缘起性空话康德--从第三二律背反看霍金与康德

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  缘起性空话康德--从第三二律背反看霍金与康德

  世界是怎么来的?或者再具体点,时间有头无头,空间有边无边,这些问题,从古到今,都有些神经在思考。
  古代人,把这个归于神、道;

  康德在他的四个二律背反中,把这些问题理性讨论了,提出了一个自由的(超验起始的)因果性的概念,说神不太好意思了;

  霍金,从唯物的角度出发,讲了一个黑洞的故事,把地球都骗停摆了;遗憾的、或者说多少有点令人欣慰的是,最后他自己否定了。善莫大焉乎哉?可惜多少学物理的了。

  人其实是很难跳出历史局限的,不论你信的是什么。

  下面,看看康德的第三二律背反是怎么玩的。
  THIRD CONFLICT OF THE TRANSCENDENTAL IDEAS.

  THESIS.

  Causality according to the laws of nature, is not the only causality
  operating to originate the phenomena of the world. A causality of
  freedom is also necessary to account fully for these phenomena.

  PROOF.
  超验意旨的第三个冲突
  正论
  按照自然规律,因果性,并不是唯一的这种因果性:即世界上的现象全部,都能够由它派生出来。为了解释这些现象,一种自由的因果性,也就是必然的了。
  证明

  Let it be supposed, that there is no other kind of causality than that
  according to the laws of nature. Consequently, everything that happens
  presupposes a previous condition, which it follows with absolute
  certainty, in conformity with a rule. But this previous condition must
  itself be something that has happened (that has arisen in time, as it
  did not exist before), for, if it has always been in existence, its
  consequence or effect would not thus originate for the first time,
  but would likewise have always existed. The causality, therefore, of a
  cause, whereby something happens, is itself a thing that has happened. Now this again presupposes, in conformity with the law of nature, a
  previous condition and its causality, and this another anterior to the
  former, and so on. If, then, everything happens solely in accordance
  with the laws of nature, there cannot be any real first beginning of
  things, but only a subaltern or comparative beginning. There cannot,
  therefore, be a completeness of series on the side of the causes which
  originate the one from the other. But the law of nature is that
  nothing can happen without a sufficient a priori determined cause. The
  proposition therefore--if all causality is possible only in accordance
  with the laws of nature--is, when stated in this unlimited and general
  manner, self-contradictory. It follows that this cannot be the only kind
  of causality.
  From what has been said, it follows that a causality must be admitted,
  by means of which something happens, without its cause being determined
  according to necessary laws by some other cause preceding. That is to
  say, there must exist an absolute spontaneity of cause, which of itself
  originates a series of phenomena which proceeds according to natural
  laws--consequently transcendental freedom, without which even in the
  course of nature the succession of phenomena on the side of causes is
  never complete.
  人们假定,除了按照自然规律的因果性之外,不存在任何其它的因果性。从而,每件发生的事情,都需假设一个前提条件,按照一条规则,此事必然随这个条件而发生。但现在,这个前提条件本身,也必须是某个已经发生了的事情(在时间中出现,此前它并不存在),因为,如果它曾一直存在的话,那么它的后果也就不应该是第一次出现了,而是应该一直存在着的。因此,对于发生了的某事来说,它所凭借的原因的因果性,本身就是某种已发生了的事情。现在,为了与自然的规律相一致,它同样需要预设一个前提条件及其因果性,而这又需要另一个前提条件,如此等等。因此,如果一切都是按照自然规律发生,那么,在任何时候,都将没有事情的真正的最初开始,而只能有一个次等的或相对的开始。因此,在原因这一侧,不可能有一个从源自另一个原因的完整序列。但自然的规律却是,没有充分的、先天规定的原因的话,什么都不会发生。因此,对于命题:“如果所有的因果性,只有依据自然规律才是可能的”,如果以这种不受限制的、和普通的方式来陈述的话,它就是自相矛盾的。故此因果性,不可能是唯一的因果性。
  据前说述,就必须承认,还有一种因果性,某事通过它发生,它的原因,无须再继续通过另一个先行的原因,按照必然的规律来加以规定。也就是说,对于原因来说,必然存在着一种“绝对的自发性”,它按照自然规律前进,就可以自行开启一个的现象的序列;故它就是超验的自由,没有这种自由的话,甚至在自然的进程中,在原因一侧现象的相继,都将永远不会是完备的。

  ANTITHESIS.
  There is no such thing as freedom, but everything in the world happens
  solely according to the laws of nature.
  PROOF.
  反论
  没有所谓自由这种东西,相反,世界上的每个事物,都只是按照自然规律而发生。
  证明

  Granted, that there does exist freedom in the transcendental sense, as a
  peculiar kind of causality, operating to produce events in the world--a
  faculty, that is to say, of originating a state, and consequently a
  series of consequences from that state. In this case, not only the
  series originated by this spontaneity, but the determination of this
  spontaneity itself to the production of the series, that is to say, the
  causality itself must have an absolute commencement, such that nothing
  can precede to determine this action according to unvarying laws. But
  every beginning of action presupposes in the acting cause a state of
  inaction; and a dynamically primal beginning of action presupposes a
  state, which has no connection--as regards causality--with the preceding
  state of the cause--which does not, that is, in any wise result from it.
  Transcendental freedom is therefore opposed to the natural law of cause
  and effect, and such a conjunction of successive states in effective
  causes is destructive of the possibility of unity in experience and
  for that reason not to be found in experience--is consequently a mere
  fiction of thought.
  假定存在超验意义上的自由,作为一种特殊的因果性,运行起来后,在世界上产生事件,--也就是说,是一种创始某种状态的能力,然后从这个状态,产生一个结果的序列。在这种情况下,就不仅是源自这种自发性的序列,而且包括:相对于‘序列的产生而言’的‘这种自发性本身的规定’,也就是说,因果性本身,就必须有一个绝对的开始,这样,就没有任何东西,可以依据持久不变的规律,来规定这个行动。但是,每一个行动的开始,都是起作用的原因,尚处于一个未行动的状态;而一个行动的‘力学的元始的开始’,则假设了这样一个状态,该状态,就因果性而言,与那个先行的原因状态,没有联系,也就是说,那个先行的原因状态,不能以任何明智的方式,从假设的状态导出。因此,超验的自由,是与自然的因果规律相对立的,这种起作用的原因的相继状态的联合,对经验中的同一体的可能性,是毁灭性的,因此,在经验中找不到它,--从而超验的自由只是一个假想。

  We have, therefore, nothing but nature to which we must look for
  connection and order in cosmical events. Freedom--independence of the
  laws of nature--is certainly a deliverance from restraint, but it is
  also a relinquishing of the guidance of law and rule. For it cannot
  be alleged that, instead of the laws of nature, laws of freedom may be
  introduced into the causality of the course of nature. For, if freedom
  were determined according to laws, it would be no longer freedom,
  but merely nature. Nature, therefore, and transcendental freedom are
  distinguishable as conformity to law and lawlessness. The former imposes
  upon understanding the difficulty of seeking the origin of events ever
  higher and higher in the series of causes, inasmuch as causality is
  always conditioned thereby; while it compensates this labour by the
  guarantee of a unity complete and in conformity with law. The latter, on
  the contrary, holds out to the understanding the promise of a point
  of rest in the chain of causes, by conducting it to an unconditioned
  causality, which professes to have the power of spontaneous origination,
  but which, in its own utter blindness, deprives it of the guidance of
  rules, by which alone a completely connected experience is possible.
  因此,我们所拥有的,无非是自然,我们必须在宇宙的事件中,为其寻找联系和秩序。独立于自然规律的自由,当然是对强制的一种解脱,但同样也是对规律和规则的指导的放弃。因为人们不能说,被引入自然进程的因果性中的,不是自然的规律,而是自由的规律。因为如果自由是按照规律来规定的,那么,它就不是自由了,而仅仅是自然。因此,自然与超验自由的区别,正如合规律性与无规律性的区别一样。只要因果性总是有条件的,前者自然,就会迫使理解力去解决难题:即在原因的序列中,不断往上寻找事件的起源;但作为补偿,它也保证了一个完整的有秩序的经验的同一。而后者,超验的自由,正好相反,通过把理解力引导到一个无条件的因果性,让理解力,在原因的链条中,可以找到一个休息点;这种因果性,声称具有自行源创的能力,但由于它本身是盲目的,所以它从理解力那里剥夺了规则的指导;但只有通过这种指导,一种完全相连的经验才是可能的。


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楼主胡整廿年 时间:2018-03-30 09:41:44
  缘起性空话康德--对黑洞理论的最佳反驳


  ON THE ANTITHESIS.
  反论的说明

  The difficulties which meet us, in our attempt to rise through the
  series of phenomena to the existence of an absolutely necessary supreme
  cause, must not originate from our inability to establish the truth of
  our mere conceptions of the necessary existence of a thing. That is to
  say, our objections not be ontological, but must be directed against
  the causal connection with a series of phenomena of a condition which is
  itself unconditioned. In one word, they must be cosmological and relate
  to empirical laws. We must show that the regress in the series of
  causes (in the world of sense) cannot conclude with an empirically
  unconditioned condition, and that the cosmological argument from the
  contingency of the cosmical state--a contingency alleged to arise from
  change--does not justify us in accepting a first cause, that is, a prime
  originator of the cosmical series.
  对于普通事物的必然存在,我们不能够确立其单纯概念的真理性;在我们试图通过现象的序列,上升到一个绝对必然的至上原因的存在时,我们所遇到的困难,不应该是源自我们上述的能力不够。也就是说,我们的反对,不是本体论的,而是必需针对‘与一个现象序列的因果连接’;此序列,是由一个本身为无条件的条件所产生的。一句话,它们必须是宇宙论的,且与经验性规律有关。我们必须指出,(在感官世界中)原因序列的回溯,绝不能得出一个经验性无条件的条件,且从宇宙状态的偶然性(-号称是从变化而产生的偶然性-)而来的宇宙论的论据,并不能让我们正当地接受一个第一因,也就是说,一个宇宙序列的最初创始者。



作者:杨思基 时间:2018-04-01 12:50:53
  期待继续。
楼主胡整廿年 时间:2018-04-01 17:21:49
  @杨思基 2018-04-01 12:50:53
  期待继续。
  -----------------------------
  谢谢
楼主胡整廿年 时间:2018-08-10 16:00:11
  @杨思基 2018-04-01 12:50:53
  期待继续。
  -----------------------------
  敬请光临
  http://bbs.tianya.cn/post-books-606377-1.shtml
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