" out-and-out scoundrel" is the job that Chinese look down upon most, but these two kinds of jobs are incomparable and ancient, In the past, and even will all perhaps exist in the future now. People admit while disdaining these two kinds of jobs that they are a kind of deal too implying, It is only the special deal . It is neither first skin and flesh‘s business nor first the edge of a knife‘s deal to lick blood, their common ground is: It is most last resources too basically to betray the mankind --Body and life, that is to say that uses the human body and rich money of the life , because the life and property to others are threatenned very largly yet to act as the robber , Therefore a kind of risky job. So, as for most people, less than having no way while escaping, Will not be engaged in these two kinds of jobs --Innate robber and always few and few prostitutes . If in a society not very normal, some people find the job that is engaged in normally, Its risk and too so high that it is difficult for oneself not to bear, and income very little to keep one‘s own the needs of lives while being difficult cost, So will be very apt to risk one‘s fortune and go up a hill , do prostitutes or the robber.
I have already spoken of in the foregoing paragraphs , in old age of Northern Song Dynasty when" the Water Margin" describes , the scale is large, fast that the social commodities flow, Town stratum strengthens the business flourishing, the person engaged in the non-agricultural job exceeds other dynasties. But can‘t assert a merchant society already in Song dynasty has been but not with the agricultural society that founded a state . Because the basic structure of the society did not change in Song dynasty, there is not basic change in political system, law,etc. in the imperial court , Stimulate and encourage the economic policy and system of industry and commerce development to ensure and has not been set up . The means of making a living can not after losing land engaged in the industry and commerce or common people, The risk of the industry and commerce is far greater than agriculture, can‘t often leave in the normal irrigation ditch through the industry and commerce get rich.
The businessman in" the Water Margin" has three kinds, but all fail or abnormal.
The the first kinds entrepreneur business scale,I in before the gentle to refer to already. It has more than ten a person of hired labourers, turn on town Northwest who meat spread at Qinghe county turn on and give birth to the west door celebrate and Beijing the provincial capital Lu beautiful high-ranking official of justice outsideses of townses of herbal medicine shop. They can‘t obtain the law of the government to ensure with the security service and advocate one‘s own political right normally through paying taxes normally , It makes to be must have been through bribing official win sense of safety by ability, expand to what has been managed from" accurate to enter" that do business, Not because bribe the official who grasps common power in accordance with the thing of punishing by law. They often evoke popular indignation , easy to be hostile to, they are apt to let oneself go too in the business environment of this kind of deformity, Tidied up by the violence at last; The different class of abiding by Ji ShouFa in the great entrepreneur of beautiful justice Lu, is covetted the wealth by the robber on one hand, Cause the anger officialdom again on one hand, look for a reason and can punish him at will.
Class II Li small twoes,,, Wu DaLang do it in this way the peoples of small business brother hay Tang NiuEr. Desolate vast gentlemens have and expound the fact also them conclusion that draw at that era difficult so that rich. They are a group of ordinaries, grass member of a nationality in the bottom. There is not ancestors‘ protection or blessing that does not there is not long skill without field body, the only one that can be relied on is that works working from dawn to dusk by oneself, Extortion that even so should pay the government battle and the extorting of the hooligans, Eat one‘s fill and wear warm clothes and thank heaven. Li two Xiao originally Tokyo‘s the hotel attendants of town, because too poor," conform to and steal owner of shop family wealth, Have been caught , should send the lawsuit and denounce ; Again woods wash and advocate and accompany, it rescues he exempt lawsuit of handing over; It compensates wealths with him side take off and exempt. "Later on he hold woods wash travelling expenses that give come Cangzhou, marry into and live with one‘s bride‘s family to a hotel owner, Carried on this pub at last. Young people make this kind of petty thefts mistake, but is sent to the local authorities and denounce --If so, have Li light twoes unavoidable to assassinate backstage supporter upper golden seals flow and mix alien land, He destroys too all one‘s life, Liangshan and a lot of reserve duty soldiers. Participating in rescueing the sympathy that can find out him of Lin Chong, and this small two that has made mistakes has abode by the criterion of life when kindness seeks ways to return sb.‘s kindness of knowing, The moralities of he wonder, Than illegallying occupy but high position finish cruellying injure high and too luxuriant common people how many well does it cost. They wash and wash and starch clothes for woods by couple, let and flow and mix the woodses of alien land wash and think a silk of the warmths of human worlds, The more important thing is that they put the benefactor‘s safety in the heart everywhere, have penetrated Lu YuHou‘s conspiracy in time, Print a life after rescueing the woods. Tang NiuEr and hay brother belong to those clever businessmans, it is not bad that the young heart covets little advantage but in essence relatively high and a bit angrily. Sell Tang NiuEr at Zhang far to cherish fermented glutinous rice adultery very not smooth, Go forward. Song kill a person after absconding, but county magistrate" shout and draw a cangue come and staple him by river, While prohibitting it firm. "For absolving Song escort department want and the scapegoat are made by him actually. The hay brother is a typical town little businessman too. It knows west door celebrate and Pan gold lotus adulteries s hope and go and look for west door celebrate, knock at 3 fifty pieces of money, It supports old father it catches and come out Wang old woman at last he telling heavy my darlings" secretly". Sell and cook a meal the military heavy my darlingseses of cake wrong most, feature, skill, good courage, It dues to all sorts of accidental mishaps and have one a piece of beautiful wives she is raising her person who coaxes oneself like sweetheart‘s treasure , This kind has like not notting only gotten the repayment , a fatal disaster has come instead. These cook the persons of small business is only the trifle and ants of roadside, who one a play of feet step on they extremely, They have no the ensuring of any, only live on in degradation in this world.
The third kinds of businessmans were" brave man"s who opened the hotel, became trafficking in originally on Liangshan. A blue and green, grandson and two mas married couple opened the hotel , Li Li, Zhu Gui, Sun Xin, take care of sister-in-law Mr. and Mrs.,etc.. What they did are all the non- normal deal , are all"s an inn by brigands" openning. Full of and show and look through guest anaesthetic and kill and make adults meat steamed stuffed bun, The wealth is robbed everything, really absolutely horrified. The characteristic of this kind of hotel of theirs is that traffic is convenient but the scale is small. Because scale little to make money difficult, it chooses the way I feel uncertain even if inconvenient information traffic at that time, But so many people are killed groundlessly, they have made business of murdering for one‘s money for so long time, Not because constitute the mountain not to flee hither and thither to commit a crime for the king, is but a tradesman , is the department concerned ignorant at all? They bribe the local local authorities in the general idea. Somebody opens the hotel for the shop sign, gamble in the village mainly. --Serving the meal in the shop honestly, it is difficult to make money really. Have in national highway next door serve the meal shop, make and kill a person and work for to have not as few business naturally wealth peoples too now, Present tracking down and arrest is much more competent after all, it is not always that one is apt to tackle the bygone that people evaporate groundlessly, But collude with the driver who drives coach, force the guest to come into the shop to consume, And diet quality is extremely poor and the price is so expensive as to go against accepted conventions, the guest does not dare not to speak words ; Hold and leave woman earn a lot of money or turn on underground gamble the building by prostitution. They want to go on the business for a long time , must probably get the department concerned of good locality ready.
Another kind of businessman at Liangshan is engaged in trafficking in etc. buysing and sell, go up a hill for the bandit after losing money. Three chieftans of mountain all buy and sell original fresh breeze or the artisan come from. Because Yan Shun bought to sell horse‘s sheep and lost the capital, wanders and rob on the band of outlaws; Wang Ying is the employee who escorts the car, moved to commit crimes by sight of money and killed employers, Zheng TianShou is a artisan, Make a living by hitting the silver. Lu side traffic crude drug lose money, go back township. Guo Sheng traffics the mercury, has met with the wind shipwreck in the Yellow River, goes back to the township and does not have . Two people have both become a robber. Cao ZhengYuan is that one butchers one, his good luck not so such as town Northwest, Have borrowed 5,000 and passed through the money and do business from the rich man in the hometown to Shandong, has suffered the loss of the capital, It estimates and it borrows to be usury it goes home and get up debt take to the greenwood. Stone come Ji traffic and raise horse roll over capital, come back home and wander locality by selling firewood make a living by state from Nanjing by show, It meets Yang hero at last help him turn on one butcher and pave. Du Xing does business to Ji Zhou to kill partners . Tong Wei, brother Tong Meng traffics private salt. Zhang Shun is" fishing hegemony", can‘t sell fish without authorization in a household of permission without he of fishing which pours Yangjiang, It comes and control local aquatic products market with this this too and Li road produce the immediate causes of conflict he. In addition Xue Yong, Li Zhong who still sell the medical ointment and concurrently make a living as a performer,etc..
Find out and want and get rich or study grandson No. 2 turn on" an inn by brigands" like that at that time from these businessman, Study Gu sister-in-law of Da Mr. and Mrs., bestow favour and engaged in gluttony and pleasure-seeking serve by" a coordinated process" like that, Or look like the one brother and virgin the brother corners the market or smuggles like that. Do such a deal and must have powerful connections , or" black greatly", Very thick with each other with the local authorities, others do not dare to cause ; Have local authorities support directly, such as bestowing favour father each, Sun Li that army riffrafves in the state control new elder brothers grandson. Such an deal have suspicion that break laws and commit the crime is from making robber each distant directly by itself. Other person make and rush state walk long-distance of the office traffic, very risky. The risk without modern business activity took precautions against the mechanism and modern monetary system at that time. The fund doing business is either one‘s own all family property, or the folk usury , There is not system of insurance , as soon as lose money, the individuals‘ existence will all go wrong, Family if ones that have field do manual labour are as follows, go crime often inevitable choice. Lack minimum trader of the people regulation make and regulate, buy and sell complete at folk credit and common law come and make among business activity, It is difficult for risk not to expect and solve business too often like this dispute, Du Xing kill partner appear dispute too probably, He has chosen the violence to solve . In addition public security fine, live grandson No. two, ferryboat that finish taking horizontal one, It employs Wang such an partners have not as heavy risk right away.
Not only" the Water Margin"," three speeches two are made" to leaf through and the trader‘s management history of the Jin Dynasty, we can find , Ancient to go strange land it engages in trade to be one a kind of activities that take risks very much, hold own property, Hold own life go gambling, before leaving home wife concubine it hands over to be separate forever even. Because of all sorts of risks, the private establishment which provides escorts<bodyguards>for a fee prevails, it is because of this kind of risk too, Often oneself possess certain skill in martial arts person that do business, spend in case the body. We see the businessman taking to the greenwood in the Water Margin, nearly all have skill in martial arts, this is that they engage in trade and resist the capital that the risk must prepare , Become them in the robber‘s indispensable capital again conversely. But this kind for doing business skill in martial arts that defend one self have some spare time, and Lin Chong, spend ,,, slowly peaceful these military officers compare HuYan Zhuo Qin Ming honour after all, Difference is raised . They have worked as the job robber together, these businessmans are mostly in 72 place very rows , Those professional military officers have all entered the net used for fishing for 36 days. These businessmans failing, taking to the greenwood can‘t become the first-class robber either.