[法律英语]法律英语天天学(36):牛津法律权威引注标准(2006版)

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The Oxford Standard Citation of Legal Authorities
  牛津法律权威引注标准(2006版)
  Tr. Chunfengqiushui
  
  
  Introduction(导言)
   The Oxford Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities was devised by Professor Peter Birks, in consultation with students and faculty at Oxford University, and with Oxford University Press and Hart Publishing. It is used by the Oxford University Commonwealth Law Journal, and the editors of the Journal have contributed to its development. The standard is designed to facilitate accurate citation of authorities, legislation, and other legal materials.
   《牛津法律权威引注标准》(The Oxford Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities,OSCOLA)是由彼得·伯克斯教授设计并经牛津大学师生、牛津大学出版社和哈特出版社磋商而成。它被应用于牛津大学所有法律期刊,期刊的编辑推动了其发展。设计该标准目的是便于准确引证权威著作、法律法规和其他法律资料。
   Professor Birks planned a revision of OSCOLA in 2004; after his untimely death in 2004, we have revised the standard in consultation with students and faculty members and with publishers. The aim has been to make changes (some of which Professor Birks had in mind) to promote the 'consideration for the reader' whch he made a golden rule of OSCOLA. Minor alterations and clarifications were made for the 2006 edition.
   伯克斯教授于2004年计划修订《牛津法律权威引注标准》。在其逝世后,我们经与师生和出版商商榷修订了该标准。其目的已改变为(伯克斯教授已有此部分想法)促进“读者的思索”,他们使得《牛牛津法律权威引注标准》(OSCOLA)成为指导原则。2006版作了较小的变更和进一步的精炼。
   We hope that the revised standard also shows the consideration for authors that motivated Professor Birks to design a uniform and simple standard for legal citation.
   我们希望修订后的标准也能体现作者——伯克斯教授设计统一、简朴的法律印证标准——的思索。
  
  Sandra Meredith and Timothy Endicott(桑德拉·梅雷迪斯、蒂莫西·恩迪克特)
  6 September 2006
  
  PART I General Notes on Citation(一般引注)
   1 Footnotes(脚注)
   Use footnotes, not endnotes. Close footnotes with a full stop (or question mark, or exclamation mark). OSCOLA uses little punctuation otherwise, except single inverted commas around journal article titles, and commas to separate items that would otherwise run together. Where more than one citation is given in a single footnote, separate them with semi-colons.
   使用脚注,而不是尾注。以句号(或问号、叹号)结束脚注。除了在期刊文章标题上使用单引号和为分隔项目以免连在一起使用逗号外,《牛津法律权威引注标准》很少用其它标点符号。在一个脚注中多于一个引证,用分号隔开。
   The footnote marker should appear after the relevant punctuation in the text (if any) and normally at the end of a sentence. It may sometimes be necessary, for the sake of clarity, to put the footnote after the word or phrase to which it relates. A quotation need not be footnoted separately from the case or text from which it is derived if the two appear in the same sentence. Otherwise, separate notes should be used.
   脚注标记应该出现在相应标点符号之后和句子末端。为了清楚起见,有时是必须将脚注标记放在相关的词语或短语之后。如果同一句中有两个引语不必单独脚注。否则,应单独使用脚注。
   Where a case name is given in the text, it is not necessary to repeat it in the footnote, as shown in the following example:
   文本中的案例名称,不必在脚注中重复,如下例所示:
   It is well represented in the case law, perhaps most notably in the expression of the no-conflict rule advocated by Lord Upjohn in Phipps v Boardman 31 and in the earlier Court of Appeal decision in Boulting v Boardman,32 Association of Cinematograph, Television and Allied Technicians. In Boulting [or 'in the Boulting case'], Upohn LJ said that the rule 'must be applied realistically to a state of affairs which discloses a real conflict of duty and interest and 33 not to some theoretical or rhetorical conflict' In Phipps, Lord Upjohn developed his view of the rule further by adding that there must be a 'real sensible possibility of conflict'.34
   The relevant footnotes would appear thus(相应的脚注如下):
   31 [1967] 2 AC 46 (HL).
   32 [1963] 2 QB 606 (CA).
   33 Boulting (n 32) 638. [or] 33 ibid 638.
   34 Phipps (n 31) 124.
   Examples of citations of cases, legislation, books and journals are given in each section of OSCOLA. The Appendix includes a list of abbreviations that can be used in footnotes.
   《牛津法律权威引注标准》在每一节中给出了判例、法律法规、法律著作和期刊引证的例子。附录是一张用于脚注的缩写词列表。
  
   2 Quotations(引用)
  
   Quotations from other works, judgments, statutes, etc must be faithful to the original, except where it is necessary to change quotation marks from single to double, or vice versa. Do not change errors in the original or use [sic]. Any comments on the quotation should be in the text or in a footnote.
   除了必须从单引号改为双引号或反之亦然外,引用其它著作、判决、法令等必须忠于原文。不能改变原文的错误或用法(原文如此)。关于引用语的任何评论应该放在文本之中或脚注之中。
   Incorporate quotations of three lines or less into the text, within single quotation marks. Quotations within short quotations take double quotation marks. Punctuation follows the closing quotation mark, unless it is part of the quotation. The superscript footnote marker comes last, after both the punctuation and the closing quotation mark.
   文本中三行或更少的合并的引用语,用单引号。引用之中再引用使用双引号。标点符号在后引号之后,除非其是引语的一部分。脚注标记的上标在最后,即标点符号和后引号之后。
   Present quotations longer than three lines in a double-indented single-spaced paragraph, with no further indentation of the first line. Do not use quotation marks, except for single quotation marks round quotations within quotations.
   现在的引用语在犬齿交错且第一行没有缩排的段落里长于三行。除了引用之中再引用的单引号外,不用引号。
   Generally, use a colon to introduce a long quotation. However, when the lead-in moves seamlessly into the quoted material a comma or no punctuation may be preferable. Begin with an ellipsis (…) when a quotation starts mid-sentence, for example:
   通常说来,用冒号介绍一段长的引用语。然而当另起一段表示引用材料或不用标点符号更可取。当引用语居中时以冒号开头,如例:
   Lord Radcliffe stated the position as follows:
   …tere is no precise formula that will determine the extent of detail called
   for when a director declares his interest or the nature of his interest. ... His
   declaration must make his colleagues 'fully inormed of the real state of
   Things'... If it is mterial to their judgment that they should know not
   merely that he has an interest, but what it is and how far it goes, then he
   must see to it that they are informed.16 (emphasis added)
  
   Indicate omissions from a quotation with an ellipsis, and any change of emphasis in a parenthetical clause after the citation by use of '(emphasis added)'. Ifyou omit citations or footnotes from a quotation, put (citation(s) omitted)' or 'footnote(s) omitted)' after the source. To attribute a quotation within a quotation to its original source, omit the footnote from the quotation, and state the original author's citation in your footnote, as follows:
   以省略号表示引用语的冗长。任何强调的变化在引证后用“(附加的强调)”形式来附加说明的子句。如果遗漏了引证或引用的脚注,将“(引证遗漏)”或“(脚注遗漏)”放在资料后面。为了将双层引用恢复到原文,遗漏的脚注在脚注中进行说明原作者的引证,如下:
   …the Huse of Lords also concluded that the civil standard of proof (on
   the balance of probabilities) should be applied in such a way as to be
   sensitive to the 'seriousness of the matters to be proved and the
   implications of proving them,' which in efect means proof beyond
   reasonable doubt (i.e. the criminal standard).27
  
   27 Andrew Ashworth 'Soial Control and "nti-Social Behaviour": The Subversionof
   Human Rights' (204) 120 LQR 263, 276, citing Clingham and McCann [2003] 1 AC
   787 [83] (Lord Hope of Craighead).
  
   3 Cross-citation and cross-reference(互引与相互参考)
  
   Cross-citation directs the reader to source material cited in another footnote. Cross-reference directs the reader to some other passage in your work. Both techniques cause work for the reader; use them only when that work will be rewarding. Do not cross-cite to a footnote in a different chapter. In a cross-citation, briefly identify the case, book or other item and specify the note in which the full citation is to be found:
   互引指引读者其资料来源在另一脚注中已经表示。相互参考指引读者其一些信息在另外的著作中。两种方法都是为读者服务;只有当著作有意义的才使用。在不同章中不能互引。在互引中,简要地确定判例、著作或其它项目,详细说明该注释能在如下处找到全文引证:
   35 Ashworth (n 27).
   For repeated citations of a case, you can simply give the full citation each time, or use cross-citation; in either event, you can abbreviate the names of the parties after the first citation. So if you cite Barrett v Enfield LBC [2001] 2 AC 550 (HL) in footnote 1, cite it afterwards in whichever of the following ways is most convenient:
   一个判例的重复引证,可以每次给出全文引证,也可使用互引;在每一事件中,可以在第一次引证后缩写双方的名称。如果在脚注1中引证Barrett v Enfield LBC [2001] 2 AC 550 (HL) ,在其后的任何一处引用下述方式是非常方便的。
   5 Barrett v Enfield LBC [2001] 2 AC 550 (HL).
   5 Barrett v Enfield LBC (n 1).
   5 Barrett (n 1).
   On Latin gadgets: do not use supra, infra, ante, id, op cit, loc cit, contra, as they are not widely understood. 'Ibid' which is an abbreviation of 'ibidem' and mean 'in the same place', can be used to repeat a citation in the immediately previous note. Standing alone, 'ibid' means strictly 'in the very same place' while 'ibid 345' means 'in te same work but this time at page 345'. In gneral it is equally possible to repeat the immediately previous citation without using 'ibid': Ashworth (n 27) 265-67' thus does the trick even in n 28. Do not switch back and forth from one to the other. Similarly, use 'Cf' for 'compare': 'Cf.Ashworth (n 27) 265-C67.'
   在拉丁文术语上:不用supra, infra, ante, id, op cit, loc cit, contra,因为其那一被广泛理解。“Ibid(同前、如上)”是“ibidem”的缩写,意即“在相同的地方”,其能用于紧接前一脚注之后的重复引证。单独使用,“Ibid(同前、如上)”严格表示“在同一地方”而“ibid 345”则表示“在同一书中,但在第345页”。通常说来,其可能重复出现在紧接前一脚注之后而不用“ibid”:如Ashworth (n 27) 265-67'。因此这个窍门也可用于 n 28。不必来回换来换去。同样,用“Cf”来“比较”:“Cf.Ashworth (n 27) 265-C67”。
   Cross-references to points of substantive discussion elsewhere in your work may perform a useful function. But avoid sending the reader off to another part of the text when a short point could as easily be restated. Never make a cross-reference that will be difficult for the reader to find. 'See above' is worse than useless. 'See chapter VII above' is no better. A good cross-reference takes the reader straight to the very place: '109' or , within the chapter, 'text to n 32'. not cross-refer to 'chapter 6A2(c)' unless you have running headers on each page showing the sequence of sub-headings. Use 'see…' only when you actually want the reader to look at the place indicated, for example 'See 109, above' or 'See n 27, below'.
   相互参考指著述中其它地方的独立存在的讨论有着有用的功能。但是在能轻易地复述某一点时避免将读者带到文本的另一部分。从不使用使读者难以查找的相互参考。“See above(见上)”比不用更糟糕。“See chapter VII above”也不是很好。好的相互参考使读者能直接找到准确的地方:“109”或这一章的“text to n 32”。不使用“chapter 6A2(c)”,除非有连续的标题在每一页表示次标题的顺序。当想要读者看所示的地方时才用“see…”,如“See 109, above”或“See n 27, below”。
   Remember that pagination changes from draft to draft, especially in preparation for publication. A reference to 198 is not much use when 198 has become 132. To save time, you can cross-refer to footnote markers, which change much less: 'Text to n 107 in chapter 7' should sufficiently pin down the location.
   须记住各草稿之间标记分页的变化,特别是准备出版物的标记分页。当198变成了132时,不能再用参考198。为了节省时间,可以相互参考脚注标记。其改变较少:“Text to n 107 in chapter 7”应该完全约束在其位置上。
  
   4 Tables of cases, legislation, etc(判例和法律法规等表)
  
   In a book or thesis, compile the table(s) of cases (generally located in the preliminary pages) alphabetically. Unless there are very few cases, divide the tables into separate sections for separate jurisdictions. Arrange EC cases (distinguishing between ECJ, CFI and Commission cases) in chronological and numerical order. Where there are sufficient international cases to merit it, sub-divide the table with headings for each individual country.
   在著作或论文中,编辑按字母顺序编辑判例表(通常位于起始页)。除非判例非常少将该表按鸽各自权限分成几部分。将EC判例(不同于ECJ、CFI)按照年代和数字顺序排列。其有足够的跨国案例助于将该表按独立的国家进行细分。
   Alphabeticize cases by the significant name. Thus, 'In re the Estate of Farquar' or 'Re Farquar's Estate' hould be tabled under 'Farquar's Estate, Re'.
   按重要的名称的字母顺序排列案例。因此,“In re the Estate of Farquar”和“Re Farquar's Estate”放在“Farquar's Estate, Re”之下。
   Compile shipping cases and trade mark cases under the full case name, but insert an additional entry in the tables under the name of the ship or the trade mark, with a cross-reference to the full name.
   Compile tables of legislation with similar divisions as to jurisdiction.
   按案例全名编辑海运案例和商标案例,但是以全名相互参考的形式在海运或商标之下插入额外的条目。以类似的细分法根据权限编辑法律法规。
  
   5 Abbreviations(缩写)
  
   In an article, avoid unfamiliar abbreviations and define any that you use in a footnote or in the text. In a thesis or book, define abbreviations in a 'List of Abbreviations' in the preliminary pages. But you need not define an abbreviation that is part of everyday usage (eg, 'eg' or 'etc'). And every lawyer can be taken to know some additional abbreviations. The Appendix provides tables of common abbreviations that need no definition.
   在一篇文章中,避免新奇的缩写,并定义你在文本或脚注中所用到的缩写。在论文或书籍中,在起始页以“缩写列表”定义缩写。但是不必定义每天都在用的缩写部分(如“eg”、“etc”)。并且每位律师都知道的一些额外缩写。附录提供了常见的需要定义的缩写。
  
  

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作者:杨过改之 时间:2007-10-02 10:45:34
  authorities一般指的就是判例。
  
  The aim has been to make changes (some of which Professor Birks had in mind) to promote the 'consideration for the reader' whch he made a golden rule of OSCOLA.
  修订的目标是进行一些更改(...),以期更好的“为读者着想” ,这也是他为OSCOLA设定的金科玉律。
     We hope that the revised standard also shows the consideration for authors that motivated Professor Birks to design a uniform and simple standard for legal citation.
  我们希望,修改过的标准同样体现了对作者的着想,这正是Birks教授设计一套法律引用的统一而简单的规则的动因。
  
  Present quotations longer than three lines in a double-indented single-spaced paragraph, with no further indentation of the first line.
  ——三行以上的引文另作一段,段落使用双缩进(反正就是缩进一定的量,具体的量没有查到,比普通的缩进要更深一点)、单倍行距,首行不再缩进。
  这里的Present是动词。
  
  Indicate...and any change of emphasis in a parenthetical clause after the citation by use of '(emphasis added)'.
  ——在引文后使用“(着重是后加的)这一插入句以指明着重的变化”。
  
作者:杨过改之 时间:2007-10-02 10:46:32
  
  To attribute a quotation within a quotation to its original source, omit the footnote from the quotation, and state the original author's citation in your footnote, as follows:
  ——为了说明引文中的引文的原始出处,去掉引文中的脚注,在你的脚注中说明原作者的引用,示例如下:
  
   在拉丁文术语上:不用supra, infra, ante, id, op cit, loc cit, contra,因为其那一被广泛理解。
  ——这个反了。
  
  Both techniques cause work for the reader; use them only when that work will be rewarding.
  ——这两种技巧都要求读者的劳动,只有在这种劳动有用时才使用它们。
  其实就是说cross-citation和cross-reference让读者翻来翻去的很麻烦,所以必要时才用。
  
  in either event,——无论哪种情况
  
  'Ibid' which is an abbreviation of 'ibidem' and mean 'in the same place', can be used to repeat a citation in the immediately previous note. Standing alone, 'ibid' means strictly 'in the very same place' while 'ibid 345' means 'in te same work but this time at page 345'. In gneral it is equally possible to repeat the immediately previous citation without using 'ibid': Ashworth (n 27) 265-67' thus does the trick even in n 28. Do not switch back and forth from one to the other.
  "ibid"是“ibidem”的缩写,意思是“在同样的地方”,可以用于重复前一脚注中的引用(比如,脚注27的引用是:毛选第4卷第370页,脚注28也是同样的内容,就可以用ibid),单独使用时,”ibid”严格意味着“就是在那个地方”,而“ibid 345”指“在同一著作中,但这次是第345页”。通常来说,也可以不用“ibid”而重复前一引用:在脚注28中使用“Ashworth (n27) 265-67”可以达到同样的效果。但不要一会使用一种方法,一会又用另一种方法。
  
作者:杨过改之 时间:2007-10-02 10:48:14
  
  Cross-references to points of substantive discussion elsewhere in your work may perform a useful function.
  ——对位于您的著作中其他地方的实质性讨论提示相互参考可以很有用。
  
  
  Where there are sufficient international cases to merit it, sub-divide the table with headings for each individual country.
  ——如果有足够的国际案例,将每个国家的案例归在不同的小标题下以细分列表。
  
  "jurisdiction"一般译成“管辖”或“司法辖区”。
  
  Alphabeticize cases by the significant name. ——根据名称中有重要意义的字对案件按首字母排序。
  
  
  or use [sic].
  ——或使用[原文如此]
  
  并且每位律师都知道的一些额外缩写。附录提供了常见的需要定义的缩写。
  ——前一句可以重译下,后一句意思反了。
  
  供楼主参考。花的时间不多,我的译文也未很好推敲。个人意见,译文首先要理解原文,其次,译文本身应该有一定的可读性。
  
  Thanks for Chunfengqiushui's sharing.
  
  
  http://www.competition-law.ox.ac.uk/published/oscola_2006.pdf
  这是oscola2006版的原文
  
楼主春风秋水 时间:2007-10-02 13:16:00
  谢谢佬兄的赐教
楼主春风秋水 时间:2007-10-02 13:27:51
  1 Abbreviations in the names of law reports and journals(法律报告和期刊名称的缩写)
  
   Define abbreviations in a list at the beginning of a book or thesis, or individually in a
  footnote in an article. The abbreviations provided below for law reports and journals do
  not need to be defined. Information about commonly used abbreviations can be found in
  the Cardiff Index, at http://www.legalabbrevs.cardiff.ac.uk and in Donald Raistrick, Index to Legal Citation and Abbreviations (2nd edn Bowker-Saur, London 1993). In OSCOLA, abbreviations do not have full stops.
   在书籍、论文或文章的脚注中以一个列表来定义缩写。下述是法律报告和期刊不必定义的缩写。常用的缩写信息可在Cardiff Index网站上(其网址是:http://www.legalabbrevs.cardiff.ac.uk)和Donald Raistrick的《法律引证与缩略语索引》(Index to Legal Citation and Abbreviations)中找到。在《牛津法律权威引注标准》中,所有缩写没有句点。
   If you cannot find a preferred abbreviation in the Cardiff Index or the journal itself,
  use the following terms to develop an abbreviation:
   如果不能在Cardiff Index网站上或期刊上发现更合适的缩写,可用如下术语来缩写:
  Criminal——Crim Quarterly——Q
  European——Eur Report(s)——Rep
  International——Intl Review——Rev
  Journal——J University——U
  Law——L Yearbook——Ybk
  
  (a) Law Reports(法律报告)
  Official Law Reports(《官方判例汇编》)——AC(《上诉法庭报告》), QB(《后座法庭报告》), Ch(《大法官法庭报告》), Fam(《家事庭报告》), P
  Weekly Law Reports(《法律周报》)——WLR
  European Court Reports(《欧盟法院报告》)——ECR
  All England Law Reports(《全英格兰判例汇编》)——All ER
  British Company Law Cases(《不列颠公司法判例汇编》)——BCC
  Common Market Law Reports(《共同市场法律报告》)——CMLR
  Criminal Appeal Reports(《刑事上诉报告》)——Cr App R
  Criminal Appeal Reports (Sentencing)(《形式上诉报告》)——Cr App R(S)
  Criminal Law Review(《刑法评论》)——Crim LR
  English Reports(《英格兰及威尔士判例》)——ER
  Estates Gazette(《房地产杂志》)——EG
  Family Law Reports(《家事庭报告》)——FLR
  Financial Times Law Reports(《金融时报法律报告》)——FTLR
  Fleet Street Reports(《英国伦敦新闻界报告》)——FSR
  Industrial Case Reports(《工业判例汇编》)——ICR
  Industrial Relations Law Review(《劳资关系评论》)——IRLR
  Journal of Planning Law(《规划法杂志》)——JPL
  Justice of the Peace Reports(《治安法官报告》)——JP
  Law Society Gazette(《法律协会学报》)——LS Gaz
  Lloyd's Law Reports(《劳氏法律报告》)——Lloyd's Rep
  Lloyd's Maritime & Commercial Law Quarterly(《劳氏海商法季刊》)——LMCLQ
  Local Government Reports(《地方政府报告》)——LGR
  Official Journal of the EC(《欧盟官方公报》)——OJ
  Property and Compensation Reports(《财产及补偿法报告》)——P & CR
  Reports of Patent Cases(《专利案例报告》)——RPC
  Road Traffic Reports(《道路交通报告》)——RTR
  Scots Law Times(《苏格兰法律时报》)——SLT
  Session Cases(《苏格兰理事会判例汇编》)——SC
  Simon's Tax Cases(《西蒙税法判例汇编》)——STC
  Tax Cases(《税法判例汇编》——TC
  (b) Journals(期刊)
  American Journal of International Law(《美国国际法杂志》)——AJIL
  British Tax Review(《不列颠税法评论》)——BTR
  Common Market Law Review(《共同市场法律评论》)——CML Rev
  Current Law(《当代法律》)——CL
  Cambridge Law Journal(《剑桥法学杂志》)——CLJ
  Current Legal Problems(《当代法律问题》)——CLP
  Criminal Law Review(《刑法评论》)——Crim LR
  EC Bulletin(《欧盟公告》)——EC Bull
  European Competition Law Review(《欧盟竞争法评论》)——ECLR
  Estates Gazette(《房地产杂志》)——EG
  European Intellectual Property Review(《欧盟知识产权评论》)——EIPR
  European Industrial Relations Review(《欧盟劳资关系评论》)——EIRR
  European Law Review(《欧洲法评论》)——EL Rev
  Industrial Law Journal(《工业法杂志》)——ILJ
  International & Comparative Law Quarterly(《国际比较法季刊》)——ICLQ
  Journal of Business Law(《商法杂志》)——JBL
  Journal of Planning and Environmental Law(《规划与环境法杂志》)——JPEL
  Lloyd's Maritime & Commercial Law Quarterly(《劳氏海商法季刊》)——LMC LQ
  Law Quarterly Review(《法学评论季刊》)——LQR
  Legal Studies(《法律研究》)——LS
  Law Society Gazette(《法律协会学报》)——LS Gaz
  Modern Law Review(《现代法学评论》)——MLR
  New Law Journal(《新法律杂志》)——NLJ
  Official Journal of the EC(《欧盟官方公报》)——OJ
  Oxford Journal of Legal Studies(《牛津研究法律杂志》)——OJLS
  Oxford University Commonwealth Law Journal(《英联邦法律杂志》)——OUCLJ
  Public Law(《国际公法》)——PL
  Solicitors' Journal(《律师杂志》)——SJ
  2 Abbreviations in case names(判例名称缩写)
   The following words and phrases may usefully be abbreviated in case names and citations. Other abbreviations should generally be avoided so as to minimize ambiguity.
   下列词语或短语有助于缩写判例名称和引证。为消除模棱两可,一般避免其它缩写。
  AG:Advocate General
  A-G:Attorney-General
  Anon:Anonymous
  BBC:British Broadcasting Corporation
  BC:Borough Council
  Bros:Brothers
  CC:County Council
  Co:company
  Comr:Commissioner
  Co-op:Co-operative
  Corp:Corporation
  CPS:Crown Prosecution Service
  DC:District Council
  decd:deceased
  Dept:Department
  DPP:Director of Public Prosecutions
  EC:European Communities
  Exor:Executor
  Exrx:Executrix
  GB:Great Britain
  HM:Her Majesty's
  Inc:Incorporated
  IRC:Inland Revenue Commissioners
  LBC:London Borough Council
  Liq:liquidation
  Ltd:Limited
  NZ:New Zealand
  ors:others
  plc:public limited company
  Pty Proprietary
  R:The Queen (or King)
  Rep:Reports
  Rly:Railway
  RDC:Rural District Council
  SA:South Africa
  UDC:Urban District Council
  UK United Kingdom
  US United States
  USA United States of America
  V-C Vice-Chancellor
  3 Abbreviations in footnotes(脚注缩写)
   The following words and phrases can be abbreviated: (如下词语和短语可缩写成:)
  affirmed——aff'd appendix app
  Cambridge University Press——CUP chapter/chapters——ch/chs
  chapter/chapters (of statutes)——c/cc clause/clauses——cl/cls
  compiler/compilers——comp/comps edition/editions——edn/edns
  editor/editors——ed/eds et cetera——etc
  following——ff footnote/footnotes (internal to the work) ——n/nn
  footnote /footnotes (external to the work)——fn/fns
  for example——eg that is——ie
  manuscript/manuscripts——MS/MSS number——no
  number (of an Act, Report etc)——No Oxford University Press——OUP
  page/pages——p/pp paragraph/paragraphs——para/paras or [22] [22]¨C[32]
  part——pt regulation/regulations——reg/regs
  reversed——rev'd Rex/Regina——R
  rule/rules——r/rr schedule——sch
  section/sections——s/ss subsection/subsections——sub-s/sub-ss
  supplement/supplements——supp/supps
  translated, translation/translator——trans/tr
  volume/volumes——vol/vols
  
  
作者:aichannotame 时间:2009-11-02 23:17:07
  mark
作者:豆豆豆豆毛 时间:2010-03-08 22:02:57
  mark
作者:别停别停 时间:2010-04-21 11:07:07
  爪之
作者:your2010 时间:2010-05-05 20:51:20
  WOW,楼主这些,光看你码字就头大了,真要看起来,不知何年何月能看完啊
作者:your2010 时间:2010-05-05 20:54:50
  这里请教楼主个问题,盼望给个回复,英文案例中引用时在注释部分的格式是怎样的,查了些资料,五花八门,不知正解
作者:chenpch 时间:2011-12-07 12:56:35
  超级有用
作者:哈哈好好笑 时间:2011-12-09 22:04:47
  爱死楼主啦~~~
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