巧克力学[已扎口]

楼主:格林斯潘回忆录15 时间:2011-04-05 11:08:00 点击:456 回复:29
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你喜欢巧克力吗?

如果你喜欢巧克力,那么你就是“巧亲”!

亲爱的巧亲,请问你对巧克力了解多少呢?

关于巧克力,绝不是“黑巧”“微苦”“松露”“原味”“入口即化”这些老掉牙的词汇所能涵盖。无论你是否是巧亲,当你和朋友聊天时,只能说这些皮毛口白的话,恰恰表明你对巧克力几乎一无所知,不说有损你的美好形象,至少也是美中不足令人有点遗憾吧?其实巧克力不仅是人间美味,还有深厚曲折的历史渊源,粗犷火辣的原始风情,精雕细琢的文化品味,巧克力里面更是含有大量科学知识,一块巧克力就是一座微型而精巧的科学宫殿。看了本帖之后,你完全可以一边和朋友共享美味,一边侃侃而谈有关巧克力的知识,哪怕说上几个小时也说不完!哈哈~~


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楼主格林斯潘回忆录15 时间:2011-04-05 11:08:20
  《巧克力学》
  
  
  
  
  
  Chapter 1
  
  The History of Chocolate
  
  第一章
  
   巧克力的由来
  
  
  
  Chocolate is almost unique as a food in that it is solid at normal room temperatures yet melts easily within the mouth. This is because the main fat in it, which is called cocoa butter, is essentially solid at temperatures below 25 degree Celsius when it holds all the solid sugar and cocoa particles together. This fat is, however, almost entirely liquid at body temperature, enabling the particles to flow past one another, so the chocolate becomes a smooth liquid when it is heated in the mouth. Chocolate also has a sweet taste that is attractive to most people.
   巧克力堪称独一无二的食品,在室温下是固体但却入口易化。这是由于它内含的称为可口脂的主要脂肪,在25摄氏度以下就是固体,能将糖粒和可口粒固化在一起,而温度升高到体温时,这种脂肪几乎完全是液体,使得上述颗粒可以流动交融,于是巧克力在口中受热后便成为滑溜的液体,并且有着令大多数人难以拒绝的甜美口味。
  
楼主格林斯潘回忆录15 时间:2011-04-05 11:09:25
  Strangely chocolate began as a rather astringent, fatty and unpleasant tasting drink and the fact that it was developed at all, is one of the mysteries of history.
  
  令人奇怪的是,巧克力最初却是一款涩口多脂味道难受的饮料,它的整个演变真相是众多历史奥秘之一。
  
楼主格林斯潘回忆录15 时间:2011-04-05 11:10:32
  1.1 CHOCOLATE AS A DRINK
  
  1.1 可饮的巧克力
  
  
  
  The first known cocoa plantations were established by the Maya in the lowlands of south Yucatan about 600 AD. Cocoa trees were being grown by the Aztecs of Mexico and the Incas of Peru when the Europeans discovered central America. The beans were highly prized and used as money as well as to produce a drink known as chocolate.The beans were roasted in earthenware pots and crushed between stones, sometimes using decorated heated tables and mill stones,similar to those illustrated in Figure1.1. They could then be kneaded into cakes, which could be added to cold water to make a drink. Vanilla, spices or honey were often added and the drink whipped to make it frothy(Note1). The Aztec Emperor Montezeuma was said to have drunk 50 jars of this beverage per day.
  
  第一个为人所知的可可种植园,在约公元600年,由南部尤卡坦低地的马雅人所建立。欧洲人发现中美洲时,可可树由墨西哥的阿芝特克人和秘鲁的印加人所种植。可可豆被视为至宝,当货币使用,也用来制作一种名为巧克力的饮料。可可豆先在陶瓷锅中烘烤,然后在石头间磨碎,有时也用上有装饰的热台和碾石,类似图1.1中所示。这样做了之后,它们就可以被揉成块状,加进冷水中制成饮料。香料、调味品和蜂蜜也经常被添加进去,而且该饮料会被打糊发泡(见注1)。据说阿芝特克皇帝蒙德泽马每天要饮50罐这种饮料。
  
  
楼主格林斯潘回忆录15 时间:2011-04-05 11:12:43
  Figure 1.1 Ancient decorated mill stone with a hand grinder from the Yucatan.
  
  图1.1 带有装饰的古代磨石和手磨台组合,出自尤卡坦。
  
  

楼主格林斯潘回忆录15 时间:2011-04-05 11:13:38
  Christopher Columbus bought back some cocoa beans to Europe as a curiosity, but it was only after the Spaniards conquered Mexico that Don Cortez introduced the drink to Spain in the 1520s. Here sugar was added to overcome some of the bitter, astringent favours, but the drink remained virtually unknown in the rest of Europe for almost a hundred years, coming to Italy in 1606 and France in 1657. It was very expensive and, being a drink for the aristocracy, its spread was often through
  
  connections between powerful families. For example, the Spanish princess Anna of Austria introduced it to her husband King Louis XIII of France and the French court in about 1615. Here Cardinal Richelieu enjoyed it both as a drink and to aid his digestion. Its favour was not liked by everyone and one Pope in fact declared that it could be drunk during a fast, because its taste was so bad.
  
  克里斯多弗·哥伦布将可可豆当作奇物带回欧洲,不过,只有到了西班牙人占领墨西哥之后,这种饮料才于1520年代由唐·科特斯引进西班牙。从此糖被加进来克服部分苦味和涩味,但是这种饮料在欧洲其它部分几乎一直无人知晓长达近百年,才在1606年进入意大利,1657年进入法国。当时它非常昂贵,作为一款贵族饮料,通常随着权贵家庭的联姻而传播。比如大约1615年,奥地利的西班牙公主安娜将它介绍给她的国王丈夫:法国路易十三和法国宫廷。在这里,红衣主教黎塞留很喜欢它,既当饮料又用来帮助消化。并不是每个人都喜欢它的味道,事实上因为它的味道很差,有一位教皇宣布允许在斋戒期间饮用它。
  
  
楼主格林斯潘回忆录15 时间:2011-04-05 11:14:57
  The first chocolate drinking was established in London in 1657 and it was mentioned in Pepys’Diary of 1664 where he wrote that "jocolatte" was "very good". In 1727 milk was being added to the drink. This invention is generally attributed to Nicholas Sanders(Note2).During the eighteenth century, White’s Chocolate House became the fashionable place for young Londoners, while politicians of the day went to the Cocoa Tree Chocolate House. These were much less rowdy than the taverns of the period. It remained however, very much a drink for the wealthy.
  
  1657年伦敦第一次有了巧克力饮料,1664年的皮佩斯日记提到过此事,里面写道:“焦克力很棒。”1727年,牛奶被加进该饮料。这项发明通常被归功于尼古拉斯·桑德斯(见注2)。在18世纪里,怀特的巧克力屋是伦敦年轻人的时尚处所,而当时的政治人物们则去可可树巧克力屋。这些地方要比那个年代的小酒店清静得多。不过,它依然一直是富有阶层的饮料。
  
楼主格林斯潘回忆录15 时间:2011-04-05 11:15:54
  One problem with the chocolate drink was that it was very fatty. Over half of the cocoa bean is made up of cocoa butter. This will melt in hot water making the cocoa particles hard to disperse as well as looking unpleasant, because of fat coming to the surface. The Dutch, however, found a way of improving the drink by removing part of this fat. In 1828 Van Houten developed the cocoa press. This was quite remarkable, as his entire factory was manually operated at the time. The cocoa bean cotyledons (known as cocoa nibs) were pressed to produce a hard "cake" with about half the fat removed. This was milled into a powder, which could be used to produce a much less fatty drink. In order to make this powder disperse better in the hot water or milk, the Dutch treated the cocoa beans during the roasting process with an alkali liquid. This has subsequently become known as the Dutching process. By changing the type of alkalising agent, it also became possible to adjust the colour of the cocoa powder.
  
  那时的巧克力饮料有一个问题:含有很多脂肪。可可豆的成份里有一半以上是可可脂,后者遇到热水就会融化,使得可可颗粒很难分散开来,同时品相也很难看,因为脂肪浮到表面上来。不过,荷兰人发现了改善饮料的办法:除去部分可可脂。1828年,凡豪坦开发了可可压榨机。这是相当不同寻常的,因为当时他的整个工厂都是人工操作的。(以可可粒闻名的)可可豆子叶受压后形成硬“饼”,约半数可可脂被除去了。硬饼被磨成粉,就能用于制作脂肪少得多的饮料。为了使可可粉在热水或牛奶中分散得更均匀,荷兰人在烘烤可可豆的过程中用了一种碱液。这个做法在后来以“荷兰制程”闻名于世。变换不同的碱剂,改变可可粉的颜色也就有了可能。
  
作者:豆子白白 时间:2011-04-05 11:17:12
  想吃。。
楼主格林斯潘回忆录15 时间:2011-04-05 11:17:33
  1.2 EATING CHOCOLATE
  Having used the presses to remove some of the cocoa butter, the cocoa powder producers were left trying to find a market for this fat. This was solved by confectioners finding that "eating" chocolate could be produced by adding it to a milled mixture of sugar and cocoa nibs. (The ingredients used to make dark chocolate are shown in Figure 1.2.) If only the sugar and cocoa nibs were milled and mixed together they would produce a hard crumbly material. Adding the extra fat enabled all the solid particles to be coated with fat and thus form the hard uniform bar that we know today, which will melt smoothly in the mouth.
  
  1.2 可吃的巧克力
  
  使用压榨机除去部分可可脂之后,可可粉生产商就要想办法为可可脂找到市场。糖果商发现可以把可可脂加进糖和可可粒的混合磨粉中制成“可吃的”巧克力,这个问题就解决了。(制作黑巧克力的配料见图1.2)如果只是将糖和可可粒磨成粉末混在一起,就会制成又硬又脆的东西,另外加进可可脂,则会使固体颗粒裹上脂肪,于是就形成我们今天所知的巧克力棒,可以在嘴里顺利融化。
楼主格林斯潘回忆录15 时间:2011-04-05 11:19:30
  Figure 1.2 Unmilled ingredients used to make dark chocolate: A, sugar; B,cocoa butter; C, cocoa nibs(Note3).
  
  图1.2 用来制作黑巧克力的待磨配料:A,糖;B,可可脂肪;C,可可粒(见注3)。
  
  

楼主格林斯潘回忆录15 时间:2011-04-05 11:20:23
  Almost twenty years after the invention of the press in 1847, the first British factory to produce a plain eating chocolate was established in Bristol in the UK by Joseph Fry.
  
  1847年,差不多在压榨机发明20年之后,约瑟·夫瑞里在英国的布里斯托尔,成立了第一座生产可吃型原味巧克力的英国工厂。
  
楼主格林斯潘回忆录15 时间:2011-04-05 11:21:50
  Unlike Van Houten, Fry used the recently developed steam engines to power his factory. It is interesting to note that many of the early chocolate companies, including Cadbury, Rowntree and Hershey (in the USA) were founded by Quakers or people of similar religious beliefs. This may have been because their pacifist and teetotal beliefs prevented them from working in many industries. The chocolate industry was, however, regarded as being beneficial to people. Both Cadbury and Rowntree moved to the outside of their cities at the end of the 1990s, where they built "garden" villages for some of their workers. Fry remained mainly in the middle of Bristol and did not expand as quickly as the other two companies. It eventually became part of Cadbury.
  
  与凡豪坦不同,夫瑞里用新兴的蒸汽机作为工厂的动力。很有意思的是,很多早期的巧克力公司,包括吉百利、朗特里和赫尔希(美国),都是由教友会信徒或者有着相似宗教信仰的人所发起成立的。这可能是因为他们一贯坚持反战和禁酒信念,便和很多行业无缘,而巧克力业则被认为是对人有益的。1990年代末,吉百利和朗特里双双迁往他们所在城市市郊,在那里为他们的一些工人建立“花园”乡村。夫瑞里大体上还是留在布里斯托尔城中,没有象其它两家公司那样快速扩张,最后,它成为吉百利的一部分。
  
  
楼主格林斯潘回忆录15 时间:2011-04-05 11:22:50
  With the development of eating chocolate the demand for cocoa greatly increased. Initially much of the cocoa came from the Americas, with the first cocoa plantation in Bahia in Brazil being established in 1746. Even earlier, however, the Spaniards took cocoa trees to Fernando Po (Biyogo), off the coast of Africa, and this soon became an important growing area. In 1879 a West African blacksmith took some plants home to the Gold Coast (now Ghana). The British governor realised its potential and encouraged the planting of trees, with the result that Ghana has become a major source of quality cocoa. Other European powers also encouraged the growing of cocoa in their tropical colonies, e.g.France in the Ivory Coast (Cote dIvoire), which is now the world’s largest producer of cocoa.
  
  随着可吃型巧克力的发展,对可可的需求大幅提高。刚开始,大部分可可来自美洲诸国,早在1746年,第一个可可种植园就在巴西的巴伊亚创建了。不过,更早些时候,也就是西班牙人将可可树带到非洲沿海的费尔南多波(比约戈)的时候起,该地很快就成为重要的可可种植区。1879年,有一个西非铁匠将一些可可树从家乡带到黄金海岸(今天的加纳)。英国总督意识到可可的潜力,并鼓励种植可可树,结果加纳成为优质可可的主要产地。其它欧洲国家也鼓励在它们的热带殖民地种植可可,比如法国在象牙海岸(科特迪瓦),后者是今天世界上最大的可可生产国。
  
楼主格林斯潘回忆录15 时间:2011-04-05 11:23:44
  The chocolate made by Fry was initially a plain block and it was only in 1875 that the first milk chocolate was made by Daniel Peter in Switzerland. Chocolate cannot contain much moisture, because water reacts with the sugar and turns melted chocolate into a paste rather than a smoothly flowing liquid (see Project 5 in Chapter 12). As little as 2% moisture can give a product a poor shelf life as well as an inferior texture. This meant that Daniel Peter had to find some way of drying the plentiful supply of liquid milk that he found in his own country. He was helped in this by the recent development of a condensed milk formula by Henri Nestle. This meant that he had much less water to evaporate, and he was able to remove the remaining amount using relatively cheap water-powered machines. In most countries milk chocolate products are now much more popular than plain chocolate ones. In the early 1900s Daniel Peter was challenged to prove that he did in fact invent milk chocolate, so he took his original notebook to the lawyer to get it stamped. The original page together with the lawyer’s mark is reproduced in Figure 1.3.
  
  刚开始,夫瑞里生产的是块状的原味巧克力,只有到了1875年,第一块牛奶巧克力才由瑞士的丹尼尔·皮特制作出来。巧克力不能含不了多少水分,因为水会和糖起反应,将融化的巧克力变成糊状,而不是顺溜的液体(参见第十二章第5个项目)。少至2%的水分可以缩短产品的保质期,也令口感变差。这意味着丹尼尔·皮特必须找到某种方法,将其本国供应丰富的液体牛奶进行干燥。亨利·雀巢刚刚发明的炼奶配方帮了他的忙。这意味着他要蒸发的水分少得多,并且可以将残余水分用相对廉价的水力机械去除。如今在大多数国家里,牛奶巧克力比原味巧克力广受欢迎得多。1990年代初,丹尼尔·皮特受到责难,被要求证明的确是他发明了牛奶巧克力,于是他将笔记本原件交给律师进行签印公证。原件页面连同律师签印再现在图1.3中。
  
楼主格林斯潘回忆录15 时间:2011-04-05 11:24:43
  Figure 1.3 Page from Daniel Peter's notebook (permission of Nestle Archives,Vevey, Switzerland).
  图1.3 来自皮特笔记本的页面(经由瑞士韦威雀巢公司档案授权)
  

楼主格林斯潘回忆录15 时间:2011-04-05 11:28:26
  In order for the chocolate to feel smooth on the tongue when it melts in the mouth, the solid non-fat particles must be smaller than 30 microns (1000 microns 1 mm). The chocolates made by Fry and Peter were ground using granite rollers, but still had a gritty texture. This was because of the presence of some large particles and some groups of particles joined together to form agglomerates, also because the fat was not coating the particles very well. In addition, the chocolate tended to taste bitter because of the presence of some acidic chemicals (see Chapter 4).
  为了使巧克力在嘴里融化时舌头感觉滑溜,非脂肪固体颗粒必须小于30微米。夫瑞里和皮特生产的巧克力都是用花岗石辊磨粉的,可是仍有砂砾感。这是因为还存在一些大颗粒和结团成块的颗粒,也因为脂肪在颗粒上覆盖得不太好。另外,由于含有某些酸性化学品,这种巧克力尝起来比较苦(参见第四章)。
  
  
作者:洛希颜 时间:2011-04-05 11:39:29
  技术贴,马克
楼主格林斯潘回忆录15 时间:2011-04-05 11:46:50
  Figure 1.4 Advertisement for Peter's chocolate (permission of Nestle Archives,Vevey, Switzerland).
  图1.4 皮特的巧克力广告(经由瑞士韦威雀巢公司档案授权)

楼主格林斯潘回忆录15 时间:2011-04-05 11:51:24
  In 1880 Rodolphe Lindt, in his factory in Berne in Switzerland, invented a machine which produced a smoother, better tasting chocolate. This machine was known as a conche, because its shape was similar to the shell with that name (Figure 1.5). It consisted of a granite trough, with a roller, normally constructed of the same material, which pushed the warm liquid chocolate backwards and forwards for several days. This broke up the agglomerates and some of the larger particles and coated them all with fat. At the same time moisture and some acidic chemicals were evaporated into the air, producing a smoother, less astringent tasting chocolate. A schematic diagram of the chocolate making processes is shown in Figure 1.6.
  1880年,鲁道夫·林特在其瑞士伯恩的工厂里,发明了一种更顺滑口味更佳的巧克力机器。这种机器以海螺巧克力精炼机闻名于世,因为它的形状和海螺壳相似(图1.5)。它由一个花岗岩槽和一个通常是相同材料的滚筒组成,后者将暖乎乎的巧克力流体来回辗压数天时间。这就把团块和大颗粒打散,并且完全裹上脂肪。同时,水分和部分酸性化学品蒸发到空气中,产生更顺滑、更少涩味的巧克力。图1.6是一张巧克力制程示意图。
  
楼主格林斯潘回忆录15 时间:2011-04-05 11:52:23
  Figure 1.5 Chocolate being processed in a long conche.
  图1.5 巧克力在一部长形巧克力精炼机中进行处理。
  

作者:雪花衣 时间:2011-04-05 11:52:50
  楼主..我表示乃这样八的话看的人不会多.
  
  贴多点图.别用太长太丑的说明文.用自己的话说出来..谈谈自己的感受..
  
  之类的吧...
  
  不然跟咱们去度娘有啥分别啊?