5. scupper v. 破坏(计划)
  6. hurl v. (at)对……破口大骂
  7. dismissal n. 解除;不予考虑
  8. monkey money n. 公司临时股票;外国货币
  [TIPS & BACKGROUND]
  1.白衣骑士(white knight):为鼓励另一家企业进行成功的公司兼并,一个善意的第三方加入以击退另一竞买者。
  2.猴子钱(monkey money):公司的临时股票,外国货币。米塔尔是一家印度公司,这么说有种族歧视的意味。
  
楼主东城水岸 时间:2007-05-18 23:14:12
  ☆★第42篇★☆
  
  Shrinking wireless
  微缩无线(陈继龙 编译)
  
  Jun 29th 2006
  From The Economist print edition
  
  THE miniaturisation of the components of computer chips has proved unstoppable. In each new generation, those components are smaller and more tightly packed than they were in its predecessor. Progress has been so rapid that chip designers are approaching apparently fundamental barriers to further reductions in size and increases in density. One of these is imposed by the need to wire the components in a chip together, so that they can exchange signals. But, in a miniaturised version of the shift to wireless communication in the macroscopic world, a group of researchers led by Alain Nogaret of the University of Bath, in England, think they can make chips whose components talk to each other wirelessly.
  事实证明,计算机芯片元件的微型化已经势不可挡。新一代芯片的元件越来越小,压缩也越来越紧密。发展如此之快,致使芯片设计者在进一步缩小元件尺寸、提高元件密集度上逐渐遇到了许多根本性难题。其中之一就是必须将某一芯片中的所有元件用线连接起来,以便于各元件之间可以交换信号。不过,英国巴思大学的亚莱恩•诺加雷特负责的一个研究小组认为,通过在微型条件下实现宏观意义上的无线通信,他们可以制造出具有无线信息交互元件的芯片。
  
  At present, the electronics that transmit and receive the radio waves used in wireless devices are too large to be used within individual chips. But Dr Nogaret believes he can overcome this. Last week he and his colleagues at three other British universities, another in Belgium and a research institute in France won the money to try to build such a device.
  当前,无线设备中采用的无线电波输送和接收电子器件都过大,无法应用于单个芯片。但是诺加雷特博士相信可以解决这一问题。上周,他和来自另外三所英国大学、一所比利时大学以及法国一研究院的同事们争取到了研制这一设备的资金。
  
  The researchers intend to use the standard lithographic[1] techniques employed in chipmaking to coat a semiconductor with microscopic magnets. These magnets will generate local magnetic fields that point in opposite directions at different points on the chip's surface. Electrons have a property called spin[2] that is affected by magnetic fields, and the team hopes to use an effect called inverse electron-spin resonance to make electrons passing through the chip emit microwaves.
  研究人员拟应用芯片制作中所用的标准平版印刷技术,将许多极小的磁铁包被到一块半导体上。这些磁铁可产生局部磁场,从相反的方向作用于芯片表面不同位点。电子具有一种自旋特性,可受磁场影响,因此研究小组希望利用一种“反电子自旋谐振”效应,让穿过芯片的电子发射微波。
  
  The technique they are proposing is the reverse of the process in medical magnetic-resonance imaging. In MRI, the patient is placed in a strong magnetic field that causes some of his body's atomic nuclei, which act like tiny magnetised spinning tops, to align[3] themselves with the field. These nuclei are then zapped[4] briefly with a second magnetic field that knocks them out of alignment with the first one. The coils in the scanning apparatus detect these magnetic changes, which are used to build up a map of the part of the body being examined. After a few seconds, the nuclei realign themselves with the field, radiating small amounts of energy as heat or, more rarely, as radio waves.
  他们计划采用的此项技术与医学上的核磁共振成像(MRI)过程恰好相反。MRI是将患者置于某一强磁场中,该磁场可让患者机体原子核(其运动类似于磁化的陀螺)顺着磁场方向排列。然后,用第二个磁场短时轰击这些原子核,使其脱离第一个磁场阵列。扫描仪上的线圈探测到这些磁场变化,并以此构建出患者受检部位的图谱。几秒钟后,原子核沿磁场方向重新排列,同时放射出少量热能或者无线电波(较少见)。
  
  In chips, Dr Nogaret proposes to use the spin of the electron rather than the spin of the atomic nucleus. Electrons flowing through the chip would “see” a magnetic field that flips from one direction to the opposite every few hundred nanometres (billionths of a metre). This is the equivalent of zapping a stationary object with an oscillating[5] magnetic field of the sort used in MRI. The changing magnetic field would force the electrons to oscillate, too, but would not allow them to radiate heat. As a result, they would be forced to emit radio waves—or, rather, microwaves, which are similar but of shorter wavelength.
  而就芯片而言,诺加雷特博士打算利用电子而非原子核的自旋。穿过芯片的电子可以“识别”某一磁场,该磁场每隔几百纳米(十亿分之一米)就变换一次方向。这相当于不断摆动MRI中的磁场,并令其轰击某一静止物体。不断变化的磁场也可促使电子来回摆动,但不使其散射热能。这样一来,电子仅可发射无线电波或者更好是微波,后者与无线电波类似,但波长较短。
  
  Dr Nogaret envisages great advances that would stem from the success of his work, and these are not confined to the possibility of packing components yet more tightly. In today's chips, the failure of a single connection can put the whole circuit out of action. This should not happen with a wireless system because it could be programmed to re-route[6] signals. Manufacturers could thus relax their standards and produce chips that were cheaper than, but as reliable as, their predecessors.
  诺加雷特博士设想此项工作一旦成功将会带来重大突破,而且不仅仅局限于将各元件压缩得更为紧密。目前的芯片某一条连接出现故障就可能导致整个电路无法运转,而采用无线系统就不会发生这样的问题,因为可以通过程序控制将信号改道。这样的话,制造商就可以放宽标准,生产出比以前便宜但质量同样可靠的芯片。
  
  The project will not be plain sailing. Generating microwaves powerful enough to transmit data reliably will probably involve stacking several layers of magnets and semiconductors together and encouraging the electrons in them to oscillate in unison[7]. But if it works, a whole new wireless world will be opened up.
  这个项目不会是一帆风顺的。如要形成足以准确传输数据的强大微波,可能不但需要叠加数层磁铁和半导体,而且要促使其中的电子协调一致的摆动。可它一旦获得成功,就将开启一个全新的无线世界。
  
   [NOTES](LONGMAN)
  1. lithographic adj. 平版印刷的
  2. spin n. 自旋
  3. align v. 排列
  4. zap v. 打击;轰击
  5. oscillate v. 持续振荡,摇动;摇摆不定
  6. re-route v. 变向发送;改道
  7. in unison 完全一致;完全协调
  [TIPS & BACKGROUNDS]
  核磁共振的基本原理
  自然界中任何原子核的内部均含有质子和中子,统称核子,都带正电荷。核子具有自旋性,由此产生自旋磁场。具有偶数核子的许多原子核在自旋磁场中相互抵消,不能产生核磁共振现象。只有具有奇数核子的原子核才能产生磁场,如1H(氢)、13C(碳)、19F(氟)、31P(磷)。氢原子是人体内数量最多的物质,原子核中只含有1个质子而不含中子,最不稳定,最易受外加磁场的影响而产生核磁共振现象。氢质子带有一个正电荷,又能自旋,其周围形成一个小磁场,产生了某一方向的磁矩。
  在无外加磁场的时候,平常人的氢质子杂乱无章的排列着,磁矩方向不一,相互抵消。人体进入强大均匀的外加磁场B0后,体内所有自旋的混杂的氢质子,其磁矩将重新定向,按量子力学规律纷纷从杂乱无章状态变成顺着外加磁场B0的方向(E方向)排列,绝大部分与B0方向一致(处于低能级),少数与B0方向相反(处于高能级),最后达到动态平衡。通过表面线圈施加一个与B0方向垂直的射频脉冲,受检部位的氢质子吸收能量向垂直与E方向的XY平面偏转;射频脉冲中断后,氢质子放出吸收的能量并回到E方向;释放出的能量转化为MR信号;在梯度磁场辅助下转化为MR图像。
  因此,“核”的意思是指核磁共振成像主要涉及到的原子核(尤其是氢原子核)。“磁”有两个含义:1、强大均匀的外加磁场B0。2、叠加一个小的射频磁场和梯度磁场。“共振”是宏观世界中常见的自然现象。原子核间能量的吸收及释放可产生共振,处于低能级的氢原子核吸收的能量恰好等于跃至高能级的能级差,处于高能级的氢原子核释放的能量恰好等于跌落回低能级的能级差。原子核的这种升降波动是在一个磁场中进行,因此称之为“核磁共振”。
  
楼主东城水岸 时间:2007-05-19 00:01:20
  ★★第43篇★★
  
  Heavyweight metal
  举足轻重的金属(陈继龙 编译)
  Jun 29th 2006
  From The Economist print edition
  
  FIRST it was metals, now it is the companies that mine them. In May prices for copper, nickel and other metals rose to record levels, although they have since fallen a bit. Now three mining firms are proposing the most expensive merger in the industry's history. The $40 billion deal, in which an American company, Phelps Dodge, plans to take over two Canadian ones, Inco and Falconbridge, would create the world's biggest producer of nickel, the number two in copper, and the fifth-ranked mining firm overall. The records may not stop there: two other mining firms, Xstrata and Teck Cominco, had previously bid for Falconbridge and Inco respectively, and could make further offers.
  一开始价格不断攀升的是金属,而今是矿业公司。5月,铜、镍和其它金属价格升至创纪录新高,尽管此前曾有小幅度下跌。而现在,三家矿业公司正在谋划该产业有史以来最昂贵的一次合并。此宗涉及美国菲尔普斯-道奇公司并购加拿大Inco镍业公司和鹰桥公司的交易总额达400亿美元,合并后的公司将成为全球最大的镍生产商和第二大铜生产商,公司整体规模也将位居世界第五。纪录也许还会进一步被刷新——此前,另外两家矿业公司瑞士Xstrata和Teck Cominco公司也曾各自对鹰桥和Inco提出过收购要约,并且有可能进一步抬高价码。
  
  Soaring commodities prices have left mining firms flush with cash and keen to expand. One way would be to search for more metal in the ground, instead of on the stockmarket. But organic growth is expensive at the moment; as firms rush to increase their output to take advantage of high prices, every conceivable input, from engineers to mining trucks' huge tyres, is in desperately short supply. Developing new mines is also slow. Mining executives worry that projects that get the go-ahead[1] when prices are high will not look so attractive when the next slump comes.
  日用品价格的飞涨让矿业公司现金充足,同时也急欲把业务做大。做大业务的办法之一就是开采更多的金属,而不是在股市坐收渔利。不过眼下有机增长代价昂贵;当各公司都急于增加产量以借高价之机狠赚一笔的时候,从工程师到采矿车的巨大轮胎,凡是能想到的各项投入都严重供不应求,而且新矿的开发也太慢。采矿管理人士担心,到下一轮经济萧条时期来临时,金属高价期间获准开采的工程将风光不再。
  
  That could be true of the proposed merger too, of course. Phelps Dodge offered a premium of 23% over the price of Inco's shares and 12% over Falconbridge's. Those shares, in turn, have been rising for several years along with the firms' wares—nickel, for the most part, at Inco, and nickel and copper at Falconbridge.
  上述合并案当然也是这样。菲尔普斯-道奇公司的出价较Inco镍业公司、鹰桥公司股市收盘价分别高出23%和12%。几年来,随着产量日益增多(主要是Inco镍业公司的镍与鹰桥公司的镍和铜),这些公司的股价也持续上扬。
  
  The bosses of the firms insist that the mark-up[2] is justified, for several reasons. For one thing, they reckon they can squeeze savings of $900m a year out of the combined entity by 2008, by sharing equipment and personnel among adjacent mines, for example, and pooling their marketing staff. More importantly, they argue that the size and diversity of the new company will make it less vulnerable to mining's painful cycles, and so more attractive to investors.
  三家公司老总都坚称,这次高价收购完全合情合理。首先,他们估算,截至2008年,通过设备和人力资源共享(如整合销售人员),可以为联合后的新公司每年节省9亿美元成本。尤为重要的是,他们认为新公司的规模和产品多样性将有利于公司免受周期性矿业周期阵痛带来的冲击,因而对投资者就更具吸引力。
  
  The biggest and most diversified mining companies, such as BHP Billiton and Rio Tinto, do boast higher share valuations. They produce everything from aluminium to zircon[3], and so are less susceptible to fluctuations in the price of any particular metal. By the same logic, the more mines a firm is running or developing, and the more countries it operates in, the less risk each individual project poses to profits.
  几家世界最大、产品最富多样性的矿业公司,如BHP Billiton和Rio Tinto公司,也确实推崇定高股价。它们的产品包罗万象,从铝到锆石不一而足,故而不易受到某一种金属价格波动的影响。同理,一家公司运营或开发的矿井越多,并且业务涉足越多的国家,某一项工程面临的利润风险就越低。
  
  The merged trio will certainly have a broader geographical spread, with mines in five continents. But its main projects, in stable places like the United States, Canada and Chile, never seemed that risky in the first place. Furthermore, despite having sidelines[4] in cobalt[5] and molybdenum[6], the new firm's fortunes will depend chiefly on the price of copper and nickel—two of most volatile metals of late.
  从地理上看,三家公司合并后业务范围肯定将进一步拓展,全球五大洲都将有它们的矿井。但在一些(矿产量?)稳定的地方如美国、加拿大和智利,其主要项目似乎风险并不太大,这是其一。此外,新公司尽管还附带经营钴、钼等产品,但决定其命运的主要还是铜和镍的价格,这两种金属最近价格波动最大。
  
  Some analysts mutter that Phelps Dodge embarked on the merger chiefly to save itself from being taken over. Investors seem to share their doubts: Phelps Dodge's shares fell by 8% after it announced the deal, despite a simultaneous pledge to spend $5 billion on a share buy-back[7] scheme once the merger is concluded.
  一些分析人士暗自抱怨说,菲尔普斯-道奇公司进行此次合并,主要是为了让自己免于被别人兼并。投资者似乎也有同感——虽然菲尔普斯-道奇公司同期投放了5亿美元保证金,一俟合并完成,就对股票进行回购,但在其宣布并购之后,上市股价仍然下跌了8%。
  
  On the other hand, the price of nickel and copper jumped on the news. Traders seem to have assumed that the companies would have contemplated[8] such an expensive deal only if they thought that metals would remain in short supply for some time. The more money that mining firms spend buying one another, rather than exploring for and developing new mines, the likelier that is.
  另一方面,镍和铜的价格总是没完没了地上涨。(注:“报道”赶不上“变化”快。)交易商好像已经猜到,这三家公司可能认为一段时间内金属仍将供不应求,才想到此次天价合并交易。矿业公司互相收购(而不是进行新矿勘探或开发)耗资越多,这种可能性也就越大。
  
  〔译后〕本文属经济类文章,经济学术语较多,本人才疏学浅,翻译起来着实头疼,很多地方可能理解并不准确,而且用词可能不太规范,望多加谅解并请有关专家友情给予指正。
  
  [NOTES](LONGMAN)
  1. go-ahead n. (give sb. the go-ahead或get the go-ahead)许可
  2. mark-up n. 涨价;提价
  3. zircon n. [金属]锆
  4. sideline n. 副业;局外旁观;边线
  5. cobalt n. [金属]钴
  6. molybdenum n. [金属]钼
  7. buy-back n. 产品返销
  8. contemplate v. 考虑;想到;接受(事实);冥思苦索
  
  
  
楼主东城水岸 时间:2007-05-19 00:04:29
  ★★第44篇★★
  
  Blues' delight
  痛并快乐着(陈继龙 编译)
  
  (译注:blue作名词,原意为“蓝色”,或“蓝色衣服”,而意大利的队服颜色恰好为蓝色。复数形式blues则有“忧郁、沮丧”之意。本标题直译可为“蓝衣军团的快乐”,但显然无法突出文章中心思想——意大利足球的痛苦与欢乐。)
  
  Jul 13th 2006 | ROME
  From The Economist print edition
  
  HE MAY be lumbered[1] with a nine-party coalition and a one-seat majority in the upper house of parliament. But Italy's prime minister, Romano Prodi, seems to have something that could yet offset these handicaps: luck. As he himself noted, Italy's win against France in the World Cup final on July 9th was as narrow as his own victory in the election in April. Tied 1-1 after extra time, the Italians won a penalty shoot-out when a Frenchman (who ironically plays for an Italian club, Juventus) hit the crossbar. That gave Italy's captain, Fabio Cannavaro, the trophy—and Mr Prodi a boost, politically and maybe even economically.
  无论是九党联盟,还是参议院中仅一个席位的领先优势,也许都让意大利总理罗马诺•普罗迪感到憋屈。不过他现在似乎拥有了某种可以消除这些不利影响的东西——运气。他指出,7月9日世界杯决赛中意大利队战胜法国队,其过程之艰险,与他自己4月份在选举中胜出毫无二致。加时赛后双方1比1战平,点球决战中一名法国队员(具有讽刺意味的是,该队员效力于意大利的尤文图斯俱乐部)击中横梁,意大利人获胜。这场胜利为意大利队的队长法比奥•卡纳瓦罗带来了大力神杯,而对普罗迪而言,从政治上甚至从经济上看,也是一种鼓舞。
  
  Analysts at ABN Amro, a Dutch bank, have estimated that a World Cup victory adds 0.7% to the winner's GDP, mostly through extra demand. Research by another bank, JPMorgan, has found that consumption in European countries that won the cup in recent decades rose afterwards by more than the EU average. Some analysts remain sceptical of a “World Cup effect”, arguing that it merely brings forward spending. But Mr Prodi's own finance minister, Tommaso Padoa-Schioppa, thinks Italy's win will have a positive effect “because it has an impact on confidence and signifies that ambitious goals are within our reach”.
  荷兰ABN Amro银行的分析人士估计,在世界杯上每胜一场,就会使获胜国的GDP增长0.7%,主要是通过扩大消费需求。另一家银行JPMorgan的研究显示,最近几十年获得过世界杯冠军的欧洲国家的消费均超过欧洲平均水平。但有些分析人士对“世界杯效应”仍持怀疑态度,认为它仅仅是拉动提前消费而已。不过普罗迪的财政部长托马索•帕多阿-斯基奥帕相信,意大利胜利的效应将是积极的,因为“它不但增强了信心,也意味着我们雄心勃勃的目标是可以实现的。”
  
  Yet the benefits of Italy's victory could be offset by the loss of esteem it would suffer were it to use the triumph as an excuse for taking the easy way out of another challenge. Not the least remarkable aspect of Italy's success is that it was achieved against a background of spectacular footballing strife back home. Thirteen of the 23 members of the Italian squad in Germany play for clubs that are threatened with relegation[2] over a match-fixing scandal. Most at risk is Juventus, a publicly quoted club that supplied five of the players (including Mr Cannavaro). It could be relegated from the first to the third division by a sports tribunal in Rome. The verdicts were expected to be handed down by the end of this week.
  然而,假如意大利以为胜利了就能轻易走出它目前面临的另一个困境的话,就会让人瞧不起,其夺冠带来的利好效应也会因此消失一空。意大利队的成功最非凡之处在于,它是在国内发生声势浩大的足球纠纷的情况下获得的。参加世界杯的意大利23名队员中,有13人效力于因假球丑闻而面临降级的球队。情况最为不妙的是尤文图斯,这支饱受争议的俱乐部为意大利队输送了5名队员(包括卡纳瓦罗)。罗马的体育法庭有可能把它从甲级降到丙级。判罚结果有望在本周末前公布。
  
  The justice minister, Clemente Mastella, had suggested that the national team's victory might earn the clubs a reprieve[3]. Encouragingly, Mr Prodi would have none of it. His sports minister, Giovanna Melandri, branded the proposal “idiocy”. Just as importantly, some of the players themselves rejected the idea. Gennaro Gattuso, a midfielder who plays for AC Milan, the club owned by Silvio Berlusconi that could also be relegated, said: “Those who have committed offences ought to be punished.” That is a welcome new thought in Italy.
  司法部长克莱门特•马斯特拉暗示说,国家队的胜利也许能为俱乐部赢得喘息之机。好在普罗迪并不同意这么做。(译注:would have none of something表示“不允许,不同意”)他的体育部长乔瓦纳•梅兰德里认为这一提议纯属“白痴行为”。有些队员本人也反对这一提议,这同样重要。效力于AC米兰(前总理贝鲁斯科尼的球队,这次也有可能降级)的中场队员热纳罗•加图索说:“犯了错就应该受到惩罚。”这种新观念在意大利受到了一致欢迎。
  
  [NOTES](LONGMAN)
  1. lumber v.
  1)[vi 始终与副词或介词连用] 笨重、缓慢地移动(lumber up/towards/into/along 等)
  2)[vt](get/be lumbered with something)强迫给予某人一项工作;强加责任于某人
  如:A career was less easy once I was lumbered with a husband and children.
  3)[vi](美国英语)伐木(以准备出售)
  2. relegate vt.
  1)降级,降职(降到次要位置)relegate somebody/something to something
  2)球队降级[反义词:promote]
  —relegation n.
  3. reprieve n.
  1)暂缓,喘息之机 [↪ respite] (reprieve from)
  2)(死刑)缓期执行 give/grant somebody a reprieve
  [TIPS & BACKGROUNDS]
  意大利假球案完全审判结果
    北京时间7月15日,拖沓了两个多月的意大利假球案终于正式公布具体审判结果。
    涉案球队:
    尤文图斯:剥夺2004/05赛季联赛冠军,不授予2005/06赛季联赛冠军。以联赛最后一名降入2006/07赛季乙级联赛,同时在2006/07赛季乙级联赛以负30分开始赛季。
    AC米兰:扣除2005/06赛季甲级联赛积分44分,不能参加明年冠军联赛。同时在2006/07赛季甲级联赛以负15分开始赛季;
    拉齐奥:以联赛最后一名降入2006/07赛季乙级联赛,并以负7分开始赛季;
    佛罗伦萨;以联赛最后一名降入2006/07赛季乙级联赛,同时在2006/07赛季乙级联赛以负12分开始赛季。
    涉案俱乐部官员:莫吉(前尤文总经理):禁赛5年;
    吉拉乌多(前尤文董事长):禁赛5年;
    加利亚尼(AC米兰副 ):禁赛1年;
    梅亚尼(前AC米兰经理):禁赛3年6个月;
    安德雷亚.德拉瓦莱(佛罗伦萨 ):禁赛3年6个月,
    迭戈.德拉瓦莱(佛罗伦萨名誉 ):禁赛4年;
    洛蒂托(拉齐奥 ):禁赛3年。涉案足协人员:
    卡拉罗(前足协 ):禁赛4年6个月;
    马齐尼(前足协副 ):禁赛5年。
  
  
楼主东城水岸 时间:2007-05-19 00:07:44
  ★★第45篇★★
  
  Wag the dog
  尾巴摇狗(陈继龙 编译)
  (译注:英语中有这样一种说法,即“It’s a case of the tail wagging the dog”,直译为“这可是一件尾巴摇狗的事。”,比喻“某个不重要的事物占据主导地位”。)
  
  Jul 6th 2006
  From The Economist print edition
  
  FOR the past two years in Silicon Valley, the centre of America's technology industry, conference-goers have entertained themselves playing a guessing game: how many times will a speaker mention the phrase “long tail”? It is usually a high number, thanks to the influence of the long-tail theory, which was first developed by Chris Anderson, the editor of Wired magazine, in an article in 2004. Though technologists and bloggers chuckle[1] at how every business presentation now has to have its long-tail section, most are envious of Mr Anderson, whose brainwave quickly became the most fashionable business idea around.
  过去两年来,美国科技产业中心——硅谷中参加各类会议的人们都自娱自乐地玩着一种猜谜游戏:一位演讲者会多少次提到“长尾巴”一词?一般而言,次数会很多。这是“长尾巴理论”的影响使然,《连线》杂志编辑克里斯•安德森于2004年在一篇文章中首创了这一理论。对于如今每个行业都必须表现出其自身的“长尾巴”,技术专家和博客作家们都觉得很可笑,不过他们多数人都很妒忌安德森,此人的灵感竟然迅速成了风靡一时的商业理念。
  
  Whether a blockbuster film, a bestselling novel, or a chart-topping rap song, popular culture idolises the hit. Companies devote themselves to creating them because the cost of distribution and the limits of shelf space in physical shops mean that profitability depends on a high volume of sales. But around the beginning of this century a group of internet companies realised that with endless shelves and a national or even international audience online they could offer a huge range of products—and make money at the same time.
  无论是大片、畅销小说还是领先排行榜的说唱音乐,所有通俗文化都对“热销作品”推崇备至。各公司之所以致力于打造这些“热销作品”,是因为商品流通的成本以及现实商店货架空间的局限性都意味着卖得多才赚得多。但在本世纪初前后,一些互联网公司认识到,拥有了无限的货架空间和来自全国甚至全世界的在线观(听)众,它们所能提供的产品范围就非常广,同时也就可以挣到钱了。
  
  The niche, the obscure and the specialist, Mr Anderson argues, will gain ground at the expense of the hit. As evidence, he points to a drop in the number of companies that traditionally calculate their revenue/sales ratio according to the 80/20 rule—where the top fifth of products contribute four-fifths of revenues. Ecast, a San Francisco digital jukebox[2] company, found that 98% of its 10,000 albums sold at least one track every three months. Expressed in the language of statistics, the experiences of Ecast and other companies such as Amazon, an online bookseller, suggest that products down in the long tail of a statistical distribution, added together, can be highly profitable. The internet helps people find their way to relatively obscure material with recommendations and reviews by other people (and for those willing to have their artistic tastes predicted by a piece of software) computer programs which analyse past selections.
  安德森认为,那些瞄准市场特殊领域、市场定位模糊或者针对专业人士的产品虽然不能“热销”,但也会逐渐发展壮大。为了证明这一点,他指出,一直以来通过“二八定律”来计算收入/销售比的公司数量已经有所减少。根据“二八定律”,80%的收入都来自销售额居前5位的产品。旧金山数字唱片公司Ecast发现,在1万张唱片中,有98%的唱片每3个月就至少售出1个曲目。从统计学角度看,Ecast以及亚马逊在线书店等其它公司的此类经验表明,对分布在统计图中“长尾巴”区域的产品进行集中销售,可以获取高额利润。互联网帮助人们通过他人的推荐和评点,找到那些市场定位相对比较模糊的产品。对于那些喜欢利用软件来鉴别其艺术品味的人而言,则可通过计算机程序来分析以往人们的选择情况,从而也能找到此类产品。
  
  Long-tail enthusiasts argue that the whole of culture will benefit, not just commercial enterprises. Television, film and music are such bewitching[3] media in their own right that many people are quite happy to watch and listen to what the mainstream provides. But if individuals have the opportunity to pick better, more ideally suited entertainment from a far wider selection, they will take it, according to the theory of the long tail. Some analysts reckon that entire populations might become happier and wiser once they have access to thousands of documentaries, independent films and sub-genres[4] of every kind of music, instead of being subjected to what Mr Anderson calls the tyranny of lowest-common-denominator[5] fare. That might be taking things a bit far. But the long tail is certainly one of the internet's better gifts to humanity.
  热衷“长尾巴理论”的人认为,受益于这一理论的将是文化整体,而不仅仅是商家。影视和音乐等媒体必须有一定实力才能让人为之着魔,因此许多人都十分喜欢观看和收听主流媒体提供的节目。但是,根据“长尾巴理论”,假如一些个人有机会在更大的选择范围中挑选更精彩、更适合自己口味的娱乐节目,他们也会接受。有分析人士估计,一旦得以欣赏到数以千计的纪录片、独立制作的电影和各种非主流音乐,而不是受制于安德森所称的“最小公分母”(也就是“随大流”),大家都会更高兴,也更明智。这么说可能有点言过其实了,但是“长尾巴”肯定是互联网赐予人类的上佳礼物之一。
  
  Conglomerates[6], such as Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation, on the other hand, regard the long tail as another swing at them from a dragon-like blogosphere which resents the “mainstream media” or MSM, as bloggers often call it. Lowest-common-denominator hits, after all, are an important part of their business. Like many people connected to the technology industry, Mr Anderson (formerly a journalist for The Economist) clearly relishes[7] the way the internet is challenging traditional media companies. Perhaps because of this, he is a little too dismissive of hits. Some are indeed manufactured and cynical: the music industry bribes radio stations to blitz people with tracks they have picked; book publishers pay retailers for the spot in the window; and Hollywood holds back films from honest reviewers lest a bad write-up[8] spoil an opening. But most hits are popular because they are of high quality. As Mr Anderson's book acknowledges, there is an awful lot of dross[9] in the tail. And the way in which the internet makes it easy for people to share likes and dislikes about entertainment will help hits as well as more obscure material.
  另一方面,像鲁珀特•默多克新闻公司这样的大集团却认为,“长尾巴”是虎视眈眈的博客圈对它们的又一轮冲击,而博客圈都对博客作家们通常所谓的“主流媒体”(简称MSM)深恶痛绝。毕竟对他们行业而言,属于“最小公分母”的“热销作品”是一个重要组成部分。显然,安德森(曾在《经济学家》担任记者)喜欢互联网对传统媒体公司的这种挑战。也许正因为此,他对“叫座作品”有点太不屑一顾了,有的地方甚至带有捏造和挖苦的意味——音乐行业对广播电台施以恩惠,使之将选好的曲目铺天盖地地播放给人们收听;图书出版商为了能在橱窗中占得一席之地就要掏钱给零售商;好莱坞担心实话实说的影评人乱说一气搞砸了影片首映而对其避而远之。其实,大多数“热销作品”之所以受欢迎是因为其一流的品质。诚如安德森的书中所承认的那样,“长尾巴”的确有着许多糟糕的粗制滥造品。对“热销作品”以及许多市场定位模糊的产品而言,互联网这种让人们轻松分享对娱乐节目好恶的方式都是有帮助意义的。
  
  Mr Anderson has backed away somewhat from his original article in Wired in which he suggested that the long tail would be a bigger market than the hits. His book says, more cautiously, that “all those niches can potentially add up to a market that is as big as (if not bigger than) the hits.” Perhaps the true effect of unlimited digital distribution on individual media choices will be even more positive than he imagines. It may be that only the middling, manufactured sort of hit will fall by the wayside: the genuinely popular variety will remain just as powerful. Most hits start somewhere in the long tail and move up; so as content in the tail becomes easier to discover, the hits that emerge from it should also be of higher quality.
  相比原先在《连线》杂志撰写的那篇文章中所阐述的观点而言,安德森现在已经有所收敛。当时,他认为“长尾巴”将比“热销作品”拥有更大市场。而他的这本书却比较谨慎地写道,“从发展潜力上看,市场所有特殊领域将构成一个与‘热销作品’市场一样大(如果不是更大的话)的市场。”数字发行量的无限性对个人选择媒体的真正影响也许比他想象得要更具有积极意义。或许只有那些质量一般、胡编乱造的所谓“叫座作品”才会无法长久立足,而真正受欢迎的作品仍将一如既往地强势。大多数“热销作品”最开始也属于“长尾巴”,后来才得以步步攀升;只要“长尾巴”中的产品更容易被人发现,从中涌现的“热销作品”也应当具有较高的品质。
  
  One weakness of this otherwise excellent book is that it tries to apply the theory of the long tail to fields far beyond entertainment and e-commerce. Offshoring, for instance, is the long tail of labour, says Mr Anderson, and there is also a long tail of national security, in which a “short head” of state violence has been challenged by niche producers such as gangs and terrorists. In trying to find long tails everywhere, Mr Anderson risks diluting some of his idea's meaning and novelty.
  这本书虽说十分优秀,但也存在不足之处,那就是它试图将“长尾巴”理论应用于远远超出娱乐和电子商务之外的领域。比如说,安德森认为外包业是劳动力中的“长尾巴”,还认为国家安全也存在“长尾巴”,国家行政暴力由于“考虑不周”而被一些帮派和恐怖主义者等机会分子钻了空子。安德森冒昧地刻意淡化其某些观点的意义和新奇性,企图表明“长尾巴”放之四海而皆准。
  
  The cover of Mr Anderson's book promises to answer the question: “Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More”. But his book may alarm as well as help businessmen. Karl Marx once described a communist society in which “nobody has one exclusive sphere of activity but each can become accomplished in any branch he wishes...to hunt in the morning, fish in the afternoon, rear cattle in the evening, criticise after dinner.” Mr Anderson suggests that the long tail is bringing about something similar. The tools of media production—computers, desktop printers, video cameras—are now so widely and cheaply available that a generation of young people are becoming amateur journalists, commentators, film-makers and musicians in their spare time, rather as the philosopher imagined. Amateurs offering their work free of charge will contribute a significant portion of the long tail, so at the very end there will be a “non-monetary economy[10],” says Mr Anderson. If true, that could prove to be the most fascinating long-tail effect of all.
  从封面上看,该书似乎要回答这样一个问题——“未来大买卖为什么越做越小”。不过,本书对商人们而言,既具警示意义,也有帮助作用。卡尔•马克思曾如此描述共产主义社会:“人们的活动都不是孤立的,但每个人不管做什么事情,只要如其所愿,都能驾轻就熟……早晨狩猎,下午垂钓,傍晚养畜,晚餐后指点江山。”安德森认为,“长尾巴”也在产生类似的效应。如今媒体制作工具如计算机、打印机、摄像机等都十分普及,价钱也不贵,以致于年轻一代闲来无事都成了业余记者、评论员、电影出品人和音乐家,这跟马克思所设想的颇为类似。安德森说,业余爱好者由于免费提供其作品,因此将在“长尾巴”中占相当大的比例,于是最终会形成一种“物物交换经济”模式。设若果真如此,那将可能是最富魅力的“长尾巴”效应。
  
  [NOTES](LONGMAN)
  1. chuckle v.(at) 轻声地笑,暗自发笑
  2. jukebox n. 投币式自动点唱机
  3. bewitching adj. 令人着迷的,让人着魔的
  4. genre n. 流派
  5. lowest-common-denominator n. 最小公分母(的);〔引申〕被大多数人接受的
  6. conglomerate n. 大公司,联合企业,集团
  附注:大公司(a big company): corporation, multinational, conglomerate
  互联网公司(an Internet company): dot-com
  子公司(a company that is owned by a larger company): subsidiary, affiliate
  公司名缩写形式(abbreviations used in company names): Ltd (Limited);Co. (Company); Corp. (Corporation);PLC (英国人用法,Public Limited Company,澳大利亚和南非则用Pty.,即Proprietary)
  7. relish v. 欣赏,品味
  8. write-up n. (关于新书、电影的)评论;报道
  9. dross n. 次品,废物,渣滓
  10. non-monetary economy 物物交换经济
  [TIPS & BACKGROUNDS]
  
  长尾巴理论:根据wikipedia的解释,长尾(Long Tail)是2004年Chris Anderson在给连线杂志的文章中首次使用的词汇,用以描述某种经济模式如Amazon.com或Netflix。长尾术语也普遍使用于统计学中,如对财富分布或词汇应用的统计。长尾理论的基本原理是:只要存储和流通的渠道足够大,需求不旺或销量不佳的产品所共同占据的市场份额可以和那些少数热销产品所占据的市场份额相匹敌甚至更大。即众多小市场汇聚成可与主流大市场相匹敌的市场能量。Google被认为是安德森长尾理论的最佳例证。Google所服务的客户正是那些品牌影响力不够强大,而且渠道不健全的中小企业。Google的Adsense服务80%的产业尾巴,从而获得成功。
  二八定律:又称80/20法则,由意大利经济学家帕累托1897年提出,他的统计结论显示,20%的人口拥有80%的财富。虽然这并非严格的准确数字,80/20法则还是被广泛用以指导商业活动,比如营销学中认为20%的客户购买了80%的产品,因而营销将面向这些主流客户。
  
  
楼主东城水岸 时间:2007-05-19 00:11:06
  ★★第46篇★★
  
  Who's your Daddy?
  你爸爸是谁?(陈继龙 编译)
  
  Jul 13th 2006 | HONG KONG
  From The Economist print edition
  
  SO CHINA got its way after all. The takeover battle for PCCW, Hong Kong's incumbent telecoms company, ended this week before it had even properly begun. On July 10th Francis Leung, a local tycoon, stepped in to buy a 23% stake in PCCW held by its founder and chairman Richard Li, for HK$9.2 billion ($1.2 billion). Mr Leung's offer, for the moment at least, scuppers[1] bids from two private-equity firms, Australia's Macquarie Bank and America's TPG-Newbridge, which were both willing to pay HK$60 billion for all of PCCW's telecoms and media assets.
  中国这次总算如愿以偿了。本周,一场争夺香港电信公司PCCW(电讯盈科)控股权的较量甚至还没有真正开始就收场了。7月10日,香港大实业家梁伯韬介入,以92亿港元(12亿美元)的价格收购了电讯盈科公司创始人及总裁李泽楷持有的该公司23%的股份。至少从目前看,梁伯韬的出价让两家私有股份公司——澳大利亚麦格理银行和美国TPG新桥投资集团的竞购落了空。这两家公司均希望支付600亿港元以收购电讯盈科全部电信和媒体资产。
  
  That Mr Leung appeared on the scene so quickly is surprising; the original bids became public just a few weeks ago. That he has appeared at all is less so. The Chinese government, through China Netcom, a state-owned telecoms group that owns 20% of PCCW, opposed a “foreign” takeover and wanted the Hong Kong firm to stay in local hands. Netcom believed that Mr Li's attempt to sell the firm's assets violated a pact that gave Netcom a say in any sale of the company. That Mr Li apparently did not mention this pact to the private-equity bidders suggests that he knew his planned sale would displease his Chinese partner.
  梁伯韬这么快就亮相,着实令人感到惊讶;公开竞购也就是几个星期前的事。本来,他的出现早在人们意料之中。(译注:less so应该指代less surprising,at all表示“根本上”。全句大概意思是:考虑到梁本人与政府的关系,他的出现是迟早的事,人们本来不会感到特别意外,但他会这么快就“闪亮登场”就有些出人意料了。)中国政府由持有电讯盈科20%股份的国有电信公司——中国网通出面,反对由“外资”控股,希望这家香港公司能继续掌握在本地人手中。网通认为,李泽楷擅自出售电讯盈科资产,违反了一条关于网通对参与公司任何出售行为均拥有发言权的协定。李泽楷对那两家私有股竞购公司只字不提这一协定,表明他明知他筹划的这次出售会令中方感到不快。
  
  Though Macquarie and Newbridge were prepared to bring Netcom and Hong Kong investors into their consortia[2] and dilute themselves into a minority position, it was not enough. As the co-founder of Peregrine Investments, a Hong Kong investment bank that pioneered the flotations[3] of “red chip” mainland companies on the Hong Kong stockmarket in the 1990s, Mr Leung's strong links with China proved decisive. Though Peregrine went bust during the Asian financial crisis of 1997-98, Mr Leung emerged unscathed[4] and went on to hold senior jobs, including one at Citigroup Asia. Most importantly, he is the favourite banker of Li Ka-shing, Hong Kong's richest man and the father of Richard Li, whose takeover of Hong Kong Telecom by PCCW Mr Leung helped to organise in 2000.
  麦格理和新桥虽然已经准备好将网通和香港投资者纳入它们的企业集团,并且打算逐渐减少控股数,但还是不够火候。事实证明,作为香港百富勒投资银行创办人之一的梁伯韬,他同中国政府的密切关系起到了决定性作用。上世纪90年代,百富勒一度成为“根正苗红”的内地公司在香港股市发行股票的开路先锋。虽然该银行在1997年至1998年间发生的亚洲金融危机过程中破产,但梁伯韬本人却安然无恙,并且继续步步高升,其中包括曾在花旗银行担任高级职务。最为重要的是,这位银行家很受香港首富、李泽楷之父李嘉诚青睐,而李泽楷用于并购香港电讯公司的电讯盈科就是在2000年由梁伯韬协助组建的。
  
  This week's deal means that Hong Kong's main telecoms assets stay in local hands, but are in effect controlled by Netcom. Macquarie and Newbridge go away empty-handed, at least for now. One person close to events, however, believes they could end up taking a stake in any consortium formed by Mr Leung to finance the purchase of his stake.
  本周的这场交易意味着香港电信核心资产虽仍掌握在香港人手中,但实际上却处于网通的操控之下。麦格理和新桥两手空空地打道回府了,至少目前如此。然而,某知情人士认为,无论梁伯韬为了筹资购股将组建怎样的企业财团,它们可能最终还是会参股。
  
  It is PCCW's public minority shareholders who are the clear losers. Mr Li hopes to appease them by paying them around HK$0.35 a share as a special dividend from his own pocket. That is the difference between PCCW's share price before takeover talks started and Mr Leung's offer: Mr Li is, in effect, giving away his premium. Even so, minority shareholders stood to gain far more from a sale to one of the two private-equity bidders; and PCCW's share price has fallen more than 90% since 2000.
  很显然,电讯盈科的小股东才是输家。李泽楷希望通过自掏腰包,向他们支付每股约0.35港元的特别股息,从而平息其愤怒。这一特别股息相当于并购商谈开始之前电讯盈科每股售价与梁伯韬报价之间的差价——事实上,这就等于李泽楷在派发自己的交易溢价。即便如此,假如电讯盈科是出售给那两家私有股份公司,这些小股东得到的好处将远不止这些;何况2000年以来,电讯盈科的股价已经下跌了超过90%。
  
  Mr Li comes out smiling, having struck what was probably the best deal he could get. He collects cash for most of his stake (though he is allowing Mr Leung to pay 70% of the total price later) and can now focus on other ventures. The chief damage is to his ego. Mr Li's attempt to escape from his father's shadow by building up PCCW over the past few years has failed. All the talk in Hong Kong is that his exit, via Mr Leung, was at least partly arranged by Dad. At the same time, this sorry saga demonstrates with equal clarity that Hong Kong's real daddy is Beijing.
  李泽楷笑盈盈地退出了电讯盈科,同时对什么才是最划算的交易心里也有了底。他的大多数股票都得以套现(虽然他后来同意梁伯韬可以延后支付70%的款项),现在可以把目光对准其它投机生意了。要说受到伤害,主要还是他的自尊心。过去几年来,李泽楷一直试图通过发展电讯盈科走出其父亲的阴影,可最终还是功亏一篑。所有香港人都说,他能够藉梁伯韬介入之机退出电讯盈科,至少部分出于其父亲的安排。与此同时,这一令人感到遗憾、富有传奇色彩的事件同样也清楚地表明,香港真正的“父亲”是北京。
  
  [NOTES](LONGMAN)
  1. scupper v.破坏计划(多用于新闻报道,=scuttle);故意沉船,凿沉
  2. consortium n. (pl. consortia)财团;企业集团
  3. flotation n. 股票发行(时间)
  4. unscathed adj. (escape/emerge ~)未受伤的;安然无恙的
  
楼主东城水岸 时间:2007-05-19 00:14:31
  ★☆第47篇★☆
  
  Friendship and trade
  友谊与贸易(陈继龙 编译)
  
  Jul 20th 2006 | DANDONG
  From The Economist print edition
  
  CHINA'S main lifeline to North Korea, a narrow road-and-rail bridge across the Yalu river, does not suggest there is much business to do on the other side. A trickle[1] of trucks flows along its single-lane carriageway, which stretches for less than 1km (barely half a mile). Hours go by without a train. The North Koreans hoped a few years ago to create a busy investment zone on their side, but all they have is a shabby town of mostly idle factories. At night it is an expanse of darkness with only a few pinpricks[2] of light.
  中国与朝鲜之间的重要交通线——一座横跨鸭绿江的狭窄的公路、铁路两用桥——并不表示江对岸有多少生意可做。在这条全长不到1公里(约半英里)的单车道上,仅稀稀拉拉地行驶着几辆卡车。几个小时里都没有一列火车通过。朝鲜几年前曾希望在它们那头建成一个繁忙的投资区,但它们现在拥有的只是一座满是停产工厂的破旧城市。到了晚上,这里到处都是漆黑一片,只有零星的几点灯光。
  
  Yet trade is picking up. Chinese trucks crossing the Friendship bridge—built by the Japanese in 1943 and bombed by the Americans during the Korean war—are filled with more than just the bare necessities of life. China still props up North Korea with supplies of grain and oil. But in the past few years the trucks have begun transporting more machinery for factories and electronic products such as television sets for a small but affluent elite. And North Korean businessmen have become a familiar sight in Dandong, at the Chinese end of the bridge, staying at the best hotels in what to them must seem a fantasy land of bourgeois luxury.
  但是现在鸭绿江两岸的贸易却有了起色。(译注:pick up指“改善,有起色”)驶过这座友谊桥——1943年由日本人建造,朝鲜战争中被美军炸毁——的中国卡车满载的不再仅仅是生活必需品。虽然中国仍通过供应粮食和石油来支撑朝鲜,但在过去的几年里,这些卡车开始为朝鲜工厂运送它们所需的机器设备,为极少数有钱人运送电视机之类的电子产品。在这座桥中国一端的丹东常常可以看见朝鲜商人的身影,他们住在当地的一流宾馆里——对他们而言那就像是一块享尽资产阶级奢华的乐土。
  
  China exported $1.08 billion-worth of goods to North Korea last year, 35% more than in 2004 and 122% more than in 1995, according to Chinese statistics. More than half of all trade in 2005 was handled by Dandong. Less promisingly for North Korea, exports to China fell by 14.8% to $499m. North Korea makes little of interest to the Chinese, as the paltry array of North Korean trinkets on sale in Dandong suggests. But there is demand for North Korea's raw materials. Dandong's tour boats take visitors close to the North Korean bank where they can see timber piled up ready for shipment across the river—close to a hotel that rarely has guests and a fairground[3] Ferris wheel that never moves.
  中国统计数字表明,去年中国向朝鲜出口额达到10.8亿美元,较2004年增长35%,比1995年增长122%。2005年全年超过一半的贸易是在丹东完成的。朝鲜的情况则不太妙,对中国的出口额减少了14.8%,仅为4.99亿美元。从朝鲜人在丹东销售的一些廉价小装饰品上可以看出,朝鲜人在中国几乎挣不到什么钱。(译注:interest to the Chinese是指“吸引中国人的地方”,make little of…则表示“几乎没有利用上”,也就是说朝鲜有吸引中国人之处,但不善加以利用,只会做一些小本买卖,因而很难赚钱。注意:此句不是“of little interest to sb.”,后者指“对……没有多少吸引力”。)但中国人需要朝鲜的原材料。当丹东的游船载着游客靠近朝鲜岸边时,他们会看见成堆的随时将被跨江运往中国的木材——紧挨着的却是一家门庭冷落的旅馆和一台从不转动的游乐场转轮车。
  
  Some Chinese even show interest in investing in North Korea. Sinuiju, the town on the North Korean side of the bridge, has attracted little attention since North Korea declared it to be an investment zone in 2002. The Chinese-born Dutch businessman named by North Korea to run the zone was jailed for fraud by China soon afterwards. North Korea has since devoted more attention to developing Kaesong near its border with South Korea.
  一些中国人甚至对到朝鲜投资萌生了兴趣。自2002年朝鲜宣布将新义州(位于友谊桥朝鲜一端)变成投资区以来,该地并没有吸引多少人的注意。被朝鲜指定经营这一地区的那位荷兰籍中国商人后来不久就因诈骗被中国拘禁。从那以后,朝鲜将更多的注意力放在开发位于朝韩边界附近的开城上。
  
  But a dozen or so Dandong firms have recently set up businesses, ranging from restaurants to a factory making cigarette lighters. In Dandong's main bookshop, the only book on North Korea is a guide for investors. It advises Chinese businesses not to rush in blindly, not to expect quick returns and not to comment on North Korean politics.
  但是最近十来家丹东公司已在朝鲜开业了,其中包括饭店和一家生产打火机的厂。在丹东最大的书店,有关朝鲜的书只有一本投资指南。它建议中国企业家不要盲目投资朝鲜,不要指望很快获得回报,不要对朝鲜政治说三道四。
  
  [NOTES](LONGMAN)
  1. trickle n.滴,淌;稀疏的人流、车流、货流
  2. pinprick n.一小片(点);小孔;小烦恼
  3. fairground n. 露天市场;集市
  
  
楼主东城水岸 时间:2007-05-19 22:20:47
  ★☆第48篇★★
  
  Mr Bush's first veto
  布什首次动用否决权(陈继龙 编译)
  Jul 20th 2006 | WASHINGTON, DC
  From The Economist print edition
  
  FIVE and a half years into his presidency, George Bush finally vetoed a bill this week. Oddly enough, it was one that most Americans support: it would have expanded federal funding for embryonic[1] stem-cell research. The House and Senate had both passed the bill by wide, but not veto-proof margins, so Mr Bush's word is final, at least until after the mid-term elections in November.
  本周,乔治•布什最终对一项法案行使了他担任总统五年半以来的第一次否决权。说也奇怪,这是一项大多数美国人都支持的法案——加大联邦政府对胚胎干细胞研究的资助。虽然参众两院均通过了此项法案,但并未获得可以避开总统否决权的多数票,(译注:根据美国法律,总统无权否决在国会获三分之二多数通过的法案。)因此布什的意见是决定性的,至少在11月中期选举前是如此。
  
  Stem cells are cells that have not yet decided what they want to be when they grow up. That is, they can become blood cells, brain cells, or pretty much any other type of cell. Their versatility makes them extremely useful for medical research. The ethical snag[2] is that the best stem cells are harvested from human embryos, killing them. For the most ardent pro-lifers[3], including Mr Bush and many of his core supporters, that is murder. Proponents of embryonic stem-cell research point out that hordes[4] of embryos are created during fertility treatment, and the vast majority of these are either frozen indefinitely or destroyed. Is it really wrong to use them for potentially life-saving research? Yes, said Mr Bush on July 19th, flanked[5] by some families who had “adopted” other people's frozen embryos and used them to have children of their own.
  干细胞是一种尚未确定成熟为何种细胞的细胞。也就是说,它们可以变成血细胞、脑细胞或者几乎所有其它类型的细胞。它们的多功能性使其对医学研究极为有用。阻碍干细胞研究的伦理问题在于,最好的干细胞都是在将人类胚胎杀死之后从中采集的。对包括布什及其核心支持者在内的大多数坚决反对堕胎的人而言,这就是谋杀。支持干细胞研究的人指出,研究所用的胚胎都是通过人工受孕形成的,而且绝大多数将被无限期冷冻或者杀死。难道将它们应用于可能具有挽救生命意义的研究真的错了吗?7月19日布什说,是的。一些“领养”了他人冷冻胚胎、并用来怀上自己孩子的家庭也站在了他这边。
  
  Mr Bush's veto does not kill stem-cell research. Scientists who spurn[6] federal cash may do as they please. The government still pays for research on stem cells taken from adults, a process that does not kill the donor. And a decision by Mr Bush in 2001 allows federally-funded scientists to experiment on the few dozen embryonic stem-cell “lines” that already existed then, which can be propagated[7] in a laboratory.
  布什的否决没有彻底封杀干细胞研究。对联邦政府资助不屑一顾的科学家们只要愿意,还是会照搞不误。政府仍将为成人干细胞研究提供资助,此类研究不用杀死干细胞供者。布什2001年决定同意获政府资助的科学家仅对少量已经采集到的干细胞“系”进行实验,这些干细胞系可以在实验室中繁殖。
  
  Nonetheless, scientists are furious with Mr Bush. Federal funding would surely push them faster towards those elusive cures. Research based on adult stem cells may be promising, but not nearly as promising as that based on embryonic ones. There are worries that those few dozen embryonic stem-cell lines represent too narrow a gene pool, and that they cannot be endlessly extended without damaging them. Other countries, such as Britain and China, are enthusiastically experimenting on embryonic stem cells. But the world's most innovative nation is hanging back.
  但是,科学家们仍对布什非常不满。联邦政府的资助必将推动他们更快找到根治那些疑难杂症的方法。虽然成人干细胞研究也许有着不错的前景,但仍比不上胚胎干细胞。还有人担心那些极少数的冷冻胚胎干细胞系所包含的基因谱过窄,如若不被破坏,应用范围就得不到拓展。英国和中国等一些其它国家正在热火朝天地开展胚胎干细胞实验,而美国这个世界上最具创新精神的国家却打起了退堂鼓。
  
  [NOTES](LONGMAN)
  1. embryonic adj.胚胎的
  2. snag n.暗桩;阻碍,障碍
  3. pro-lifer n. 反对堕胎者
  4. horde n.群;游牧部落
  5. flank v.在……的两侧;夹击
  如:Lewis entered flanked by two bodyguards. 刘易斯进去了,身边左右各有一名保镖。/mountains flanking the road马路两旁的山峦
  6. spurn v.傲慢地拒绝;拒斥
  7. propagate v.繁殖(reproduce);传播,宣传
  
楼主东城水岸 时间:2007-05-19 22:24:00
  ★★第49篇☆★
  
  Hero or bully?
  英雄抑或恶霸?(陈继龙 编译)
  Jul 20th 2006
  From The Economist print edition
  
  WHEN lawyers speak, laymen are often baffled. So it is refreshing to hear an exchange such as the following, between the attorneys-general of New York and California, as reported in the American Lawyer. “You want to step outside, that's fine! I grew up in the Bronx!” said Eliot Spitzer, New York's attorney-general. “No problem,” shouted Bill Lockyer, California's attorney-general, “I grew up in east LA. Let's go!” In the end, the two men settled their dispute without violence.
  当律师们说话的时候,外行人通常都感到匪夷所思。所以,下面这段争吵听上去让人感觉很新鲜。据《美国律师》报道,争吵发生在纽约和加里福利亚两位首席检察官之间。纽约的首席检察官艾里奥特•斯皮策说:“您想出去遛遛,那好!我可是在布朗克斯(译注:纽约一行政区)长大的。”加里福利亚首席检察官比尔•洛基尔则大叫道:“没问题,我是在洛杉矶东部长大的。咱们走吧!”最终两人和风细雨地结束了论辩。
  
  What does this incident tell us about Mr Spitzer, who is likely to be elected governor of New York state this year? As the title of Brooke Masters's new biography suggests, Mr Spitzer is a combative fellow. He can be admirably plain-spoken, too. But his aggression is not always channelled to useful ends, and he sometimes talks up a tempest but fails to follow through.
  就今年可能当选纽约州州长的斯皮策而言,这段小插曲意味着什么呢?布鲁克•马斯特斯的新传记标题表明,斯皮策是个好斗之人,同时也因说话直来直去而受人钦佩。不过,他的好斗并不总是善始善终,有时为了点小事大做文章,却不能坚持到底。
  
  To his boosters, Mr Spitzer is a paragon among prosecutors: diligent, imaginative and incorruptible. He gets up at five and, after a run and shower, works tirelessly to bring mighty malefactors[1] to justice. He cut his teeth breaking up a mob-connected trucking cartel[2]. On becoming New York's top prosecutor in 1998, he went after bigger targets. In 2002, for example, he wrung[3[ a $1.4 billion settlement out of ten investment banks for hyping[4] dud[5] stocks to small investors, among other transgressions[6]. His record of fighting for the little guy makes him an ideal Democratic candidate.
  在斯皮策的拥护者看来,他是检察官中的典范——工作勤奋、富有想像力而且清廉。他早上五点起床,跑跑步,再洗个澡,然后不知疲倦地工作,直到顽固的犯罪分子受到法律制裁。在打破勾结犯罪团伙垄断货车运输业的某卡特尔一案中,他小试牛刀。(译注:cut one’s teeth [on sth.]初学乍练)1998年成为纽约最高检控官后,他开始追求更大的目标。例如在2002年,他迫使十家投资银行签订了一份价值14亿美元的补偿协议。这些银行涉嫌用无效股票欺诈小本投资者等多项犯罪。他这种为小人物而战的经历使他成为一名理想的民主党候选人。(译注:本人对股票不甚了了,不太清楚这个dud stocks到底指的是什么,不过下面这段话可能有助于你我了解:Some people are getting rich off the internet; you could too. But every investor must ask themselves if they can handle and afford the risk. You could pick a dud stock and lose all your money, but on the other hand, you could pick the next Yahoo, Ebay (EBAY) or Amazon (AMZN) and become a multi-millionaire.)
  
  To his detractors[7], Mr Spitzer is a bully who abuses his office to further his political career. Bashing[8] Wall Street generates vote-wooing headlines. But his critics charge that he sometimes disregards due process. He makes accusations amid media fanfare[9] and then quietly drops them when he cannot find evidence that would stand up in court. By threatening to indict[10] whole companies—spelling certain bankruptcy—he forces their managers to settle. Ms Masters, a Washington Post reporter, is studiously even-handed in telling the story, but it is clear where her sympathies lie. Her first chapter is entitled: “When markets need to be tamed”.
  对于诋毁他的那些人来说,斯皮策则是一个为了提高政治地位而滥用职权的恶霸。非难一下华尔街就可以成为头版头条的新闻,还能争取到选票。但是,批评人士指责他有时置正常的诉讼程序于不顾。他先提出指控,搞得媒体沸沸扬扬,然后当他无法找到有效的证据时又悄悄地撤回。他威胁要起诉所有公司——从某种程度上看,这将意味着破产——从而迫使这些公司的经理们达成和解协议。马斯特斯(《华盛顿邮报》记者)在记述中很注意保持一视同仁的态度,但她到底同情谁还是一目了然。本书第一章的标题就是——“当市场需要压制之时”。
  
  Her book is thorough and often engaging. We learn that Mr Spitzer came from a competitive family where Scrabble routinely sparked friendly but intense squabbles[11]. His father, a squillionaire[12] property developer, once reduced young Eliot to tears during a game of Monopoly. “He said, you're going to learn what happens when you borrow and you don't repay.” Mr Spitzer recalled.
  她的书记述很全面,也有不少吸引人的地方。据说斯皮策生于一个喜爱竞争的家庭,在这个家庭中,就算是拼字游戏也照样能引发友好而激烈的口角。他的父亲是一个腰缠万贯的房地产开发商,曾在一次“大富翁”游戏中把年幼的艾里奥特给逼哭了。斯皮策回忆道:“他说,借钱不还就有你好看的。”
  
  Mr Spitzer's combativeness, says Ms Masters, has led some observers to wonder whether he has “the temperament to serve effectively as governor, a multifaceted executive job that require[s] both administrative and conciliation skills.” (5)Or, as the Wall Street Journal more pithily[13] put it, New Yorkers should question “whether Mr Spitzer's habit of publicly smearing individuals while bringing no charges in court is appropriate behaviour by any prosecutor, much less one running to be New York's governor.”
  马斯特斯说,斯皮策的好斗性格让一些观察人士怀疑他是否具有“胜任州长这一需要管理和调解双重技能、涉及面广的行政工作的气质”。或者像《华尔街杂志》更为直截了当地说的那样,纽约人应当质疑“斯皮策公开诬蔑个人却不诉诸法庭的习惯对于一名检控官——更遑论一个即将成为纽约州长的人——而言是否得体。”
  
  [NOTES](LONGMAN)
  1. malefactor n.坏人;罪犯
  2. cartel n.卡特尔;同业联盟
  3. wring v.(out of)强迫获得;逼迫某人说出(真相)
  4. hype v.大肆宣传;大作广告
  5. dud n.无用之物;作废的东西
  6. transgression n.越界;违法犯罪
  7. detractor n.诽谤者;诋毁者
  8. bash v.严责;非难;重击
  9. fanfare n.大张旗鼓;炫耀;号曲
  10. indict v.起诉;控告
  11. squabble n.口角;为琐事争吵
  12. squillionaire 亿万富翁〔squillion表示极大的数字(在trillion之上),该词在诸如韦伯、朗文、剑桥等词典上都没有摘录,通过google,尚知其意,是一个上世纪80年代才创造出的新词,类似的还有zillion〕
  13. pithily adj.简洁的;精练地
  
  Monopoly: a very popular type of board game that has been sold since the 1930s. Players use toy money to buy streets and buildings on squares on the board, and then make other players pay rent if they move onto those squares. The squares on the board show the names of real streets in cities in the US (=in an American Monopoly set), London (=in a British Monopoly set), or other big cities around the world. People sometimes use the expression Monopoly money to mean a very large amount of money(类似于台湾的“大富翁”游戏)
  
  
楼主东城水岸 时间:2007-05-19 22:26:28
  ★★第50篇★★
  
  The seven-year itch
  七年之痒(陈继龙 编译)
  Jul 27th 2006 | MACAU
  From The Economist print edition
  
  THE army of workers operating along what used to be Macau's waterfront is conducting “land reclamation[1]”: dumping sand into the water to create more land on which to build ever more casinos, resorts and hotels in the formerly Portuguese playground. Cranes and bulldozers beaver away[2] throughout the territory, building new high-rises. Like most of China's booming conurbations[3], Macau is paying an environmental price; the air is thick with smog and dust, and the Pearl River has transferred some of its pollution to Macau's seas. But the damage pales when set against[4] the promise of growth, and billboards proudly herald the coming of “the Las Vegas of Asia”.
  在过去曾是澳门码头的沿线地区,成群结队的工人们正在“填海造田”:把沙子倒进水中以形成更多的陆地,从而在这片曾经是葡萄牙人的一亩三分地上建造更多的赌场、度假村和饭店。起重机和推土机无处不在,全力以赴地建造着新的高楼大厦。同中国大多数飞速发展的大都市一样,澳门正在为此付出环境上的代价。空气中弥漫着烟雾和灰尘,一些来自珠江的污染物也流入了澳门附近海域。但是,展望未来发展,这种损失算不了什么。一张张广告牌自豪地昭示着“亚洲的拉斯维加斯”即将来临。(译注:pale指“逊色、失色”,此处的when set against可以用“before”或“beside”来代替,意为“相比……”)
  
  Amid all the buzz, the music from a boat docked at the inner harbour sounds a strange note. The red-robed musicians and their audience are Taoists engaged in a religious ceremony. As the musicians play their instruments, the believers on board burn incense and empty scraps of food into the water as an offering to the gods. The contrast of ancient ritual with feverish modernisation is the story of modern Macau: the story of development transforming a once-sheltered nook[5].
  内港码头边停靠的一艘小船上传来的音乐夹杂在一切喧嚣之中,调子听上去怪怪的。身着红袍的乐师及其听众们都是一些道教信徒,他们正在举行一个宗教仪式。乐师们演奏着乐器,船上的信徒们一边烧香,一边将供品倒进水中。古老的仪式与狂热的现代化之间的这种反差诉说着这样一个关于现代澳门的故事——让一个曾经偏僻的小地方面貌一新的发展故事。
  
  Macau's stunning economic boom—2004 saw its GDP grow by 28%—has been powered by gambling, tourism and the construction necessary to support such endeavours. Since Stanley Ho, Macau's most famous casino mogul[6], found his monopoly on the gambling industry broken in 2001, American firms such as Wynn Resorts and Las Vegas Sands Corporation have stepped in to build impressive new facilities. Visitors include rich and powerful Chinese, wishing to indulge in games of chance illegal on the mainland, as well as tourists from nearby countries like South Korea and Singapore.
  赌博、旅游以及相关的支撑性建设推动澳门经济发生了令人瞠目结舌的增长——2004年其GDP增长28%。自从澳门最有名的赌场大亨何鸿燊对博采业的垄断在2001年被打破以来,永利度假村有限公司和拉斯维加斯金沙公司(注:建造了金沙会展中心)之类的美国公司逐步登陆澳门,建造了许多面目一新的设施。参观者中包括有钱有势的中国人,他们希望在赌博中碰碰运气,而赌博在内地是非法的。此外,还有来自邻近国家如韩国和新加坡的旅游观光者。
  
  There has been a price. Construction firms are eager to hire immigrants from Fujian, Guangdong and even Shanghai who are willing to work for lower wages than the local Macanese. The ill-will thus created was evident last May 1st, when locals (quite a few of whom were also illegal immigrants when they first arrived) rioted. They protest that outsiders are finding jobs in the new economy while many middle-aged Macanese remain jobless.
  增长是有代价的。建筑公司都迫切希望雇用来自福建、广东甚至上海的移民,这些人要求的薪水要比澳门本地人少。当地人对外乡人由此萌生的敌意从去年5月1日当地人(其中相当一部分人初到澳门时也属于非法移民)发生的骚乱中就可见一斑。他们抗议说,在新经济形势下,外乡人都找到了工作,而许多澳门本地的中年人却仍然没有工作。
  
  Ethnic tension is growing too. Macau is thoroughly cosmopolitan[6], with Nepalis, Brazilians and Filipinos working beside Portuguese and Chinese. But the relationship between them and the newly arrived mainlanders is problematic. “The mainland Chinese are rude and look down on us,” says a Nepali security guard, a sentiment echoed by many locals. And though the authorities have failed to keep mainlanders out, foreigners who have worked there since long before the handover are finding it hard to bring their families over. “My daughter won't be joining me because it's hard to get a work permit now,” says one Filipino, who has worked in Macau for 24 years.
  种族之间的关系也日益紧张。澳门完全是一个“世界性的大家庭”,在这里工作的除了葡萄牙人和中国人之外,还有尼泊尔人、巴西人和菲律宾人。不过他们与最近到来的内地人之间的关系出现了问题。一名尼泊尔保安说:“内地人很粗野,还瞧不起我们。”这一观点引起了许多本地人的共鸣。还有,当局不禁止内地人进入澳门,可移交之前很早就在这里工作的外国人却发觉难以将其家人接过来。一名在澳门已经工作了24年的菲律宾人说:“由于现在很难拿到工作许可证,我的女儿不能来到我身边了。”
  
  It is not only racial harmony that is under threat. Under Portugal Macau escaped many of the depredations of the Cultural Revolution, and it remains one of the last repositories of traditional Chinese culture. Figurines[7] depicting the god of wealth sit outside most doors, attended by burning sticks of incense. The temples of Tin Hau, Kum Iam and Pak Tai continue to draw the faithful, who take pride in pointing out that their religion has survived both the rule of Portuguese Christians and the handover to atheist China. Such piety[8], however, sits uncomfortably with the gambling, the neon lights and prostitution that are forever gaining ground.
  面临威胁的不仅仅是种族和睦。在葡萄牙的管辖下,澳门避免了文化大革命的破坏,它现在仍旧是传统中国文化最后的宝库之一。大多数人家门口都坐立着财神像,守护它的是一根根燃烧的焚香。天后庙(妈祖阁)、观音堂(普济禅院)和菩提禅院一如既往地吸引着虔诚的信徒,他们自豪地说,无论是在葡萄牙基督教的统治下,还是在移交给信奉无神论的中国之后,他们始终都能坚持自己的宗教信仰。然而,这种虔诚却艰难地与没完没了的赌博、霓虹灯以及卖淫共存着。
  
  The old order, at least, is not particularly pleased by the prospect. “It used to be just a sleepy fishing village when I was a child,” recalls a middle-aged resident. “We used to pump water up from hand-wells.” He sighs. “I have no idea what it's going to look like a year from now.”
  至少可以讲,未来的发展与旧的生活秩序有一点格格不入。(译注:直译可为“至少可以说,未来的希望并没有让旧的生活秩序感到特别满意。”)一位中年居民回忆说:“在我还是一个孩子的时候,这里只是一个静寂的渔村。”他叹了口气说道:“过去我们常常从自己打的水井中舀水,不知道再过一年会是什么样。”
  
  [NOTES](LONGMAN)
  1. reclamation n.开垦;改造(v. reclaim)
  2. beaver (away) v. 努力工作 n.海狸(毛皮)
  3. conurbation n. 有卫星城的大都市(adj. conurban大都市的;城市圈的;卫星城的)
  4. nook n. 僻静处;隐蔽处;犄角旮旯
  5. mogul n.显要人物;大家;有权势之人
  6. cosmopolitan adj.世界性的;全球的 n.四海为家之人
  7. figurine n.小雕像;小塑像
  8. piety n.虔诚;孝行
  
楼主东城水岸 时间:2007-05-19 22:30:23
  ★★第51篇★★
  
  India's deadly Maoists
  要命的印度毛派分子(陈继龙 编译)
  (译注:Maoism其实就是毛泽东思想,是西方对毛泽东思想不准确的称呼。Maoist则表示坚持毛泽东思想的人,“毛派分子”属于比较右的译法。这里站在印度角度看,如此译相对恰当一点,毕竟他们势力不大。在印度有一个纳萨尔派(Naxalite),说它是“毛派”,正因为其是由主张通过农民武装斗争夺取政权的共产党人所组成的。至于deadly的译法,请参见文章的最后一句话。)
  Jul 26th 2006 | DELHI
  From Economist.com
  “THE single biggest internal security challenge ever faced by our country,” is how Manmohan Singh, India’s prime minister, in April described its Maoist rebels, known as “Naxalites”. Many were taken aback: a violent insurgency in Indian-administered Kashmir has claimed tens of thousands of lives; its north-eastern states are wracked[1] by dozens of secessionist movements; and its cities have been subject to repeated terrorist atrocities—culminating in this month’s bomb attacks in Mumbai, which killed nearly 200 people.
  4月,印度总理曼莫汉•辛格这样描述该国的毛派叛乱分子(亦即纳萨尔派分子)——“我国国内安全面临的一个最大考验”。印属克什米尔地区的一场暴乱夺去了数以万计人的生命;印度东北部各邦被数十个分裂组织搞得支离破碎;许多城市不断遭受恐怖分子肆虐——这在本月孟买发生的炸弹袭击事件中更是达到极致,造成近200人丧生。所有这些都让许多人感到非常震惊。
  
  Compared with such well-known horrors, the Naxalite threat is low-key, insidious[2], and, to the city-dweller, largely invisible. Yet it now affects at least 170 of India’s 602 districts: a “red corridor”, running from the Nepali border in the north to the state of Karnataka in the south. It takes in some of the poorest parts of India, and in particular forests inhabited mainly by tribal peoples. In some places Naxalites have, in effect, replaced the state, running local affairs through their own councils, and administering their own rough justice. The Indian government estimates that the Naxalites, heirs to a 40-year old movement that splintered[3] and then united in 2004, now have some 10,000 armed fighters, and a further 40,000 full-time supporters.
  相比此类众所周知的恐怖事件,纳萨尔派分子造成的威胁则不太引人注目,其动机也比较阴险,而且对于城市居民而言,大部分都未曾亲眼目睹。然而,它的影响现在却波及印度602个区(亦即印度的县)中的至少170个,形成了一条从北部与尼泊尔接壤地区绵延到南部卡纳塔卡的“红色走廊”。这条“走廊”覆盖了印度一些最贫穷的地区,尤其还包括主要是部落人群定居的森林地带。在一些地方,纳萨尔派分子事实上已经取代州政府,通过自己的议会来管理当地事务,并自行草草行使司法审判。印度政府估计,纳萨尔派现在大约拥有1万名武装分子,此外还有4万名忠诚支持者。当年,一个存在40年之久的组织发生瓦解,但在2004年又重新集结,就此组成了纳萨尔派。
  
  They have also executed ever-larger military operations: attacking trains, arranging jail-breaks and, most recently, arranging a co-ordinated attack on a police station, a paramilitary base and a resettlement camp for people displaced by the conflict. In one attack, on July 17th, some 800 Naxalites were involved, and more than 30 people were killed—mostly hack to death with axes.
  他们也已实施过几次较大的军事行动,如袭击火车、组织劫狱,而且就在最近,他们对一个警察局、一座议会办公大楼和一所安置冲突中转移人群的安置营地发动了一次协同突击。大约有800名纳萨尔派分子参与了7月17日的一次袭击,超过30人在袭击中丧生——大多是被斧头砍死。
  
  That came in Dantewada, a remote, forested, dirt-poor and sparsely populated district in the south of Chhattisgarh state. Dantewada has become the main focus of the war with the Naxalites, following the emergence in the district, a year ago, of an anti-Maoist movement, known as Salwa Judum. This is usually translated as meaning “peace march” in the local language, Gondi, but is perhaps closer to “purification drive”. Portrayed as a spontaneous response to Maoist exactions[4], Salwa Judum is now—and many say always has been—an arm of the state, where about 5,000 local tribal people have been armed as “special police officers”, and pitted against[5] the Naxalites.
  我们来说说丹德瓦达。这是一个森林密布、人烟稀少的偏远穷困地区,位于查蒂斯加尔邦南部。一个名叫“萨尔瓦-朱杜姆”的反毛派组织一年前在丹德瓦达揭竿而起,随后该地区就成了与纳萨尔派交战的中心。 按当地方言“冈德语”,“萨尔瓦-朱杜姆”一词为“和平进军”之意,不过译作“净化运动”可能更为贴切。人们把“萨尔瓦-朱杜姆”说成是一个回应毛派分子强硬行为的自发组织,它现已成为——而且许多人都说从来都是——一支政府军。政府将大约5000名土著武装成“特别警官”,锋芒直指纳萨尔派分子。
  
  As part of this campaign, villages have been emptied, supposedly in order to protect the residents from the Maoists, but often, in practice, in order to root out Maoist sympathisers. Another aim may have been to provoke the Maoists into violent retaliation, and so lose them local support. The result has been a bloody local war in which at least 350 people have so far lost their lives, and nearly 50,000 are holed up[6] in relief camps, with little prospect of being allowed back to their villages, and harbouring well-founded anxieties about the state’s ability to protect them.
  作为这一打击的一部分,许多村庄都被清空,据说是为了保护村民不受毛派分子攻击,但通常实际上都是为了肃清毛派支持者。另外,还有一个目的就是激惹毛派分子实施武力报复,从而使其丧失民心。一场地区性血腥戮战已经由此暴发,迄今至少有350人丧生,近5000人躲到难民营中,他们几乎看不到任何能够重返村庄的希望,也完全有理由为政府对他们的保护能力感到担忧。
  
  A huge swathe[7] of Dantewada, where no roads penetrate the forest, remains outside the government’s control. There, the Maoists are well-entrenched[8]. Nearly 60 years after independence, the Indian state has still failed to deliver to these parts even rudimentary development: roads, schools, health-care. A big iron mine in the district employs mainly outsiders and pollutes a river. It is easy to see why a crude, violent ideology, discredited even in its homeland, might take root, and why Mr Singh might be right about the Naxalite threat. Other terrorists attack the Indian state at its strongpoints—its secularism, its inclusiveness and its democracy. Naxalism attacks where it is weakest: in delivering basic government services to those who need them most.
  丹德瓦达地区辽阔而狭长,森林中没有一条公路,可谓是天高皇帝远。毛派分子在那里的根基十分稳固。独立近50年来,印度政府甚至没有将一些根本性的发展举措比如修路、建校、医疗带到这些地区。当地的一个大型铁矿雇用的大都是外国人,而且还污染了一条河流。如此看来,为何一个粗糙的、暴力性的,甚至在本国都遭到质疑的意识形态(译注:这里,世界观以及历史背景的不同导致本文作者对这一拯救中国人民于水深火热之中的伟大理论所作的评论有失偏颇,读者自当权衡,不可听而信之。)能够在印度生根结果,为何辛格那样描述纳萨尔派分子的威胁是正确的,就很容易明白了。别的恐怖分子对印度政府都是攻其所“长”——它的世俗、包容和民主,而纳萨尔派分子却是攻其所“短”——为那些最需要的人提供政府式的服务。
  
  [NOTES](LONGMAN)
  1. wrack v. 亦作rack,毁坏;破坏
  2. insidious adj. 暗藏危害的;阴险的
  3. splinter v. 裂成碎片;(组织)分裂
  4. exaction n. 强征;索要
  5. pit against 使对立;使竞争
  6. hole up 避难或藏匿
  7. swathe n. 长而窄的地带
  8. entrenched adj. 确立的;不容易变动的(in)
  
  
楼主东城水岸 时间:2007-05-20 19:51:40
  ★★第52篇★★
  
  The dream of the personal computer
  PC之梦(陈继龙 译)
  
  Jul 27th 2006
  From The Economist print edition
  
  NOT many 25-year-olds can reasonably claim to have changed the world. The IBM personal computer, which was launched in 1981 and celebrates its 25th birthday in August, is a rare exception. Other personal computers had been launched before; but it was the IBM PC that ended up defining the standard around which a vast new industry then coalesced[1]. IBM, the titan of the computing world at the time, quickly lost control of its own creation, allowing others to reap the benefits. But leave aside what the PC has done for the fortunes of particular companies, and instead step back and consider what the PC has done for mankind.
  没有多少25岁的人或者公司可以理智地断言自己改变了这个世界。IBM个人电脑(PC)是个特例,它1981年投放市场,今年8月将迎来25周年庆。早前也有其它的PC投放市场,但最终确立PC标准的则是IBM,随后这一标准便成为一个庞大的新产业结合点。作为当时计算机领域的巨头,IBM很快就对自己的成果失去了控制,使得其它公司从中受益。但是,我们姑且不论PC给个别公司所带来的财富,先退一步想想PC为人类所做的贡献。
  
  The PC's most obvious achievement has been to help make computers cheaper, more widely available and more useful than ever before. Before it appeared, different computers from different manufacturers were mostly incompatible with each other. The PC's architecture was not perfect, but its adoption as an industry standard made possible economies of scale in both hardware and software. This in turn reduced prices and enabled the PC to democratise computing.
  PC最显著的成就在于使得计算机比以前更便宜、更普及、更有用了。在PC面世之前,不同生产商制造的不同计算机大都互不兼容。PC的结构设计并不完美,但作为一种产业标准,它的采用让软硬件方面的规模经济成为可能,从而也降低了价格,使得PC可以实现计算机大众化。
  
  It is also worth celebrating the innovation that has been unleashed[2] by the PC. Its flexible, general-purpose architecture has made it the platform on which new technologies, from voice-over-internet calling to peer-to-peer file-sharing, have been incubated. Most important of all, the PC has, in the past decade, turned primarily into a communications device, thanks to the rise of the internet. Cheap, fast global communication, online commerce, the ability to find the answer to almost any question on the web using a search engine and the many other wonders of the internet are all underpinned[3] by the widespread availability of inexpensive, powerful PCs.
  同样值得庆祝的还有,PC为创新打开了局面。它灵活多用的结构设计使其成为互联网对话和点对点文件共享等新技术的开发平台。最为重要的是,由于互联网的发展,PC在过去十年里已经开始变成一种通讯设备。廉价而快捷的全球通讯、在线商务、可以使用搜索引擎在网上找到几乎所有问题答案以及其它许多互联网奇迹,都是以价格不高、功能强大的PC的普及应用作为支撑的。
  
  But although the PC has its merits, it also has its faults. Its flexibility has proved to be both a strength and a weakness: it encourages innovation, but at the cost of complexity, reliability and security. And for people in the developing world, PCs are too bulky, expensive and energy-hungry. When it comes to extending the benefits of digital technology—chiefly, cheap and easy access to information—to everyone on the planet, the PC may not be the best tool for the job.
  不过,PC有其优点,也有其缺点。事实已经证明,它的灵活适用性可谓有利有弊——促进了创新,却失去了复杂性、可靠性和安全性。而且,对于发展中国家的人来说,PC体积过大,价格不菲,且耗电量多。如果就数字技术带给这个星球上所有人的好处——主要是获取信息既便宜又容易——而言,PC也许并非最好的工具。
  
  Look on the streets of almost any city in the world, however, and you will see people clutching tiny, pocket computers, better known as mobile phones. Already, even basic handsets have simple web-browsers, calculators and other computing functions. Mobile phones are cheaper, simpler and more reliable than PCs, and market forces—in particular, the combination of pre-paid billing plans and microcredit schemes—are already putting them into the hands of even the world's poorest people. Initiatives to spread PCs in the developing world, in contrast, rely on top-down funding from governments or aid agencies, rather than bottom-up adoption by consumers.
  然而,站在世界上几乎任何一个城市的大街上,你都将看到人们手持极小的袖珍计算机,也就是手机。就连一些基本配置的手机都已经拥有简单的网络浏览器、计算器和其它数据处理功能。手机比PC便宜,操作简单,也更为可靠。而且,市场力量——尤其是预付费设计和小额存款方案——已经把手机带到了世界上最贫穷的人的手中。与手机不同的是,PC能在发展中国家得到普及,则主要依靠政府或援助机构自上而下的专项资助,而非消费者自下而上的(自主)选用。
  
  Merchants in Zambia use mobile phones for banking; farmers in Senegal use them to monitor prices; health workers in South Africa use them to update records while visiting patients. All kinds of firms, from giants such as Google to start-ups such as CellBazaar, are working to bring the full benefits of the web to mobile phones. There is no question that the PC has democratised computing and unleashed innovation; but it is the mobile phone that now seems most likely to carry the dream of the “personal computer” to its conclusion.
  赞比亚的商人用手机存款,塞内加尔的农民用手机监控价格,南非的卫生工作者访视患者时用手机更新记录。各种各样的公司,包括像Google这样的巨头和CellBazaar之类的小公司,无不在努力将所有网络优势整合到手机上。毫无疑问,PC使计算机变得大众化,并为创新打开了局面,而现如今手机却似乎最有可能终结这一“PC”梦想。
  
  [NOTES](LONGMAN)
  1. coalesce v. (into/with) (事物或观点)结合,接合
  2. unleash v. 发泄,放纵;给狗解开皮带
  3. underpin v. 巩固;支撑,支持
  
楼主东城水岸 时间:2007-05-20 19:57:40
  ★★第53篇★★
  
  The bird flu capital of the world
  世界禽流感之都(陈继龙 编译)
  
  Jul 27th 2006 | JAKARTA
  From The Economist print edition
  
  LAST week, Indonesia announced its 43rd human death from bird flu. It has now recorded more fatalities than any other nation, and in stark[1] contrast to all other countries its death toll is climbing regularly. It looks as though things will get worse before they get better.
  印尼上周宣布本国第43人死于禽流感。它的死亡纪录现已超过其它任何一个国家,并且与其它各国形成鲜明对比的是它的死亡人数还在不断攀升。现在看来,情况似乎不但未见好转,反而要愈发地糟糕。
  
  The Indonesian government claims to be committed to fighting the disease, caused by the H5N1 virus, but it does not seem to want to spend much of its own money doing so. After the international community pledged $900m in grants and slightly more in very soft loans to combat the spread of bird flu globally and to help nations prepare for a possible human flu pandemic[2], Indonesia put in a request for the full $900m—all of it in grants.
  虽然印尼政府声称有责任与这一由H5N1型病毒所致的疾病作斗争,但是它似乎并不希望自己为此投入很多资金。国际社会承诺捐款9亿美金,同时提供稍多数额的超低息贷款(译注:软贷款是指借款国可用本国软货币偿还的贷款。软货币即软通货,如纸币,区别于硬通货如黄金。此类贷款利息很低,主要用于帮助别人),以阻止禽流感在全球扩散,并帮助各国做好可能发生的人流感大范围流行的防范准备,可是此后印尼竟然要求将全部9亿美金据为己有——而且全部以捐款的形式。
  
  A national bird-flu commission was created in March to co-ordinate the country's response but it has yet to be given a budget. Its chief, meanwhile, has just been given a second full-time job—heading efforts to rebuild the part of Java devastated by an earthquake in May.
  今年3月,印尼成立了全国禽流感委员会,旨在协调本国应急反应工作,不过其所需专项资金至今仍未到位。其间,该委员会 正好又被安排了第二份专职工作——负责遭5月份地震毁坏的爪哇岛部分地区灾后重建工作。(译注:此段是指“虽然有了组织机构,但由于缺乏资金以及有关领导无法专心工作,禽流感防治工作不能取得进展。)
  
  Observers say that the available money is being mis-spent, with the focus on humans rather than on animals. The agriculture ministry, for example, is asking for less money for next year than it got this year. This is despite hundreds of thousands of hens dying every month, to say nothing of infected cats, quails, pigs and ducks. Farmers are being compensated at only 2,000 rupiah (21 cents) per bird, well below market price, thereby discouraging them from reporting outbreaks. The country's veterinary[3] surveillance services are inadequate. Pledges to vaccinate hundreds of millions of birds have not been met.
  观察家说,现有资金使用不合理,投放重点应该是动物而不是人。例如,农业部为明年申请到的资金就比今年少。这等于是对每月死去的成百上千只鸡坐视不理,更不用说被感染的猫、鹌鹑、猪和鸭了。农民们每只家禽得到的补偿仅为2000卢比(21美分),远低于市场价格,这使得他们不再积极报告发病情况。该国的兽医监督服务力度也不够,要为数千万只家禽注射疫苗的承诺到现在都没有兑现。
  
  The UN's Food and Agriculture Organisation is starting to establish local disease-control centres to cope with the effects of a virulent mutation, should one occur, but reckons that only one-third of the country will be covered by year's end. A bunch of international do-gooders[4] that is trying to plug some of the gaps is finding it hard to raise money.
  联合国粮农组织正在准备建立地方疾病控制中心,以应对可能发生的病毒突变所造成的后果。不过该组织估计到今年底印尼全国只有1/3的地区将建成此类中心。国际上众多想法天真的慈善家也在竭力填补这其中的一些缺口,却发现难以筹措所需资金。(译注:do-gooder不是“做好事的人”,而是指“真心实意有志于为社会谋福利或进行改革,但通常是不现实的人道主义者——一般带有过于天真或浮躁鲁莽,徒劳无功等贬义”。)
  
  In fairness, Indonesia has many priorities to deal with. It is contending with the aftermath of earthquakes, a volcanic eruption and a tsunami—all in the last seven weeks. More than 1,500 children die every day from treatable illnesses such as pneumonia, tuberculosis, dengue fever and malaria. Besides, many Indonesians either do not believe the hype—they point to the SARS threat in 2003 that never materialised[5]—or say that if outsiders are so worried they should pay for the necessary measures.
  平心而论,除了禽流感,印尼还有许多更重要的事情要处理。(译注:priority需要优先考虑的事)过去7个星期内发生的地震、火山爆发以及海啸等灾后工作已经让它应接不暇。每天还有超过1500名儿童死于可以医治的疾病,如肺炎、肺结核、登革热和疟疾。此外,多数印尼人要么认为那些宣传实属危言耸听——他们指出,2003年的SARS疫情威胁并没有真的到来——要么就说,外人要是这么担心,那他们就应该自己花钱采取必要的措施。
  
  The UN's bird flu tsar[6], David Nabarro, is a diplomat. He calls the issues involved “really tricky” and says recrimination[7] achieves little. It will take “many, many months”, he thinks, for Indonesia to get on top of bird flu. Keep your fingers crossed.
  联合国禽流感事务高级协调员戴维•纳巴罗则是一个擅长使用外交辞令的人。他称这里面的问题“实在棘手”,并说一味指责只会收效甚微。他认为,印尼尚需“很多、很多个月的时间”才能完全控制禽流感疫情。但愿如此吧。(译注:get on top of 完全控制;keep sb’s fingers crossed 祝成功)
  
  [NOTES](LONGMAN)
  1. stark adj.刻板的;死板的;完全的;刺耳的;刺目的
  2. pandemic adj.&n. 大范围流行的(疾病);大流行的(疾病)
  3. veterinary adj. 兽医的
  4. do-gooder n. someone who helps people who are in bad situations, but who is annoying because their help is not needed - used to show disapproval 爱管闲事的人;一厢情愿的乐善好施者(通常用于表示不赞成)
  5. materialize v. 使具体化;实现,成真
  6. tsar n.(czar)沙皇;掌权者;被任命的有特权的官员
  
楼主东城水岸 时间:2007-05-20 20:00:37
  ★★第54篇★★
  
  Evolve or die
  不进则退(陈继龙 编译)
  
  Jul 27th 2006
  From The Economist print edition
  
  THE personal computer spawned[1] a new industry. But many of the firms that initially flourished in the PC era are now finding life difficult. Dell, the leading PC-maker, issued a profit warning last week that sent its share-price to a five-year low. Intel is trying to regain ground lost to AMD, its increasingly confident competitor. Microsoft has just announced that it will buy back 8% of its shares for around $20 billion—a sign that its high-growth days are behind it.
  个人计算机(PC)造就了一个新产业。然而,众多最初在PC时代兴盛一时的公司如今却发现举步维艰。头号PC制造商戴尔公司上周发布了一则利润警报,造成其股价跌至五年来最低水平。因特尔也在设法夺回被其信心与日俱增的对手——AMD所占领的市场。微软则刚刚宣布将以200亿美元左右的价格回购其8%的股份——这意味着它曾经的高速增长时代已成过眼烟云。
  
  But none of these firms is in mortal danger. That is more than can be said for many of the smaller firms of a similar vintage[2] to the PC. Novell's two top executives departed in June following a string of poor results. Silicon Graphics filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in May. 3Com replaced its boss earlier this year following lacklustre[3] performance. Borland shed one-fifth of its workforce and is preparing to sell the best-known part of its business; this month its finance chief resigned. 不过,这些公司还没有哪一家面临灭顶之灾,而许多同期开始生产PC的小公司就说不准了。Novell公司的两位最高执行官由于一连串糟糕的业绩已于6月份离职。硅谷制图公司则于5月份申请了《破产法》第11章规定的破产保护。3Com公司的老总也因无出众成绩而于今年早些时候被免职。Borland公司则裁减了五分之一的员工,并拟转让公司部分知名业务;其财务主管也已在这个月辞职。
  
  All four firms are contemporaries of the IBM PC, the creatures of a distant era when only around 200 institutions were connected to the internet. Each had a bold vision of technology, but then failed to evolve as the very innovations they pioneered became commonplace.
  这四家公司与IBM个人计算机均处于同一时代,都出自那个久远的年代——当时只有200家左右的公共机构接通了互联网。在技术上,它们个个都曾有着大胆的洞察力,可当它们开创的新技术广为应用时,自己却止步不前了。
  
  Novell prospered by selling networking software to link up computers and enable group-working. Yet the firm failed to keep up with its rivals, chiefly Microsoft and IBM. It then shifted strategy and acquired an open-source software company in 2004, leaving users of its earlier products feeling neglected.
  Novell依靠销售连接计算机并实现群组工作的网络软件获得成功,可是最终却被它的对手(主要是微软和IBM)甩到了后面。后来,它又转变战略,于2004年接手了一家开放源代码软件公司,这又让其前期产品的用户有一种被怠慢的感觉。
  
  Silicon Graphics, founded in 1982, makes sophisticated computers for modelling things such as cars and aeroplanes. But as PCs became more powerful, the firm was wrongfooted[4] by the shift to commoditised hardware: its last profitable year was 1999. (The firm has kept itself afloat by selling its lavish office buildings to Google, the technology industry's darling today.)
  成立于1982年的硅谷制图公司生产用于绘制汽车、飞机之类模型的高尖端计算机。但是随着PC功能日趋强大,硬件商品化的转变将该公司逼入了尴尬境地:它最近一个创收年还是1999年。(该公司已将其奢华的办公大楼卖给了当今技术产业新宠Google公司,从而得以走出困境。)
  
  Similarly, 3Com, which makes computer-networking gear, floundered[5] as such products turned into low-cost commodities. And Borland, which makes programming tools, was squeezed between industry giants on the one hand and free software on the other.
  同样,生产计算机网络设备的3Com公司由于此类产品沦为廉价商品而感到不知所措。还有生产程序设计工具的Borlan公司可谓腹背受敌,一边是各大公司,另一边则是自由(免费/少许收费)软件。
  
  Companies that start off with a wildly successful product often fail to stay the course, explains Jim Collins, the author of “Built to Last”. “If you have a great idea, it creates a false sense that you are stronger and more successful than you actually are,” he says. Failure to evolve can then lead to extinction.
  《以建设谋持久》一书作者吉姆•科林斯解释说,依靠某种红极一时的产品发家的公司常常都无法坚持到最后。(译注:按照Longman注解,wildly一词有两个意思,一是“in a very uncontrolled or excited way”,即“失控地,兴奋地,狂热地”,二是“extremely”,即“极度,非常”。这句话的意思是指:有些公司刚开始推出一种产品并大获成功,从而得以扬名立万,可由于缺乏与时俱进的意识而原地踏步或者干脆倒闭。这句话为后面的引语作了铺垫。“有了一个好主意”是不够的,不能吃老本,要不断“想出好主意”,不断进步。)他说:“如果你想出一个好主意,就会给你一种错觉,以为你自己很强大,很成功,其实并非如此。”不进则退啊(不能进化就会走向灭绝)。
  
  [NOTES](LONGMAN)
  1. spawn v. 产卵,大量繁殖后代;造成,产生
  2. vintage n. 葡萄酒酿造年期;制造年期
  3. lackluster adj. 无光泽的;黯淡的,不活跃的
  4. wrongfoot v. to surprise and embarrass someone, especially by asking a question they did not expect使难堪;使窘促不安: Woo's political skill and ability to wrongfoot the opposition
  5. flounder v. 挣扎;踌躇,不知所措;有很多问题且极有可能失败
  
楼主东城水岸 时间:2007-05-20 20:03:38
  ★★第55篇★★
  
  Something new
  新意(陈继龙 编译)
  
  Aug 3rd 2006 | BEIJING
  From The Economist print edition
  
  AFTER years of prospering as the world's workshop, China now wants to be its laboratory as well. “Innovation” has become a national buzzword[1], and Chinese leaders have been tossing it into their speeches since the beginning of the year, when President Hu Jintao started an ambitious campaign to drive China's economy further up the value chain. True, new campaigns and catchphrases[2] are declared by the government and the Communist Party in China all the time, and mostly end up fizzling out[3] in puddles[4] of rhetoric. But there are signs that the government intends to back its innovation campaign with more than just words.
  中国作为“世界工场”,多年来发展蒸蒸日上,但现在它也希望成为“世界实验室”。“创新”已经成为举国上下一个时髦词儿。今年年初,胡锦涛 启动了一项雄心勃勃的规划,旨在推动中国经济进一步与价值链接轨。从那以后,中国领导人在讲话中就经常提到“创新”一词。确实,中国政府和中国共产党总是宣布各种新计划,创造各种新术语,可最终都因流于表面文章而不了了之。不过,许多迹象表明,中国政府正准备用实际行动来支持这次创新规划。
  
  In launching their “National Medium- and Long-Term Programme for Scientific and Technological Development (2006-20)”, Mr Hu, the prime minister, Wen Jiabao, and other top officials have vowed to spend more on science and technology, and to insist on business reforms. Their goal is to move China beyond its dependence on natural resources and cheap labour, and stake its place among the economies that depend on education and information technology.
  在推出《国家中长期科学与技术发展规划纲要(2006-2020)》后,胡锦涛 、温家宝总理和其他高级官员都许诺要加大科技投入,并坚持行业改革。他们的目标是推动中国不再过于依赖自然资源和廉价劳动力,并投身于依靠教育和信息技术的经济体系之中。
  
  Officials say privately that the new policy emerged only after years of contentious internal debate. One divide was between nationalists, who advocated a go-it-alone approach towards developing indigenous technology, and others who were more open to international collaboration. There were also disagreements as to whether the campaign should concentrate on scientific mega-projects or incremental innovation.
  有官员私下里说,这一新政策是在国内多年的激烈争论之后才出台的。分歧之一就是,民族主义者提倡采取独立自主的办法开发本土技术,而其他人则比较倾向于国际合作。关于这一规划应该专注于发展大型科技项目还是进行渐进性创新,也存在不同意见。
  
  One target is to reduce China's dependence on imported technology to 30% or less by 2020. According to Professor Fang Xin, of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the initiative is a matter of necessity. China must learn to innovate if it is to sustain growth. Foreign firms, she notes, reap more than 60% of the profits from China's high-tech exports. Other officials say that, on average, China's 20,000 large and medium-sized enterprises undertake fewer than five new development projects and generate only two and a half new products each year.
  此规划的目标之一是到2020年将中国对引进技术的依赖降低到30%。中国科学院教授方新(音)认为,采取这一行动有其必然性。中国要想持续发展,必须学会创新。她指出,外国公司在中国高技术出口商品中获利超过60%。其他官员普遍认为,中国2万家大中型企业每年承担的新开发项目不到5个,生产的新产品也仅有2.5个。
  
  The plan also calls for an increase in research and development spending from its current 1.23% of GDP to 2.5% by 2020, putting China in the same range as OECD countries' current scores. Ms Fang says banks and government departments will be told to help out with their credit, taxation and currency-exchange policies. According to Denis Simon of the State University of New York's Levin Institute, who advises the Chinese government on science policy, this move comes just in time. “If China doesn't do this right,” he says, “it risks becoming a good 20th-century industrial economy just when it needs to figure out how to be a 21st-century knowledge-based economy.”
  此规划还要求到2020年将对研究和开发的投入从现在占国民生产总值的1.23%增加到2.5%,使中国在同一领域达到经合组织(OECD)各国目前的水平。方教授说,各银行和政府部门将被要求通过其存款、税收和汇兑政策来帮助解决这一问题。中国政府科学政策顾问、纽约州立大学列文学院的丹尼斯•西蒙认为,这一举措十分及时。他说:“假如中国这件事做得不好,它就会成为一个出色的20世纪工业经济型国家,这是很危险的,它需要解决的是如何成为一个21世纪知识经济型国家。”
  
  But to succeed, says Mr Simon, China needs to attend to other matters as well. These include an “internal brain drain[5]” that sees much of the country's best talent going to work for foreign firms in China, and the country's notoriously lax[6] regime for protection of intellectual-property rights. Mr Simon predicts that such protection will improve as more local businesses with an interest in the matter join the chorus of complaints from foreigners.
  不过西蒙说,中国要想获得成功,还应该关注其它一些问题。这其中包括“国内人才流失”问题,亦即该国许多出类拔萃的人才纷纷涌向开在中国的外国公司。还有该国对知识产权的保护出了名的不严格。西蒙预测,随着自身利益也牵扯到这一问题的更多本土企业和外国企业交相表示不满,保护状况将得到改善。
  
  Another huge obstacle is the nature of China's educational system, which stresses conformity and does little to foster independent thinking. Confucian philosophy reveres the teacher above all. More innovative Western economies, according to Ms Fang, operate under Aristotle's maxim[7]: “I love my teacher Plato greatly, but I love truth more.”
  另一个巨大障碍是,中国教育制度从根本上强调人云亦云,几乎不鼓励独立思考。儒家哲学最讲究尊崇师者。方教授认为,越来越多的西方创新型经济体却秉承亚里士多德的格言——“吾爱吾师(柏拉图),吾尤爱真理。”
  
  [NOTES](LONGMAN)
  1. buzzword n. 专门术语;时髦词语;漂亮口号
  2. catchphrase n. 口头禅
  3. fizzle out 逐渐停止或消失(尤指由于人失去热情或兴趣)
  4. puddle n.一小池液体(尤指雨水);小水坑
  5. brain drain人才流失
  6. lax adj. 松散的;不严格的(=slack)
  7. maxim n. 箴言;格言;名人名言
  
楼主东城水岸 时间:2007-05-20 20:05:24
  ★★第56篇★★
  
  The brand of me
  自我标榜(陈继龙 编译)
  
  Aug 10th 2006 | NEW YORK
  From The Economist print edition
  
  “WHAT'S the difference between God and Larry Ellison?” asks an old software industry joke. Answer: God doesn't think he's Larry Ellison. The boss of Oracle is hardly alone among corporate chiefs in having a reputation for being rather keen on himself. Indeed, until the bubble burst and the public turned nasty at the start of the decade, the cult of the celebrity chief executive seemed to demand bossly narcissism[1], as evidence that a firm was being led by an all-conquering hero.
  过去软件业有一个笑话说:“上帝和拉里•埃利森有什么不同?”回答是:上帝认为他不是拉里•埃利森。在各公司领导人中,以自恋闻名的并非仅仅这位甲骨文公司老板一个人。事实上,在十年前IT业泡沫破裂、公众骤然失去理智之前,对知名首席执行官的顶礼膜拜似乎使得自恋一直都是老板们必须具备的条件,因为它表明一个公司是在一位无敌英雄的领导之下。(译注:根据Longman,“the bubble bursts”是指“a very successful or happy period of time suddenly ends”,即“一段非常成功或者欢乐的时期突然结束”。“get/turn nasty”相当于“suddenly start behaving in a threatening way”,即“行为突然之间变得有危险性”。)
  
  Narcissus met a nasty end, of course. And in recent years, boss-worship has come to be seen as bad for business. In his management bestseller, “Good to Great”, Jim Collins argued that the truly successful bosses were not the self-proclaimed stars who adorn[2] the covers of Forbes and Fortune, but instead self-effacing[3], thoughtful, monkish[4] sorts who lead by inspiring example.
  当然,希腊神话中顾影自怜的那喀索斯最后还是不得善终。近年来,人们已经渐渐发现“崇拜上司”对企业不利。吉姆•科林斯在他的管理学畅销书《听大人物的话》中指出,真正成功的老板不是那些装点《福布斯》和《财富》杂志封面的所谓明星,而是那种为人谦卑、考虑周全、心无杂念并通过干一些鼓舞人心的事来领导公司的人。
  
  A statistical answer may be at hand. For the first time, a new study, “It's All About Me”, to be presented next week at the annual gathering of the American Academy of Management, offers a systematic, empirical analysis of what effect narcissistic bosses have on the firms they run. The authors, Arijit Chatterjee and Donald Hambrick, of Pennsylvania State University, examined narcissism in the upper echelons[5] of 105 firms in the computer and software industries.
  这方面的统计结果也许即将出炉。一项名为“围着我转”的新研究将于下周在美国管理学会年会上首次公诸于世,该研究根据实际经验,系统分析了自恋型老板对其管理的公司所产生的影响。研究报告作者、宾西法利亚大学的阿里伊特•查特叶和唐纳德•汉姆布里克调查了105家计算机和软件公司的上层人士自恋状况。
  
  To do this, they had to solve a practical problem: studies of narcissism have hitherto relied on surveying individuals personally, something for which few chief executives are likely to have time or inclination. So the authors devised an index of narcissism using six publicly available indicators obtainable without the co-operation of the boss. These are: the prominence of the boss's photo in the annual report; his prominence in company press releases; the length of his “Who's Who” entry; the frequency of his use of the first person singular in interviews; and the ratios of his cash and non-cash compensation to those of the firm's second-highest paid executive.
  为此,他们必须解决一个实际问题——迄今为止有关自恋症的研究都是依靠面对面个体调查,而首席执行官们可能很少有人有时间或愿意接受这种调查。因此,作者应用6种无需老板合作、通过公众渠道获取的指征,制定了一个自恋症状目录。这些指征是:老板照片在年度报告中的突出位置;他在公司新闻发布会上的突出地位;他的“名人录”记录了多少名人;他在面试时使用第一人称单数(“我”和“你”)的次数;他对薪水位居公司第二位的主管人员给予的现金与非现金补偿比率。
  
  Narcissism naturally drives people to seek positions of power and influence, and because great self-esteem helps your professional advance, say the authors, chief executives will tend on average to be more narcissistic than the general population. How does that affect a firm? Messrs Chatterjee and Hambrick found that highly narcissistic bosses tended to make bigger changes in the use of important resources, such as research and development, or in spending and leverage[6]; they carried out more and bigger mergers and acquisitions; and their results were both more extreme (more big wins or big losses) and more volatile than those of firms run by their humbler peers. For shareholders, that could be good or bad.
  自恋症必然会驱使人们寻求有权有势的地位。而且作者认为,由于强烈的自尊心有助于提升人的职业地位,因此大多数首席执行官都比一般人更容易有自恋倾向。这对一个公司会产生怎样的影响呢?查特叶和汉姆布里克两位先生发现,高度自恋的老板在研究和开发之类重要策略的使用或者开支和举债经营方面,往往会作出比较大的改变。他们实施较多、较大的兼并与收购项目;相比那些由较为谦卑的首席执行官所管理的公司,他们的业绩更容易走向极端(要么大举获胜,要么一败涂地),也更不稳定。对股东们而言,这可能有利也有弊。
  
  Although (oddly) the authors are keeping their narcissism ranking secret, they have revealed that Mr Ellison did not come top. Alas for him, that may be because the study limited itself to people who became the boss after 1991—well after he took the helm. In every respect Mr Ellison seems to be the classic narcissistic boss, claims Mr Chatterjee. There is life in the old joke yet.
  作者虽然对受调查老板的自恋状况孰重孰轻秘而不宣(有点出乎意料),但透露说埃利森并不是最严重的。这可能是因为研究本身仅限于调查1991年以后成为老板的人——而他在1991年前就早已掌舵,对他而言这未尝不是一件憾事。(译注:alas此处作副词,用于“mentioning a fact that you wish was not true”。)查特叶断言,埃利森在任何方面看起来都是典型的自恋型老板。这就是过去的那个笑话在现实生活中的写照。(这样的老笑话在生活中还有很多。)
  
  [NOTES](LONGMAN)
  1. narcissism n. 自我陶醉,自恋
  2. adorn v. 装饰(decorate)
  3. self-effacing adj. 谦虚的(modest);谦卑的
  4. monkish adj.僧侣的;苦行僧般的;禁欲的
  5. echelon n.等级,阶层
  6. leverage n. 影响作用;杠杆作用;举债经营
  
楼主东城水岸 时间:2007-05-21 20:09:05
  ★★第58篇★★
  
  A ticket for corruption
  罚单,为腐败而开(陈继龙 编译)
  Aug 10th 2006 | NEW YORK
  From The Economist print edition
  
  “THE UN needs a good smack in the face,” fumed one city councillor. New York has long been fed up with the United Nations and its diplomats. The city has 1,700 of them, about 1,699 too many. Their meetings cause endless traffic jams and annoying multi-car motorcades[1]. As for their outstanding fines for traffic violations (more than $18m at the last count), these have so infuriated[2] Michael Bloomberg, New York's mayor, that in 2002 he vowed to tow away illegally parked consular[3] vehicles. Colin Powell, then secretary of state, had to step in to broker[4] a compromise.
  一位市议员怒气冲天地说:“该狠狠地给联合国一记耳光。”长期以来,纽约已经受够了联合国和它的那些外交官员们。对于这座城市来说,就算只有一名这样的外交官也嫌多,何况却有1700名。他们开会造成无休无止的交通堵塞,会议用车组成的长长的车队也让人烦恼不已。至于他们违反交通规则却不缴罚款一事(最新统计数字显示超过1800万美金),更是让纽约市长迈克尔•布卢姆伯格感到大为光火,以致于他在2002年就发誓要将那些违规停靠的领事馆车辆拖走。(译注:outstanding 这里是“未付清的,有待偿还的”的意思。at the last count是指“according to the latest information about a particular situation”)时任国务卿的科林•鲍威尔不得不从中斡旋,最后双方才达成妥协。
  
  Can anything be done? In 2002 Chuck Schumer and Hillary Clinton, New York's senators, added an amendment to a foreign-aid bill that allowed the city to recoup[5] unpaid parking tickets from foreign-aid disbursements to offending countries. But now a new weapon has been discovered: shame. Two economists have found a direct correlation between the number of people who park by the city's fire hydrants and in its loading bays[6], and the level of corruption in their home countries.
  难道真的一筹莫展吗?2002年,纽约两位参议员恰克•舒梅尔和希拉里•克林顿对一项外援法案提出了一个修正意见,即允许该市从援助那些违规官员所在国家的资金中抽取部分用于补偿违规停车罚款欠款。不过,纽约现在又找到了一个新的对付手段,那就是“羞辱”。两位经济学家认为,那些将车停靠在该市消防栓和码头(注:在纽约,这属于绝对禁止停车的地方,一旦违规,惩罚非常重)附近的人的数量,与他们本国的腐败程度直接相关。
  
  A study by Raymond Fisman and Edward Miguel, economists at Columbia University and the University of California, Berkeley, gives a rare picture of how people from different cultures perform under new cultural norms. For instance, between 1997 and 2002 diplomats from Chad averaged 124 unpaid parking violations; diplomats from Canada and the United Kingdom had none. The results from 146 countries were strikingly similar to the Transparency International corruption index, which rates countries by their level of perceived sleaze[7]. In the case of parking violations, diplomats from countries with low levels of corruption behaved well, even when they could get away with breaking the rules. The culture of their home country was imported to New York, and they acted accordingly.
  哥伦比亚大学和加利福尼亚大学伯克利分院的经济学家雷蒙•费斯曼和爱德华•米盖尔通过研究令人惊奇地发现,来自不同文化的人在新的文化准则下的表现都有所不同。例如,在1997年至2002年间,乍得的外交官平均每年有124次未缴罚金的停车违规,而加拿大和英国的外交官则一次也没有。对146个国家进行研究的结果与“透明国际”腐败目录惊人地相似,后者是根据各国腐败现状对其进行排名。就违规停车而言,来自腐败程度较低的国家的外交官员表现较好,即便他们可能有时会侥幸逃脱违规处罚。他们本国的文化习惯被他们带入纽约,他们的行为也因此受到了本国文化的约束。
  
  The same applied to high-corruption countries. Their diplomats became increasingly comfortable with parking where they liked; as they spent more time in New York, their number of violations increased by 8-18%. Overall, diplomats accumulated 150,000 unpaid parking tickets during the five years under review.
  对那些腐败程度较为严重的国家,道理也是一样。这些国家的外交官员在停车方面越来越随心所欲,想停哪里就停哪里。随着他们在纽约生活的时日增多,违规停车的次数也增加了8%至18%。通过回顾调查,五年内外交官员未予缴付的停车罚单总计达15万张。
  
  Yet any moral superiority New Yorkers may feel should be tempered by the behaviour of the American embassy in London. Last year, embassy staff stopped paying the congestion[8] charge—now £8, or over $15—for bringing cars into central London. The growing pile of unpaid charges now stands at $716,000.
  不过,美国大使馆在伦敦的行为会让纽约人可能产生的任何道德优越感都荡然无存。去年,使馆人员开车到伦敦市中心不再缴纳交通堵塞费(现为8英镑或15元多的美金),目前累计欠缴达到71.6万美金。
  
  [NOTES](LONGMAN)
  1. motorcade n. 车队
  2. infuriate v. 让某人感到极度愤怒
  3. consular adj. 领事的
  4. broker v.从中调解,安排;斡旋
  5. recoup v. 补偿;弥补;挽回损失(recover)
  6. loading bay 码头(=loading dock)
  7. sleaze n. 不道德的行为(与性及谎言有关)
  8. congestion n. 交通堵塞
  
  
楼主东城水岸 时间:2007-05-21 20:11:51
  ★★第59篇★★
  
  Newcomers don't like the smells
  城里人闻不惯那味儿(陈继龙 编译)
  Aug 10th 2006 | GILBERT, PRESCOTT AND SCOTTSDALE
  From The Economist print edition
  
  GEORGE WILLIAMS, one of Scottsdale's last remaining cowboys, has been raising horses and cattle on his 120 acres for 20 years. The cattle go to the slaughterhouse, the horses to rodeos[1]. But Mr Williams is stomping[2] mad.
  乔治•威廉斯是斯科特斯德(注:亚利桑那州中南部城市)仅存的牛仔之一,20年来他一直在他那120亩地里饲养牛马。牛儿进了屠宰场,马儿上了竞技场,而威廉斯却疯也似的跺着脚。
  
  His problems began last year when dishonest neighbours started to steal his cattle. Then other neighbours, most of them newcomers, took offence at his horses roaming on their properties. Arizona is an open-range[3] state: livestock have the right of way and there is no fine for trespassing[4]. This has been on the law books since 1913. Mr Williams, who is elderly and in poor health, is angry that he has to spend so much of his time fielding[5] complaints and retrieving stolen cattle.
  去年,有些不厚道的邻居开始偷他的牛,之后他的麻烦便接踵而至。有的邻居(大多数都是刚刚迁来的人)还攻击他那些跑到他们地里的马。亚利桑那是一个开阔的“草原之州”,家畜在公路上享有优先通行权,对家畜侵入他人土地也不予罚款。(译注:“the right of way”可指“优先通行权”和“允许在别人的土地上穿行”,根据上下文,这里是指前者,因为后面的trespass有“进入别人的私人土地”的意思。)自1913年以来,这就一直有法律明文规定。威廉斯很生气,因为年老体弱的他不得不花很多的时间来回应别人的怨言和找回被偷的牛。
  
  Such grumbles are common in Arizona. The most recent Department of Agriculture census shows that 1,213 of Arizona's 8,507 farms closed down between 1997 and 2002. Many cattlemen are moving out to more remote parts of the state. Arable[6] farmers are struggling, too. Norman Knox, a respected grain farmer in Gilbert, recently learned that the owner of his rented land wants to build condos. Mr Knox is 72 and has to move. He reckons that 50-70% of the farmland in Gilbert has been sold for development in the past two years.
  这样的怨言在亚利桑那到处都可以听到。农业部最近一次人口普查结果显示,1997年至2002年间,亚利桑那8507家农场中有1213家已经关闭。许多牧民正在朝该州一些偏远的地区迁徙。种地农民也是苦不堪言。诺曼•诺克斯是吉尔伯特一位德高望重的粮农,他最近得知,他租种的那块地的主人打算在那儿修建公寓楼。今年72岁的诺克斯只好搬走。据他估算,两年来,吉尔伯特的农田已经有50%~70%被出售用于开发。
  
  This affects not only cowboys and farmers, but small businessmen too. For 20 years, Gary Young, owner of Gilbert's Higley Feed, sold range blocks and cubes to cattlemen who fed them to cattle during the droughts. But 18 months ago he switched to selling pet food and baby chicks to new home-owners.
  这不但影响了牛仔和农民,也影响到了小商业者。吉尔伯特Higley饲料公司老板盖瑞•扬二十年来一直向牧民销售固体块状浓缩牧用汤料(译注:range此处是指“草原”,与前文的“open-range”一致;block指块状物体,cube指立方体,这里应该代指块状饲料或“浓缩草料”等,即可能是将牲畜所需饲料进行固化、压缩并切割成块状。是不是类似于“压缩饼干”?另,在英语中stock cube是指“固体浓缩汤料”,加上后面提到的“干旱时饲喂”,因此准确的译文可能为“固体块状浓缩牧用汤料”),干旱时牧民们就用这些汤料来喂牛。可是,一年半前他已经转行向新来的住户售卖宠物食品和小鸡了。
  
  Doc Lane is an executive at the Arizona Cattlemen's Association, a trade group. He says Arizona's larger ranch owners are making decent profits from selling. It is the smaller players who are the victims of rising land values, higher mortgages and stiffer city council rules. What happens all too often is that people move in next to a farm because they think the land pretty. But soon they start complaining to the council. In Mr Williams's case it was the horses that annoyed them. Other newcomers don't like the noise, the pesticides and the smell of manure.
  道克•莱恩是商业性组织、亚利桑那州牧民协会的一位业务主管。他说,亚利桑那较大的牧场场主经营收入还算过得去,而那些小牧主却成为地价上涨、房贷抵押金增高、政府规定日趋严格的牺牲品。人们搬迁到农场附近居住,因为他们觉得那一带的风景优美。这种情况屡见不鲜。不过他们不久就开始向市议会诉苦。就威廉斯一事而言,他们是抱怨他的马打扰了他们,而其他新来的住户则是讨厌这里的噪音、杀虫剂和肥料的气味。
  
  Locals worry about the precious, dwindling cowboy culture. Arizona's tourism boards like to promote a steady interest in all things cowboy and western[7]. Last year more British and German tourists came than usual, and many of them were looking precisely for that. Arizona's Dude[8] Ranch Association fills its $350-a-night luxury ranches most of the year; roughly a third of the guests are European.
  当地人对宝贵的牛仔文化日渐萎缩感到担忧。亚利桑那州旅游管理人士希望这里一切与牛仔和西部电影有关的东西都能产生经久不衰的吸引力。去年,来此地的英、德两国旅行者要多于往年,而且他们当中许多人恰恰就是为了寻找牛仔和西部电影而来。亚利桑那农场度假协会拥有的农场全年大部分时间都客满,其中约有三分之一的客人是欧洲人,而每晚的住宿费高达350美金。
  
  Many of the ranchers themselves see all this tourism as a cheeky[9] attempt to commercialise a real and vanishing culture. In Prescott, estate agents promote “American Ranch-style” homes with posters of backlit[10] horse riders. On the other side of the street is Whiskey Row, a famous strip of historic cowboy bars. But in Matt's Saloon on Saturday night, real cattlemen could not be found.
  在很多农场主看来,这种旅游完全是一种厚颜无耻的行径,它试图让一个行将消失的、真正意义上的文化成为商品。在普雷斯科特,房地产经纪人推销具有“美国农场风格”、贴着光芒骑士海报的房屋。街道的另一边是著名的牛仔酒吧区——威士忌街。不过,星期六晚上在马特酒吧却见不到一个真正的牛仔。
  
  Farm folk like Mr Knox and Mr Williams are weighing up their options. Many will migrate to remoter places where land is cheaper and not crowded with city people. Younger ones take on side-jobs as contractors and are cattlehands part-time. Older cowboys aren't sure what to do.
  像诺克斯和威廉斯这样的牧农们正在认真考虑着出路。许多人将迁往较为偏远的地方,那里土地比较便宜,城市人也不多。年轻的牛仔承包了牧场干起副业,并兼职做驯牛师。年纪较大的牛仔还不知道该干什么。
  
  The Arizona Cowboy College in Scottsdale, which trains cattlehands, conducts the school for profit but also for maintaining the cowboy culture. The six-day courses include cattle-herding, rustling[11] and ranch-survival skills. The owner, herself a rancher, says the courses are popular, especially with retired businessmen.
  位于斯科特斯德的亚利桑那牛仔学院专门培训驯牛师,其办学宗旨不但是为了赚钱,也是为了维护牛仔文化。课程为期六天,内容包括放牧、窃取牲口以及农场生存技能培训。院长本人也是一名农场主,她说,这些课程很受欢迎,特别是受到退休商人的欢迎。
  
  [NOTES](LONGMAN)
  1. rodeo n. 牛仔驯马、用绳索捕捉牲畜、骑马赛跑等娱乐活动;牧马技术表演
  2. stomp v. 踩踏;跺脚
  3. open range 开放牧场;开旷草原
  4. trespass v.(未经允许)进入别人的私人土地
  5. field v. to answer questions, telephone calls etc, especially when there are a lot of them or the questions are difficult回答(问题、电话访问,尤指较多或较难回答时)
  6. arable adj.与种植或耕种有关的(arable land可耕地)
  7. western n. 西部电影(尤指反映19世纪美国西部牛仔生活的电影)
  8. dude n. 在西部牧场度假的城里人;纨绔子弟
  9. cheeky adj.无礼的;厚颜无耻的
  10. backlight v. 从后面照亮
  11. rustle v.偷(牛、马等牲畜)
  
楼主东城水岸 时间:2007-05-21 20:14:08
  ★★第60篇★★
  
  How green is your Apple?
  你的“苹果”有多绿?(陈继龙 编译)
  Aug 25th 2006
  From The Economist print edition
  
  DISPOSING of computers, monitors, printers and mobile phones is a large and growing environmental problem. Some 20m-50m tonnes of “e-waste” is produced each year, most of which ends up in the developing world. According to the European Union, e-waste is now the fastest-growing category. Last month new rules came into force in both Europe and California to oblige the industry to take responsibility for it. In Europe the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) directive limits the use of many toxic materials in new electronic products sold in the European Union. In California mobile-phone retailers must now take back and recycle old phones.
  废旧电脑、显示器、打印机和手机的处理是一个日趋严重的环境问题。每年大约有2~5千万吨“电子废品”形成,其中大部分是在发展中国家。欧盟认为“电子废品”是目前增长速度最快的一类“产品”。上个月,欧洲和美国加里福利亚均出台了新规定,要求电子产业要为此负责。欧洲的《有害物质限制使用规定》对在欧盟范围内销售的新电子产品涉及的众多有毒物质都进行了使用限定。加里福利亚则规定手机零售商现在必须对旧手机进行回收和废物处理。
  
  Many technology firms are already eliminating certain chemicals and offering recycling schemes to help their customers dispose of obsolete equipment. Yet there is a wide variation in just how green different companies are, according to Greenpeace, an environmental lobby group that launches a new e-waste campaign on August 25th. It has ranked the top mobile-phone and PC-makers based on their progress in eliminating chemicals and in taking back and recycling products.
  许多科技公司都正在去除产品中所含的特定化学物质,并向客户提供废物处理方案,以帮助其处理陈旧设备。不过据绿色和平组织称,不同公司的环保状况存在很大差异。该组织是一个环境问题游说团体,它于8月25日发起了一项新的“电子废品”运动。它根据手机和个人电脑制造商在去除化学物质以及产品回收和废物再利用方面的进展情况,对一些顶级制造商进行了排名。
  
  The RoHS rules ban products containing any more than trace amounts of lead, mercury, cadmium[1] and other hazardous substances, including some nasty materials called brominated flame-retardants (BFRs)[2]. To do well in Greenpeace's rankings, firms must make sure both products and production processes are free of polyvinyl chloride (PVC)[3] and some BFRs that are not on the RoHS list. Greenpeace also wants companies to adopt a “precautionary principle” and avoid chemicals if their environmental impact is uncertain.
  《有害物质限制使用规定》禁止生产含有超量铅、汞、镉以及包括某些难闻物质即溴化阻燃剂(BFR)在内的其它有害物质的产品。至于要想在绿色和平组织的排名中有出色表现,各公司还必须确认产品及生产过程中未使用聚氯乙烯(PVC)和《有害物质限制使用规定》中未列出的某些BFR。同时,绿色和平组织还希望各公司采取“预防原则”,从而避免使用某些对环境影响作用不确切的化学物质。
  
  Although not everyone will agree with Greenpeace's methodology, its ranking still has some merit. Nokia does well: the world's biggest handset-maker has already got rid of PVC from its products and will eliminate all BFRs from next year. But, Greenpeace grumbles, it is not sufficiently “precautionary” in other areas. Dell, however, scores well in this regard and on recycling, but loses marks for not having phased out PVC and BFRs yet, though it has set a deadline for doing so.
  虽然绿色和平组织的这套方法没有得到所有人的认同,但它的排名仍旧具有一定的价值。诺基亚表现出色——这个全球最大的手机制造商已经从其产品中去掉了PVC,并从明年起将去除所有溴化阻燃剂。(注:诺基亚排名第一)不过,绿色和平组织抱怨说,诺基亚在其它化学物质的“预防”使用上做得还不够。戴尔公司在这方面以及废物再利用上表现得就很好,但是由于尚未去除PVC和BFR而被扣分,尽管它已经为此制定了最后期限。(注:戴尔排名第二)
  
  Perhaps the biggest surprise is the poor rating of Apple. Despite having an image steeped in California's counterculture[4], it is one of the worst heel-draggers, says Zeina Al-Hajj of Greenpeace. The company insists that it has a strong record in recycling and has eliminated BFRs and PVC from the main plastic parts in its products. It scores badly because it has not eliminated such chemicals altogether, has not set time limits for doing so, does not provide a full list of regulated substances and is insufficiently precautionary for Greenpeace's tastes. As for recycling, the 9,500 tonnes of electronics Apple says it has recycled since 1994 is puny[5] given the amount of equipment the firm sells, says Ms Al-Hajj. Apple responds that many of its products (such as the iPod music-player) are small and light. Greenpeace points out that Nokia also makes tiny devices, but is much better at recycling them.
  最出人意料的可能是苹果电脑的糟糕名次。绿色和平组织的哈吉说,虽然苹果公司深受加里福利亚反传统文化的熏陶而给人以不拘一格的印象,但它的表现仍然最糟糕(拖了清除电子废品运动的后腿)。该公司坚称有记录表明自己在废物再利用方面做得很好,而且也已经去除了其产品的主要塑料部件中的BFR和PVC。它之所以得分低,是因为它并未完全消除此类化学物质,也没有为此制定最后期限,没有给出一份完整的校准物质名单,没有按照绿色和平组织的意思完全做到防患于未然。至于废物回收再利用问题,哈吉女士说,苹果公司自称从1994年以来已回收了9500吨电子元件,但相比其产品总销量而言,这是微不足道的。苹果公司回应说,其多数产品体积都比较小,也不重(如iPod音乐播放器),而绿色和平组织却指出,诺基亚生产的也是小型装置,但在回收再利用方面表现得就比苹果公司好很多。
  
  Alas for Apple, whatever the pros and cons of Greenpeace's ranking criteria, consumers are likely to be influenced by it anyway. Comically, Greenpeace is now considering a plan to promote its e-waste campaign via podcasting—a technology that Apple helped to popularize.
  无论人们赞成还是反对绿色和平组织的排名标准,苹果公司都会不好受,因为消费者多少都有可能受到这一排名的影响。搞笑的是,绿色和平组织目前正考虑计划通过播客来推进其电子废品行动,而这一技术恰恰就是苹果公司帮助推广的。
  
  [NOTES](LONGMAN)
  1. cadmium n. 镉
  2. brominated flame-retardants (BFRs) n. 溴化阻燃剂
  3. polyvinyl chloride (PVC) n. 聚氯乙烯
  4. counterculture n. 反正统(主流)文化
  5. puny adj. 小的,微不足道的
  
  
楼主东城水岸 时间:2007-05-21 20:23:31
  ★★第61篇★★
  
  Sickening spinach
  讨厌的菠菜(陈继龙 编译)
  Sep 21st 2006 | PETALUMA, CALIFORNIA
  From The Economist print edition
  
  A SMALL card sits above an empty shelf in the Whole Foods store in Petaluma, California. “Consumers are advised NOT to eat fresh bagged spinach at this time. As a precaution, Whole Foods Market has temporarily removed ALL fresh spinach and fresh salad mixes containing spinach from its stores.”
  加利福尼亚佩塔卢马的“全有食品”商店一座空货架上方悬挂着一张小卡片,上面写着:“特此通知各位消费者,暂时请勿食用袋装新鲜菠菜。为了预防起见,‘全有食品店’已临时撤走所有新鲜菠菜及含有来自该食品店的菠菜的新鲜沙拉混合料。”
  
  On September 14th the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta issued the first of several daily alerts concerning an outbreak of E. coli 0157:H7, a potentially lethal pathogen typically associated with adulterated[1] beef. Investigators had traced it to consumption of fresh raw spinach sold in bags. A few days later, an investigation conducted by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) had narrowed down the culprits to a California-based grower, Natural Selection Foods, and at least one of its distributors. So far, a 77-year-old woman in Wisconsin has died from eating spinach traced back to Natural Selection, and 146 people in 23 states are ill, some very seriously. Half of the victims have been hospitalised, a high rate that may indicate an especially virulent strain of E. coli.
  9月14日,亚特兰大疾病控制与预防中心发布了第一份有关O157:H7大肠杆菌暴发传染的每日警报,此后又发布了数次。O157:H7大肠杆菌是一种可能导致死亡的病原菌,一般与掺假牛肉有关。调查人员已经在消费者购买的袋售新鲜生菠菜中发现了这种病菌。几天后,美国食品与药品管理局(FDA)缩小了调查范围,专门对位于加利福尼亚的菠菜种植商“天然选择食品”公司及其至少一家经销商展开了调查。迄今为止,威斯康星州一名77岁的妇女由于食用了“天然选择”菠菜而死亡,并且已有23个州共146人发病,其中有些人病情非常严重。半数受害者都已住院,如此高的住院率表明这可能是一种毒性特别强的大肠杆菌菌株。
  
  Investigators continue to search for the cause of the outbreak. They have scoured the company's processing plant as well as the farms that grow the spinach, looking at everything from irrigation water to the proximity[2] of livestock, with no sure connections made so far. The fact that Natural Selection is in California's Salinas Valley has raised alarms, however. According to the FDA, fresh produce from the valley, including spinach, has been the source of nine E. coli outbreaks since 1995.
  调查人员继续对暴发根源进行了调查。他们对该食品公司的加工厂和菠菜农场进行了仔细检查,检查内容包括灌溉用水和周边的家畜等所有情况,到目前为止尚未发现确切相关的问题。不过,“天然选择”公司位于加利福尼亚萨莱纳山谷这一情况已经引起了调查人员的警觉。FDA称,1995年以来,有9次大肠杆菌暴发感染的源头都是产自萨莱纳山谷、包括菠菜在内的新鲜食品。
  
  Moreover Natural Selection, which supplies several supermarket chains across the United States with conventionally produced fresh spinach, is also the nation's largest grower and shipper of certified organic produce, under its Earthbound Farm brand. (4)If organic spinach becomes implicated, the financial consequences for the organic sector of the fresh produce market, which prides itself on its purity, could be severe.
  此外,“天然选择”也是美国最大的、持有许可证的有机食品生产商和货商,经营商标是“Earthbound Farm”,向全美数个连锁超市供应按常规生产的新鲜菠菜。假如这次事件真的涉及到有机菠菜的话,对于以纯净自居的新鲜有机食品市场而言,可能会造成严重的经济后果。
  
  But with the FDA advising consumers not to eat fresh spinach from any source until further notice, the outbreak could ruin California's whole spinach industry. The state grows about three-quarters of the American crop. In recent years the market for fresh spinach has benefited hugely from what one producers' spokesman calls “a great health profile”. In 2005, per capita consumption[3] in America was forecast at 2.2 pounds (one kilogram), up from just 0.6 pounds ten years ago. That total isn't likely to increase again for a while.
  不过由于FDA已建议消费者在接到进一步通知之前不要食用任何来源的新鲜蔬菜,这一暴发事件很可能殃及整个加利福尼亚蔬菜业。该州种植的农作物占美国总量的四分之三。一名生产商发言人将新鲜菠菜称作是“重要的保健食品”,这使得新鲜菠菜市场近年来从中获利颇丰。据估计,1995年美国人均菠菜消费量仅为0.6磅,到2005年已升至2.2磅(1公斤)。这一总数暂时是不太可能再增长的了。
  
  [NOTES](LONGMAN)
  1. adulterate v. 掺假,伪造次品
  2. proximity n. 接近,邻近,附近
  3. per capita consumption 人均消费
  
  
  
楼主东城水岸 时间:2007-05-22 19:42:29
  ★★第62篇★★
  
  Testament of youth
  青春作证(陈继龙 编译)
  Sep 21st 2006
  From The Economist print edition
  
  MOST marketing operations pay close attention to what young people are buying and thinking. Not Britain's political parties, however, for the simple reason that the under-30s are unlikely to go anywhere near a polling booth. In 1964, 11% of those aged 18 to 24 claimed not to vote, according to the British Election Study. At the general election last year that figure rose to 55%. A report this week by Reform, a think-tank, suggests that this reticence[1] is costing them dearly. Changes in government policy, it argues, have turned being young into a terrible bore.
  大多数经营机构都密切关注年轻人的所购所想,然而英国各政党对年轻人却不感兴趣,原因很简单,那就是在投票站附近不可能见到30岁以下的年轻人。据《英国选举研究》称,1964年,有11%年龄介于18至24岁之间的年轻人声称不会去投票。去年大选时这一数字已升至55%。一家名为“改革”的研究机构本周发布的一项报告表明,年轻人正在为这种漠不关心的态度付出昂贵的代价。报告指出,政府的政策变革已经让他们开始感到做一个年轻人真是没劲透了。
  
  There are already two powerful economic forces working against the so-called “IPOD generation” that are beyond the government's control. First, the ageing of the population is fast increasing the ratio of people in retirement to those of working age. So the young can look forward to handing over a rising proportion of their pay to support the oldies in their decline. Second, the cost of buying a house in places where people want to live has shot up beyond the reach of the young. In 1995 24% of all first-time homebuyers were under 25; today, less than 15% are, according to the Halifax, a bank.
  不服政府管束的所谓的“IPOD一代”目前已然受制于两种巨大的经济压力。首先,人口的老化正迅速提高退休人口与在岗人口的比率,因此为了维持老年人的晚年生活,年轻人支出比例升高指日可待。其次,在人们都希望居住的区域购买房屋的价格飞速蹿升,年轻人已经难以企及。Halifax银行称,1995年首次置业者中有24%在25岁以下,而如今却不到15%。
  
  This much is uncontroversial. But the report also argues that the Labour government has made life worse for young people, in three ways. First, increased spending on health care has tended to benefit the old, who use the NHS[2] more than the young. Second, tilting the tax and benefit system towards people with children has transferred money from the young to the middle-aged. Third, higher tuition fees are landing university graduates with hefty debts. And the future doesn't look much better: the government's proposed pension reforms, along with the decline of defined-benefit company-pension schemes, make grim reading for the under-30s too.
  这些都是毋庸置疑的。不过该报告也指出,让年轻人生活变得更糟的是工党政府,理由有三:首先,增大的医疗投入倾向于惠及使用国民医疗服务较年轻人多的老年人。其次,将税收与福利制度向有子女的人倾斜使得年轻人的钱转向中年人群。第三,高昂的学费使大学毕业生背上了沉重的债务。而且,未来似乎也没有好转的迹象——由于政府拟进行养老金改革,加之固定给付式养老金计划即将取消,30岁以下的人将面临严峻的形势。
  
  “These changes ought to have brought about a re-examination of the burden of taxation on this age group,” says Nick Bosanquet of Imperial College London, one of the authors of the report. He reckons that, after paying various taxmen and lenders, graduates take home only around half of their salaries. The average for all salaried workers is about three-fifths.
  该报告作者之一、伦敦帝国学院的尼克•博桑基特说:“在进行这些变革的同时,应该重新审视一下年轻人所背负的纳税负担。”他估算,大学毕业生在缴纳了各种各样的税款和贷款后,能够带回家的工资就只剩下一半左右,而就所有拿工资的工人而言,这一平均数字大约是五分之三。
  
  Are things really that bad? When examined in a freeze-frame[3], being young does not look much fun financially. But welfare states are meant to transfer resources from the vigorous to the fragile. Some benefits are merely deferred: today's 25-year-olds will have babies and hip[4] replacements one day. And although people in their 20s and 30s tend to be heavily indebted this passes when they sink into their 40s and 50s, says Richard Disney of Nottingham University.
  情况真的如此糟糕么?静止地看,年轻人在经济状况上是高兴不起来的,但福利制度本身就意味着“锄强扶弱”,而且有些福利只不过是延期到来而已——今天25岁的人总有一天会生儿育女,并且将被新的弄潮儿所取代。此外,诺丁汉大学的理查德•迪斯尼说,虽然人们在二、三十岁的时候重债在身,但到了四、五十岁时,这些债务终将成为过去。
  
  Even so, the feeling that young people are being squeezed presents a political opportunity for the opposition parties. David Willetts, the Conservative shadow education secretary, said in a speech last year that the young “could be forgiven for believing that the way in which economic and social policy is now conducted is little less than a conspiracy by the middle-aged” against them. The Liberal Democrat commission on tax policy worried in August about inter-generational unfairness too.
  话虽如此,认为年轻人遭到了压榨的这种情结还是让反对党在政治上有隙可乘。保守党影子内阁教育大臣大卫•威莱茨在去年的一次演讲中说,年轻人“认为现行的经济与社会政策无异于是中年人对他们所策划的一场阴谋”,这“是可以谅解的”。今年8月,自由民主党税收政策委员会也对两代人之间的不公平表示了担忧。
  
  There will be more of such talk. For the Tories[5], it offers a way to discuss reducing spending without sounding as if they are merely the mouthpiece[6] of the wealthy. It gives Lib Dem leaders a way to argue activists out of promising to out-spend Labour. And it might even persuade some of those gloomy 25-year-olds to vote.
  诸如此类的言论定会不绝于耳。对于保守党而言,它可以让人们就削减财政支出展开讨论,而不会让人觉得自己无非是有钱人的传声筒而已。至于自由民主党,它的领导人则因此找到了一个劝阻激进分子在支出上与劳工党攀比的由头。而且,这样也可能会说服那些抑郁的年轻人投上一票。
  
  [NOTES](LONGMAN)
  1. reticent adj. unwilling to talk about what you feel or what you know [= reserved]闭口不谈的,保持缄默的 reticence n.
  2. NHS National Health Service (英国)国民医疗服务制度
  3. freeze-frame n. when you stop the action on a video at one particular place定格,停帧,凝镜
  4. hip adj. doing things or done according to the latest fashion [= cool]赶潮流的,新潮的,时髦的
  5. Tory (英国)保守党党员
  6. mouthpiece n. a person, newspaper etc that expresses the opinions of a government or a political organization 代言人,传声筒
  
  
楼主东城水岸 时间:2007-05-22 19:45:45
  ★★第63篇★★
  
  The horror
  恐怖(陈继龙 编译)
  Oct 5th 2006 | WASHINGTON, DC
  From The Economist print edition
  
  TO JOURNALISTS, three of anything makes a trend. So after three school shootings in six days, speculation about an epidemic of violence in American classrooms was inevitable, and wrong. Violence in schools has fallen by half since the mid-1990s; children are more than 100 times more likely to be murdered outside the school walls than within them.
  在新闻记者看来,任何事情发生三次就代表了一种趋势。因此,在6天之内发生3起校园枪击事件后,就必然会有人推断美国校园暴力开始泛滥了,但这种推断并不准确。上世纪中期以来,校园暴力已经减少了一半;孩子们在校外被杀害的可能性要比在校内要高出100多倍。
  
  Of course, that average is not wholly comforting. Most children who are murdered are murdered by someone they know. But most parents know with certainty that neither they nor their friends or relations are killers, so their worries focus on strangers. Their fears are inevitably stoked[1] by the breathless coverage of school shootings.
  当然,这样的平均水平并不能完全令人放心。大多数被害儿童都是被他们所认识的人杀害的,但是大多数家长肯定清楚,凶手不会是他们的亲朋好友,因此他们主要是担心陌生人。频频发生的校园枪击事件也就不可避免地增添了他们的恐惧。
  
  On September 27th a 53-year-old petty criminal, Duane Morrison, walked into a school in Bailey, Colorado, with two guns. He took six girls hostage, preferring the blondes, molested[2] some of them, and killed one before committing suicide as police stormed[3] the room.
  9月27日,犯罪情节较轻、现年53岁的杜安纳•莫里森携带两支枪走进科罗拉多州贝利的一所学校,挟持了6名女孩(均为金发碧眼)作为人质,对其中的一些女孩进行了性骚扰,并在警方冲进教室后准备自杀前杀害了一名女孩。
  
  On September 29th a boy brought two guns into his school in Cazenovia, Wisconsin. Prosecutors say that 15-year-old Eric Hainstock may have planned to kill several people. But staff acted quickly when they saw him with a shotgun, calling the police and putting the school into “lock-down”. The head teacher, who confronted him in a corridor, was the only one killed.
  9月29日,一名少年携带两支枪进入了位于威斯康星州卡泽诺维亚他所就读的学校。检察人员称,现年15岁的艾里克•哈因斯多克原企图射杀数人,但当工作人员看到他携有一支霰弹枪后迅速采取了行动,一边报警,一边下令全校进入“一级防范禁闭状态”。与之在一间走廊中对峙的学校校长是唯一遇害的人。
  
  And on October 2nd a 32-year-old milk-truck driver, Charles Roberts, entered a one-room Amish[4] school in Nickel Mines, Pennsylvania. His suicide notes mentioned recurring dreams of molesting children, but it is unclear whether he did so. He lined the girls up, tied their feet and, after an hour, shot them, killing at least five. He killed himself as police broke into the classroom.
  10月2日,32岁的送牛奶卡车司机查尔斯•罗伯茨闯进了位于宾夕法尼亚镍矿地区的一所仅有一间教室的安曼教会学校。他在自杀遗言中提到自己多次梦见猥亵儿童,不过他到底有无干过这种事尚不清楚。他将女孩们排成一列,捆住她们的脚,并在一个小时后向她们开枪射击,至少打死5人。当警察破门而入时他便开枪自杀了。
  
  What to make of such horrors? Some experts see the Colorado and Pennsylvania cases as an extreme manifestation of a culture of violence against women. Both killers appeared to have a sexual motive, and both let all the boys in the classroom go free. But it is hard to extrapolate[5] from such unusual examples, and one must note that violence against women is less than half what it was in 1995.
  这些恐怖事件是什么原因造成的呢?有些专家认为发生在科罗拉多和宾夕法尼亚的案例是反妇女暴力文化的极端表现,两名凶手都有明显的性侵害动机,并且两人均释放了教室中所有的男孩。但是,我们不可轻易从这类反常案例中作出推断,而且必须注意的是,现在的反妇女暴力事件还不到1995年的一半。
  
  Other experts see all three cases as symptomatic of a change in the way men commit suicide. Helen Smith, a forensic[6] psychologist, told a radio audience “men are deciding to take their lives, and they're not going alone anymore. They're taking people down with them.” True, but not very often.
  有的专家则认为这三宗案例预示着男人自杀方式的一种变化。法律心理学专家海伦•史密斯在接受一家电台采访时说,“男人决定结束自己生命的时候,不再希望一个人独行,于是就杀死别人来陪伴自己。”话是没错,可这种情况毕竟不常见。
  
  Gun-control enthusiasts think school massacres show the need for tighter restrictions. It is too easy, they say, for criminals such as Mr Morrison and juveniles such as Mr Hainstock to obtain guns. Gun enthusiasts draw the opposite conclusion: that if more teachers carried concealed handguns, they could shoot potential child-killers before they kill.
  积极支持枪支管控的人士认为,校园杀人事件表明更为严格的限制枪支的措施是有必要的。他们说,对于像莫里森这样的犯罪分子和像哈因斯多克这样的青少年而言,获取枪支再容易不过了。然而,积极反对禁枪的人却得出了截然相反的结论:假如更多的老师能身藏枪支的话,就可以在凶手可能杀害儿童之前打死凶手。
  
  George Bush has now called for a conference on school violence. Will it unearth anything new, or valuable? After the Columbine massacre in 1999, the FBI produced a report on school shooters. It concluded that it was impossible to draw up a useful profile of a potential shooter because “a great many adolescents who will never commit violent acts will show some of the behaviours” on any checklist[7] of warning signs.
  乔治•布什现已准备召开有关校园暴力的会议。这次会议会发现什么有新意、有价值的情况吗?1999年科隆比纳惨案发生后,联邦调查局撰写了一份关于校园枪手的报告,认定不可能仅从外在表现来判断一个人是否可能为凶手,因为“很多从来都不会作出暴力举动的青少年也会有某些越界(应当受到警告的)表现”。
  
  [NOTES](LONGMAN)
  1. stoke v. (stoke fear/anger/envy etc) to cause something to increase 使增长,助长,增添
  2. molest v. to attack or harm someone, especially a child, by touching them in a sexual way or by trying to have sex with them [= abuse]伤害,骚扰,调戏(儿童)
  3. storm v. 猛攻,突袭
  4. Amish 安曼教派:17世纪晚期从门诺教派脱离出来的一个再洗礼派正统教派,现在主要存在于美国宾夕法尼亚州东南部
  5. extrapolate v. to use facts about the present or about one thing or group to make a guess about the future or about other things or groups推论,推断
  6. forensic adj. relating to the scientific methods used for finding out about a crime 法庭的,法院的,与犯罪行为论证方法有关的
  7. checklist n. a list that helps you by reminding you of the things you need to do or get for a particular job or activity清单,一览表
  
楼主东城水岸 时间:2007-05-22 19:46:55
  ★★第64篇★★
  
  A natural choice
  天生我才必有用(陈继龙 编译)
  Oct 12th 2006
  From The Economist print edition
  
  BORN in the trough[1] of the Great Depression, Edmund Phelps, a professor at Columbia University who this week won the Nobel prize for economics, has spent much of his intellectual life studying slumps of a different kind. The Depression, which cost both of his parents their jobs, was exacerbated[2] by the monetary authorities, who kept too tight a grip on the money supply. (1)Mr Phelps is interested in unemployment that even open-handed central bankers cannot cure.
  本周获得诺贝尔经济学奖的哥伦比亚大学教授埃德蒙•菲尔普斯生于经济大萧条谷底时期。作为一名学者,他几乎全身心地投入在了一种不同类型的经济萧条的研究之中。当年,由于金融主管当局对货币供应控制过严,导致经济大萧条每况愈下,菲尔普斯的父母也因此双双失业。菲尔普斯感兴趣的恰恰就是连出手大方的中央银行家们都无法解决的失业问题。
  
  Most scholars stand on the shoulders of giants. But Mr Phelps won his laurels[3] in part for kicking the feet from under his intellectual forerunners. In 1958 William Phillips, of the London School of Economics, showed that for much of the previous hundred years, unemployment was low in Britain when wage inflation was high, and high when inflation was low. Economists were quick—too quick—to conclude that policymakers therefore faced a grand, macroeconomic trade-off, embodied in the so-called “Phillips curve”. (2)They could settle for unemployment of, say, 6% and an inflation rate of 1%—as prevailed in America at the start of the 1960s—or they could quicken the economy, cutting unemployment by a couple of percentage points at the expense of inflation of 3% or so—which is roughly how things stood in America when Mr Phelps published his first paper on the subject in 1967.
  大多数学者都站在巨人的肩膀之上,而菲尔普斯之所以能够获得此项殊荣,一部分却是因为他敢于突破前辈们在学术上的桎梏。1958年,伦敦经济学院的威廉•菲利普斯指出,此前一百年中大多数时候,英国的失业与工资提高引起的通货膨胀呈反相关的关系。于是,经济学家们就匆匆断定,决策者因此将面临重要的宏观经济平衡问题,所谓的“菲利普斯曲线”就是这种平衡的具体表现形式。比方说,6%的失业率加上1%的通货膨胀率对于决策者而言是可以接受的,20世纪60年代初期的美国就普遍维持在这个水平。又譬如说,决策者以通货膨胀上升到3%左右为代价,可使失业率降低2%,从而加快经济发展。1967年的美国情况也大致如此。同年,菲尔普斯发表了第一篇关于这一问题的论文。
  
  In such a tight labour market, companies appease workers by offering higher wages. They then pass on the cost in the form of dearer prices, cheating workers of a higher real wage. Thus policymakers can engineer lower unemployment only through deception. But “man is a thinking, expectant being,” as Mr Phelps has put it. Eventually workers will cotton on[4], demanding still higher wages to offset the rising cost of living. (3)They can be duped[5] for as long as inflation stays one step ahead of their rising expectations of what it will be.
  在劳动力市场十分紧缩的情况下,各公司稳定劳动者队伍的方法就是提高工资水平,然后再以抬高物价的方式转移这一成本,并对劳动者隐瞒了其实可以更高的工资。这样的话,决策者只需要采取欺骗手段就可以实现较低的失业水平。不过正如菲尔普斯所说,“人是有思维的并有所期望的。”总有一天劳动者会恍然大悟,并且会索取更高的工资来弥补日益增长的生活费用。只有通货膨胀水平始终高于他们对其不断上升的期望值,他们才可能上当受骗。
  
  The stable trade-off depicted by the Phillips curve is thus a dangerous mirage. The economy will recover its equilibrium only when workers' expectations are fulfilled, prices turn out as anticipated, and they no longer sell their labour under false pretences. But equilibrium does not, sadly, imply full employment. Mr Phelps argued that inflation will not settle until unemployment rises to its “natural rate”, leaving some workers mouldering[6] on the shelf. (4)Given economists' almost theological commitment to the notion that markets clear, the presence of unemployment in the world requires a theodicy[7] to explain it. Mr Phelps is willing to entertain several. But in much of his work he contends that unemployment is necessary to cow workers, ensuring their loyalty to the company and their diligence on the job, at a wage the company can afford to pay.
  如此一来,菲尔普斯曲线所描绘的稳定的平衡关系就成了一种危险的幻想。除非劳动者的期望得以满足,物价合情合理,而且他们不会再在受到蒙蔽的情况下出卖自己的劳动力,经济才会恢复平衡。不过可惜的是,平衡并不意味着充分就业。菲尔普斯认为,在失业达到“自然率”、出现闲置劳动力之前,通货膨胀问题是得不到解决的。经济学家几乎如同信奉神灵一般地信奉这样一种观点,即市场终究是要出清的。有鉴于此,全球的失业现状就需要一种神学理论来加以解释了。菲尔普斯很愿意酝酿出几个这样的理论,不过他在其多数论著中还是坚持认为,失业必然会引起劳动者的恐惧,使得他们不得不对公司忠心耿耿,对工作兢兢业业,薪水要求也不会超过公司的承受能力。
  
  “Natural” does not mean optimal. Nor, Mr Phelps has written, does it mean “a pristine element of nature not susceptible to intervention by man.” Natural simply means impervious to central bankers' efforts to change it, however much money they print.
  “自然”并不意味着最佳。菲尔普斯撰文称,“自然”同样也不意味着“本真的自然元素不易受人的干预”。“自然”只不过意味着中央银行家企图改变它的一切努力都是徒劳,哪怕印再多的钞票也都无济于事。
  
  (5)Economists, including some of his own students, commonly take this natural rate to be slow-moving, if not constant, and devote a great deal of effort to estimating it. Mr Phelps, by contrast, has been more anxious to explain its fluctuations, and to recommend measures to lower it. His book “Structural Slumps”, published in 1994, is an ambitious attempt to provide a general theory of how the natural rate of unemployment evolves. Some of the factors that he considered important—unemployment benefits or payroll taxes, for example—are widely accepted parts of the story. Others are more idiosyncratic[8]. He and his French collaborator, Jean-Paul Fitoussi, have, for example, blamed Europe's mounting unemployment in the 1980s in part on Ronald Reagan's budget deficits, which were expansionary at home, but squeezed employment in the rest of the world.
  包括菲尔普斯的一些学生在内的经济学家们普遍认为这种自然失业率变动缓慢或者保持不变,并投入了相当大的精力对其进行估测。相比之下,菲尔普斯则更热衷于分析它的波动情况,从而提出使之降低的方法。他在自己1994年出版的《结构性萧条》一书中就尝试提出过关于自然失业发展方式的一般性理论。书中包含的一些在他看来非常重要的因素,比如失业补助或工资所得税,如今都得到了广泛认可。其它因素则要特殊一些。例如,他和合著者法国人让-保罗•菲图西均认为,20世纪80年代欧洲居高不下的失业率部分应归咎于罗纳德•里根的预算赤字,后者虽仅是在美国国内不断扩大,却限制了世界其它地区的就业。
  
  A few years ago David Warsh, an economic journalist, lamented that the glare of the Nobel prize left other equally deserving economists, such as Mr Phelps, languishing “in the half-lit penumbra[9] of the shortlist”. (6)This week, after an unaccountably long lag, professional acclaim for this bold, purposeful theorist finally converged on its natural rate.
  几年前,经济新闻记者大卫•沃什悲叹诺贝尔奖的光环让其他一些同样应该获奖的经济学家如菲尔普斯“在候选人名单若明若暗的光影中渐渐黯淡了”。莫名奇妙地一拖再拖之后,经济学界对这位无畏且坚定的理论家所有的溢美之词终于汇集到他所提出的自然失业率之上。
  
  [NOTES](LONGMAN)
  1. trough n. 凹槽,波谷
  2. exacerbate v. 恶化,加剧
  3. laurel n. 桂冠,殊荣;月桂树
  4. cotton on开始理解
  5. dupe v. 欺骗,愚弄
  6. moulder v.(molder)崩溃,腐朽,分裂
  7. theodicy n. 神学论
  8. idiosyncratic adj.特殊物质的,异质的
  9. penumbra n. (日、月食)半影
  
  
楼主东城水岸 时间:2007-05-22 19:51:41
  ★★第65篇★★
  
  Danger zone
  危险地带(陈继龙 编译)
  Oct 5th 2006
  From The Economist print edition
  
  SO FIRMLY entrenched in the political economy has the minimum wage become that its latest increase, on October 1st, to £5.35 ($10.08) an hour, caused little stir. Yet the introduction of a national pay floor in 1999 was one of New Labour's most radical economic policies. Although minimum wage rates had previously covered a few industries, this was the first time that a general rate had been set.
  由于最低工资已经逐步确立了在政治经济学领域中的地位,因此今年10月1日最低工资再次上涨,变成每小时5.35英镑(10.08美元)时,并没有引起多大的轰动。不过1999年国家最低工资标准的引入却是新工党政府在经济上最激进的政策之一。尽管起初最低工资标准仅涉及为数不多的行业,但设立一种统一的标准毕竟是第一次。
  
  During the 1997 election campaign the Conservatives said that the policy would destroy jobs. Some economists calculated that hundreds of thousands of people might be put out of work. These dire warnings proved way off the mark after the national minimum wage came into force seven years ago. The feared job losses did not materialise.
  1997年大选期间,保守党称这一政策会损害就业。一些经济学家估计,数十万人可能因此失业。可自从7年前最低工资标准开始实行以来,事实证明这些警告纯属杞人忧天。(way off the mark=inaccurate 不正确)人们担心的失业现象并没有发生。
  
  However, that benign acquisition had much to do with the cautious approach the government, advised by the Low Pay Commission, at first adopted. In April 1999 the main rate—for workers aged 22 or over—was set quite low, at £3.60 an hour. Eighteen months later, the rate edged up to £3.70. At this level it was worth only 36% of average hourly earnings for all employees. Furthermore, workers aged 18 to 21 had a separate, lower rate, which began at £3 in 1999 and was raised to £3.20 in October 2000.
  不过,最终没有发生不良后果,很大程度上要与政府在低工资委员会的提议下起初所采取的预防措施有关。1999年4月,针对22岁以上工人所制定的主要工资标准设定得相当低,仅为每小时3.60英镑。18个月后,这一标准逐渐升至3.70英镑。这一水平仅相当于所有雇员平均每小时工资的36%。此外,18至21岁的工人拥有独立的标准,但比较低,1999年为3英镑,2000年10月起升至3.20英镑。
  
  The modest starting point for the minimum wage meant that it affected relatively few workers. The commission initially thought that it would raise the pay of around 2m workers but in practice only about a million gained. This limited any possible loss of jobs.
  最低工资的起点设定适度,就意味着它影响的工人相对较少。低工资委员会开始以为这一政策会提高大约200万工人的工资,但实际上仅为100万左右。这样一来,失业的可能性就降低了。
  
  After the initial period of caution, however, the government got bolder. This month's increase pushed the main rate up by 6%, comfortably ahead of average earnings which went up by 4.4% in the past year. Since 1999 the minimum wage has risen by 49%, outstripping[1] average earnings which increased by 32% in the past seven years. As a result, it is now worth 41% of average hourly earnings.
  然而,在经过初期的“摸着石头过河”以后,政府的胆子开始大起来。本月最低标准的上涨使得主要标准增加了6%,大大超过了平均工资水平的提高幅度,后者在去年上升了4.4%。1999年以来,最低工资标准已经提高了49%,超过了平均工资水平的增长幅度,后者在过去7年里增长了32%。因此,现在的最低工资水平相当于平均每小时工资水平的41%。
  
  This trajectory[2] contrasts sharply with what has happened in America. The federal minimum wage has stayed at $5.15 since September 1997. At this level, it is worth 27% of average hourly wages for all employees other than those working in agriculture or for the federal government—far stingier[3] than Britain's rate.
  这一增长轨迹与美国的情况形成了鲜明的对比。自1997年9月以来,美国联邦最低工资始终保持着5.15美元的水平,相当于所有雇员(除从事农业工作或在联邦政府谋职的人外)平均每小时工资水平的27%,远低于英国的标准。
  
  The commission accepts that the period when the minimum wage rose faster than average earnings is over. The worry, however, is that it has already risen to a level that will hurt employment. The Confederation of British Industry said on September 24th that businesses in several parts of the economy, such as retailing, were struggling to cope with the minimum wage. A few days later the British Chambers of Commerce (BCC) added that the latest increase would have “serious implications” for firms. David Kern, who advises the BCC, says: “There is now a distinct risk that the minimum wage will have an adverse effect on jobs.”
  低工资委员会承认,最低工资比平均工资增长快的时期已经结束了。但是,问题是它已经上涨到了一个即将危及就业的水平。9月24日英国工会说,最低工资标准已经让经济领域中好几个行业如零售业有些招架不住了。数日后,英国商会又称,最近一次最低工资标准的上涨可能会“严重殃及”各公司。英国商会顾问大卫•科恩说:“目前显而易见的危险就是最低工资将对就业产生负面影响。”
  
  Whether employment will necessarily take a big knock is uncertain. Mainstream economic theory suggests that a minimum wage set too high will cost jobs. However, the evidence from other countries has been quite mixed. Some studies find no impact on employment whereas others find the jobs do indeed disappear, especially among young people.
  就业是否必将受到严重打击现在尚无定论。主流经济学理论认为,设定过高的最低工资标准是以损失就业机会为代价的。然而,来自其它国家的证据都莫衷一是。有的研究发现这对就业不会产生影响,而有的则发现人们尤其是年轻人会真的因此失业。
  
  In a recent appraisal of employment policies in the world's developed economies, the OECD said that “a moderate minimum wage generally is not a problem”. Britain's experience in the first few years of the policy bears out[4] that judgment. But more recent increases have pushed the rate up to a level where it may inflict damage.
  经济合作和发展组织(OECD)最近在一项对全球发达国家就业政策的评估报告中指出,“适度的最低工资标准通常不会引发任何问题。”就这一政策而言,英国最初几年的实践证实了这一论断。不过,最近这几次提高标准已经使其达到了一个可能引起危害的水平。
  
   [NOTES](LONGMAN)
  1. outstrip v. to be greater in quantity than something else 超过,超越
  2. trajectory n. 轨道,轨迹;某段时间内发生的事件(常引起某种特定的结果或达到特定目的)
  3. stingy adj. 吝啬的;不足的,太少的
  4. bear out 证实
  
  
楼主东城水岸 时间:2007-05-22 19:53:42
  ★★第66篇★★
  
  High risk, high reward
  不经历风雨,怎么见彩虹?(陈继龙 编译)
  Oct 12th 2006 | WASHINGTON, DC
  From The Economist print edition
  Reuters
  
  A frying pan, a pair of sneakers and some amoxycillin please
  请给我一只煎锅、一双运动鞋和一些阿莫西林。(路透社)
  
  THESE are tough times for Wal-Mart, America's biggest retailer. Long accused of wrecking small-town America and condemned for the stinginess of its pay, the company has lately come under fire for its meanness over employees' health-care benefits. The charge is arguably unfair: the firm's health coverage, while admittedly less extensive than the average for big companies, is on a par with[1] other retailers'. But bad publicity, coupled with rising costs, has stirred the Bentonville giant to action. Wal-Mart is making changes that should shift the ground in America's health-care debate.
  对于美国最大的零售商沃尔玛而言,现在是困难时期。由于实行低价策略(Always Low Prices)而把美国搞得土里土气,并且支付薪水也很“抠”,该公司长期以来备受责难。最近它又因为在员工医疗保险待遇上的吝啬而遭到指责。有证据表明,这一指责是不公平的——尽管该公司医疗保险所涵盖的项目不及大公司平均水平,但与其它零售商相比都是一样的。不过,由于舆论宣传不利,加之成本不断增长,这个位于Bentonville的巨无霸一气之下再也坐不住了。沃尔玛的改革将会把人们讨论的话题转移到对美国医疗保险制度的争论之上。
  
  One strategy is to slash the prices of many generic, or out-of-patent, prescription drugs. Wal-Mart recently announced that its Florida stores would sell a list of some 300 generic drugs at $4 for a month's supply; other states will follow. That is above cost but far less than the prices charged by many pharmacy chains, which get profits from fat margins on generics.
  策略之一就是对许多普通类(或非专利类)处方药品进行大减价。沃尔玛最近宣布,其在佛罗里达州的门店将把大约300种药品按每月用量4美元的价格出售,其它州的门店也将效仿这一做法。这一价格高于成本,但远远低于许多连锁药店的价格,而这些连锁药店就是从普通类药品高额的差价中获利的。
  
  Wal-Mart's critics dismiss the move as a publicity stunt. The list of drugs includes only 143 different medicines and excludes many popular generics. True, but short-sighted. Wal-Mart has transformed retailing by using its size to squeeze suppliers and passing the gains on to consumers. It could do the same with drugs. Target, another big retailer, has already announced that it will match the new pricing. A “Wal-Mart effect” in drugs will not solve America's health-costs problem: generics account for only a small share of drug costs, which in turn make up only 10% of overall health spending. But it would help.
  批评沃尔玛的人士驳斥这一举措纯属哗众取宠的花招。降价药品目录中仅包含143种不同的药品,许多常用的普通类药品都不在降价之列。这么说是没错,可就是目光太短浅了。沃尔玛已经通过利用其规模(影响力)逼迫供应商紧缩利润空间并还利于消费者,从而实现了零售转型。它在药品销售上同样也能做到这一点。另一家大型零售商塔基特已宣布将响应这一新的定价。药品方面的“沃尔玛效应”并不会解决美国的医疗费用问题——普通类药品仅占药费的一小部分,而药费也仅占全部医疗费用的10%。但这种效应还是能够起到帮助作用的。
  
  The firm's other initiative is more controversial. Wal-Mart is joining the small but fast-growing group of employers who are controlling costs by shifting to health insurance with high deductibles[2].
  该公司另一个行动引发了更多的争议。沃尔玛正在加入到一些迅速兴起的小雇主行列之中,这些雇主都是通过转为高减免额医疗保险模式来对成本加以控制。
  
  From January 1st new Wal-Mart employees will only be offered insurance with very low premiums (as little as $11 a month for an individual) but rather high deductibles (excesses): an individual must pay at least the first $1,000 of annual health-care expenses, and on a family plan, the first $3,000. Unusually, Wal-Mart's plan includes three doctor visits and three prescription drugs before the big deductible kicks in[3]. Since most employees go to the doctor less often than that, the company argues, they will be better off because of the lower premiums. That may be true for the healthy, say critics; sicker workers will see their health costs soar.
  自1月1日起,沃尔玛将对新聘员工仅提供保险费极低(每人每月仅为11美元)的医疗保险,不过这种保险减免额(超支部分)相当高,即就个人保险而言,每人必须至少支付年度医疗开支中最先产生的1000美元,而对家庭而言,则至少支付3000美元。与众不同的是,沃尔玛的方案中还包括减免部分的高额费用产生之前,员工可就诊3次和开3次处方药。该公司认为,由于大多数员工一般就诊都不到3次,因此在仅需支付较低保险费的情况下他们的生活仍会很宽裕。批评人士说,对健康的人来说的确如此,可有病之人就要眼见着他们的医疗费用飞涨了。
  
  This debate, writ large[4], is the biggest controversy in American health care today. The Bush administration has been pushing high-deductible plans as the best route to controlling health costs and has encouraged them, with tax-breaks for health-saving accounts. The logic is appealing. Higher deductibles encourage consumers to become price-conscious for routine care, while insurance kicks in for catastrophic expenses.
  显而易见,这是针对当今美国医疗保障制度最激烈的一场论战。布什当局一直以来力推高减免额保险方案作为控制医疗费用的最佳路径,并通过对保健储蓄帐户(HSV)实行免税来鼓励这一方案。按常理,这十分具有吸引力。较高的减免额可增强消费者在一般性医疗中的价格意识,而保险则会在发生巨额开支时生效。
  
  Early evidence suggests these plans do help firms control the cost of health insurance. But critics say that the savings are misleading. They argue that the plans shift costs to sicker workers, discourage preventative care and will anyway do little to control overall health spending, since most of the $2 trillion (a sixth of its entire GDP) that America spends on health care each year goes to people with multiple chronic diseases.
  早些时候的证据表明,这类方案确实能够帮助公司控制医疗保险成本。不过批评人士说,保健储蓄容易造成误导。他们认为,该方案将成本支出转嫁到了患病的人,也阻碍了预防保健工作的发展,而且基本上无益于控制整体医疗费用,因为美国人每年20亿美元(相当于GDP的1/6)的医疗开支中大多数都集中在患有慢性疾病的人身上。
  
  For the moment, relatively few Americans are covered by these “consumer-directed” plans. But they are becoming increasingly popular, especially among firms employing low-skilled workers. And now America's biggest employer has joined the high-deductible trend. That is bound to have an impact.
  目前这类“消费者定向”方案涉及的美国人还相对较少,但正在不断普及,尤其是在雇用低技术水平员工的企业中。何况现在美国最大的企业也已加入了这个高减免额保险潮流之中,这类方案必定会产生一定的效果。
  
  [NOTES](LONGMAN)
  1. on a par with 与……同等
  2. deductible adj. 可扣除的
  3. kick in 仿制品,冒牌货
  4. writ large 显而易见的
  
  
作者:yuweiyuwei 时间:2008-12-28 14:35:00
  学习
作者:慕非 时间:2009-02-01 21:08:31
  学习了~
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