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41、Capias Mittimus——拘票、收押令
   A civil arrest warrant used to get a person physically into court to respond to a specific case or claim.
  【注】 将人带到法庭以应辩的一种逮捕令。
  42、Capital Felony——重刑罪
  A criminal offense in which the death penalty may be imposed
  【注】 罪名之一种,因其犯罪行为将导致被判死刑的罪。
  43、Case Conference——个案研讨会
  A meeting scheduled by the court to review the case.
  【注】 法庭定期举行的以讨论某案件的会议。
  44、Case File——个案案卷
  The court file containing papers submitted in a case.
  【注】 所谓个案案卷就是关于某案的有关资料的法律档案。
  45、Cause of Action——诉讼理由
  The fact or combination of facts that gives a person the right to seek judicial redress or relief against another. Also, the legal theory forming the basis of a lawsuit.
  The cause of action is the heart of the complaint, which is the pleading that initiates a lawsuit. Without an adequately stated cause of action the plaintiff's case can be dismissed at the outset.
  The cause of action is often stated in the form of a syllogism(三段论), a form of deductive reasoning that begins with a major premise (the applicable rule of law), proceeds to a minor premise (the facts that gave rise to the claim), and ends with a conclusion. In a cause of action for battery, the rule of law is that any intentional, unpermitted act that causes a harmful or offensive touching of another is a battery.
  【注】 提出诉讼,必须要有合理的事实根据,缺乏合理的诉讼理由,对方不但可以向法庭请求剔除有关的诉讼,同时可以要求赔偿浪费了的律师费及其它费用。
  a warning against certain acts
  【注】 执法人员(警察及海关人员等)在拘捕疑犯时,提醒疑犯保持缄默的权利的警告说话。执法人员在没有给予疑犯警诫词的情况下所录取的供词,可能不会被法庭接纳为有效的证供。
  47、Certified Copy——核证副本、正式核准的副本
  A photocopy of a document, judgment, or record that is signed and attested to as an accurate and a complete reproduction of the original document by a public official in whose custody the original has been placed for safekeeping.
  A certified copy is admissible as evidence in a lawsuit when the original document cannot be produced because it has been lost or destroyed. This rule, which considers a certified copy to be secondary evidence unless circumstances of loss or destruction warrant its treatment as primary evidence, is known as the best evidence rule.
  【注】 核证副本通常都有核证人的签署和核证日期,以确认对该副本进行了核证,除特别声明必须用文件正本的情况外,核证副本一般都视为有效的文件。
  A room in which a judge may consult privately with attorneys or hear cases not taken into court.
  Chiefly British. A suite of rooms, especially one used by lawyers.
  【注】 诉讼律师和法官的办公室,称为“Chamber”。诉讼程序中有部份的聆讯是在法官的办公室中进行的,称为内庭聆讯“hearing in chambers”,内庭聆讯只准许当事人及其法律代表出席。
  49、change of venue——管辖权变化、审理法院变更
  In law, the word venue designates the location where a trial will be held. It derives from the Latin word for "a place where people gather."
  A change of venue is the legal term for moving a trial to a new location. In high-profile matters, a change of venue may occur to move a jury trial away from a location where a fair and impartial jury may not be possible due to widespread publicity about a crime and/or defendant(s) to another community in order to obtain jurors who can be more objective in their duties. This change may be a few towns away, or across the state.
  This is done when there is a reason to think that a defendant will not receive a fair trial, for whatever the reason.
  【注】 审理法院变更是指将一个案件的审讯移到另外一个新的管辖地法院进行审理。这种变化既可在一州之内进行,也可跨州进行。当被告没有受到公平审判十,无论什么理由都必须进行审理法院变更。
  To impose a burden, duty, obligation, or lien; to create a claim against property; to assess; to demand; to accuse; to instruct a jury on matters of law.
  【注】 Charge可以是名词,也可以是动词,它包含了多个不同的解释:① 是提供服务的收费,例:Legal Charge(律师收费);②是刑事控罪,例:This case has more than one charge(这案件包含多于一项的控罪);③是借贷的抵押,例:The company charged its property for the loan(这间公司以其物业作为借款的抵押);④是对法定债务人的物业的押记,用以偿还有关的法定债务。
  All property except real property; personal property. For example: jewelry, clothing, furniture, and appliances.
  A chattel is treated as personal property rather than real property regardless of whether it is movable or immovable.
   【注】 动产,指的是除了不动产以外的财产。它是“不动产”相对应的一个概念。
  52、“Chip Smith Charge”——奇普·史密斯指控判例
  The "Chip Smith charge" is an instruction to deadlocked jurors, urging those jurors whose disagree with the majority vote to reexamine the majority views in an effort to reach a unanimous verdict.
  "Everything old is new again." We've all heard this phrase before, and this is certainly the case with the Chip Smith charge. The charge derives from State v. Smith, 49 Conn. 376 (1881). James "Chip" Smith was a 21-year-old who was drinking, firing off his gun and causing a general disturbance of the peace one afternoon in December of 1880. His behavior forced his father out into the street and to the home of Daniel J. Hayes, the chief of police for the borough of Ansonia. The elder Mr. Smith begged Mr. Hayes to come and arrest his son. Mr. Hayes went in search of Chip, found him in a downtown street and tried to arrest him. A struggle ensued, and Chip shot Hayes in the abdomen. Hayes later died of his injuries. James "Chip" Smith was tried for and convicted of Hayes' murder. In an opinion reviewing Smith's conviction, the Connecticut Supreme Court set forth language concerning the duty of jurors when deliberating. This language became known as the Chip Smith charge, and trial courts repeatedly gave the charge to jurors when they reported that they were deadlocked.
  Over the years, the Chip Smith charge became an established part of Connecticut jurisprudence. However, the instruction was often challenged as being coercive and implying that a juror in the minority should "give in" to the majority for the sake of unanimity. Recently, in State v. O'Neil, 261 Conn. 49 (2002), the instruction was challenged once again, and our old Chip Smith charge was given a new dressing.
  【注】 奇普·史密斯指控判例,是指对处于审理僵局的陪审团进行指导以促使这些意见不一的陪审员在再次投票时以获得一致性的裁决结论。
  『笺』 该指控来自1881年康涅狄格州的“州诉史密斯”一案。21岁的詹姆士·奇普·史密斯酒后开枪影响了街区的平静,当该镇的公安局长丹尼尔·J·贺耶斯试图逮捕史密斯时,史密斯开枪射中了贺耶斯的腹部以致其身亡。当康涅狄格州高级法院审理此案时,陪审团成员之间分歧很大,后来反复审理最终取得一致性结论。“奇普·史密斯指控”已经康涅狄格州司法的一部分。该案提供的指示经常迫使陪审团的少数派成员让步以达成全体一致。
  53、Civil Action——民事诉讼
  A lawsuit other than a criminal case usually filed in a Judicial District courthouse. Includes family actions (divorces, child support, etc) and small claims cases, although these are both separately designated.
  A lawsuit brought to enforce, redress, or protect rights of private litigants—the plaintiffs and the defendants— not a criminal proceeding.
  Today, courts in the United States generally are not divided into common-law courts and equity courts because most states and the federal government have merged the procedures for law and equity into one system. Now all kinds of lawsuits are simply called civil actions without the former distinctions of procedure in law or in equity.
  A criminal proceeding is called a penal action to distinguish it from civil actions.
  【注】 民事诉讼是指不同于刑事诉讼的一种诉讼以执行、救济、保护诉讼人的权利。
  To demand or assert as a right. Facts that combine to give rise to a legally enforceable right or judicial action.
  【注】 Claim,即要求、主张某一项权利。
  民事诉讼的传票中,原告须要将其向被告申索的事由详细列明,称为Statement of Claim 或Particulars of Claim。
  55、Common Law——普通法
   Laws that develop through case decisions by judges. Not enacted by legislative bodies.
  common law, system of law that prevails in England and in countries colonized by England. The name is derived from the medieval theory that the law administered by the king's courts represented the common custom of the realm, as opposed to the custom of local jurisdiction that was applied in local or manorial courts. In its early development common law was largely a product of three English courts—King's Bench, Exchequer, and the Court of Common Pleas—which competed successfully against other courts for jurisdiction and developed a distinctive body of doctrine. The term “common law” is also used to mean the traditional, precedent-based element in the law of any common-law jurisdiction, as opposed to its statutory law or legislation, and also to signify that part of the legal system that did not develop out of equity, maritime law, or other special branches of practice.
  【注】 普通法指的是由法官的案例判决发展而来的法律,它不同于立法机关颁布的法律。
  『笺』 普通法系是当今世界两大法系之一。关于普通法的历史基础和传统在英国法律史学家S·F·C·密尔松的《普通法的历史基础》和美国法理学家卡尔·N·卢埃林的《普通法的传统》中已经说得十分清楚,而对于普通法之所以有如此强大的生命力的根源以及普通法的精神,美国社会法学学派创始人、美国哈佛大学法学院院长罗斯科·庞德(Roscoe·Pound)则在其《普通法的精神》一书中进行了精辟的阐述。
  56、Community Service——感化工作、社会服务
  Work that convicted defendants are required to perform in order to repay the community for the harm caused to the community by the crime.
  【注】 感化工作,指的是有罪的被告进行一定的工作以回报因其犯罪而受害的社区,其所作的工作是犯法者宣判的一部分。
  『笺』 社会服务令 (community service order)是一种代替监禁的刑罚,既有惩罚的成分,也有令其改过自新的公用。
  57、Concurrent Sentence——合并判决
  when a criminal defendant is convicted of two or more crimes, a judge sentences him/her to a certain period of time for each crime. Then out of compassion, leniency, plea bargaining, or the fact that the several crimes are interrelated, the judge will rule that the sentences may all be served at the same time, with the longest period controlling.
  【注】 刑事案中的被告犯了两项或以上的罪名同时成立,但各项罪名的判刑同时执行,例如第一项罪的判刑是一年监禁,而第二项罪的判刑是监禁两年,两项罪合并判决,被告只需要被服刑两年。
  58、Conditional Discharge——有条件的释放
  A disposition, in criminal cases, where the defendant must satisfy certain court-ordered conditions instead of a prison term.
  If the conditions of the discharge are met it becomes an absolute discharge.
  A court may grant a conditional or absolute discharge only in offences that have a maximum penalty of less than fourteen years.
  【注】 所谓有条件释放,指的是法院要求当事人在一定时间内,通常是一年时间左右,不得再犯事,否则要向法院缴交罚款。如果当事人达到规定的要求,则无条件释放。
  59、Consecutive Sentence——连续判决
  a sentence that runs before or after another
  【注】 刑事案中的被告所犯的不同罪行,是以连续判决执行,则被告需要分别服刑,例如一项罪被判了两年,另一项罪则被判了三年,被告便需要连续服刑五年,才会被释放。
  『笺』 concurrent sentence(合并判决): a sentence that runs at the same time as another,in which the period of imprisonment equals the length of the longest sentence.
  consecutive sentence(连续判决): a sentence that runs before or after another,in which the period of imprisonment equals the sum of all the sentences.
  cumulative sentence(累积判决):the combination of two or more consecutive sentences.即将两个或两个以上的连续判决累加起来。
  Something of value given by both parties to a contract that induces them to enter into theagreement to exchange mutual performances.
  Consideration is an essential element for the formation of a contract. It may consist of a promise to perform a desired act or a promise to refrain from doing an act that one is legally entitled to do. In a bilateral contract(双务合同)—an agreement by which both parties exchange mutual promises—each promise is regarded as sufficient consideration for the other. In a unilateral contract(单务合同), an agreement by which one party makes a promise in exchange for the other's performance, the performance is consideration for the promise, while the promise is consideration for the performance.
  Consideration must have a value that can be objectively determined. A promise, for example, to make a gift, or a promise of love or affection, is not enforceable because of the subjective nature of the promise.
  【注】 合约是订约方自愿建立的法律关系,是一方以有价值的代价或者承诺以换取对方的承诺或代价,这些合约中的承诺或代价称为对价或约因,缺乏有效的对价或约因,合约便不能成立。
  『笺』 英美各国法律认为,“没有对价的许诺只是一件礼物;而为对价所做出的许诺则已构成一项合同。” 所谓对价,是指根据协议已经履行或将要履行义务的当事人由此得到某种利益,或者接受义务履行的当事人为此而遭受某种损失的事实要素;它是对履行义务当事人一方的某种回报。1875年的“居里诉米沙案”判例将其定义为:“一方得到权利、利益、利润或好处,或者另一方抑制一定行为,承受损害,损失或责任。”


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