楼主:TerminatorSUN 时间:2010-03-20 14:26:00 点击:957 回复:18
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大家好,我看到一本英文书LATE IMPERIAL CHINESE ARMIES 1520-1840,觉得很好,翻译给大家看。欢迎大家评论,拍砖轻点儿哦。
  ARMIES 1520-1840
  克里斯•皮尔斯 著
  This is the fifth and final volume in a series which has attempted to outline the military history of China from the earliest historical records until the middle of the 19th century. Until recently this history has been relatively inaccessible to the general public in the West. There has, therefore, been a tendency to suppose that the art of war in China remained static over long periods of time, and that the parlous state of its armed forces at the time of the Opium Wars was their normal and unalterable condition, somehow rooted in the 'non-military' nature of the people of China and their culture. It is to be hoped that this series has gone some way to dispel that myth, and to promote some awareness of a history as varied, as interesting, and indeed as violent, as that of Europe.
   This volume covers the period between the arrival of the first seaborne Europeans and the beginning of the series of 'unequal treaties' which forcibly opened China to European influence from the 1840s. During the Middle Ages, China had been in the forefront of military technology, pioneering the development of the cannon and the ocean-going ship, which foreigners were later to use against her. After the 15th century this progress was not maintained, and stagnation set in. The reasons for this remain the subject of much debate, but we can identify some of the main factors: the lack of interest in warfare shown by the scholar class; excessive government regulation, driven by the fear that improved weapons might get into the hands of rebels; bankruptcy and corruption during the declining years of the Ming dynasty; and perhaps above all the lack of local rivals of comparable strength, which bred a complacent assumption that Chinese organisation and numbers would always prevail.
  The huge size of the empire, its cultural self-confidence and its political sophistication prevented this technological imbalance from being as immediately disastrous as it had been for many other societies. There was never any question of the Chinese being subjugated by a handful of foreigners, as the Aztecs and Incas had been. In fact, as late as the end of the 18th century - following an era which had seen the world increasingly divided into colonial powers and their victims - China was still on the side of the winners. The Ch'ing dynasty of the Manchus, who had overthrown the native Ming in the 1640s, then ruled over the largest and most populous empire in the world, with territories that had doubled in size in the previous few decades.


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作者:kehao98513 时间:2010-03-20 14:31:02
作者:木鱼之木 时间:2010-03-20 16:19:00
楼主TerminatorSUN 时间:2010-03-20 16:59:12
  Under the Manchus, China reached its greatest ever extent – roughly the present boundaries of the People's Republic plus Taiwan, Mongolia and the northern part of Manchuria. In the process of gaining this territory they had finally subjugated the Central Asian nomads, the main threat to Chinese civilisation for two millennia. The period covered here also saw: the building of the present Great Wall; the forestalling of a Japanese attempt to conquer Korea; the tremendous and protracted struggle for power between the Ming and the Manchus; and successful Manchu expeditions as far afield as Siberia, Kazakhstan and Nepal.
楼主TerminatorSUN 时间:2010-03-20 17:06:16
  Inevitably, China's increasing contact with the West provides us with a new perspective on its military system. For the first time we are able to take a detached view, and see it not just through Chinese eyes, but through those of outsiders. Perhaps equally inevitably, the picture we get is not a flattering one. When reading the accounts of people as far apart in time as de Rada in the 1570s and Huc in the 1840s, it is impossible not to be struck by the similarities. The Chinese, we are repeatedly told, are cowardly and unwarlike, and when forced to fight, do so in disorganised crowds, capering and shouting in a ridiculous manner, with the emphasis on show rather than effectiveness.
楼主TerminatorSUN 时间:2010-03-20 17:17:15
  Reconciling this picture with the real military achievements of the Ming and Ch'ing dynasties is one of the more difficult tasks attempted here. We are helped, however, by a plentiful supply of information from the Chinese. The number of official and local histories, memoirs and gazetteers containing military data is vast, although only a tiny pro-portion is yet available in translation. Contemporary military encyclopaedias, of which the most famous is Mao Yuan-i's Wu Pei Chih of 1621, are another indispensable source. And of course there is a great deal of surviving artistic evidence, weapons and armour - much of which, ironically, has found its way to museums in the United Kingdom as a result of the defeats inflicted on the Ch'ing in the 19th century.
楼主TerminatorSUN 时间:2010-03-20 17:20:29
  I have tried to acknowledge the outstanding contribution to this series of the curators of some of this material. Naturally, they are not responsible for any errors, nor for any of my idiosyncrasies of interpretation.
楼主TerminatorSUN 时间:2010-03-20 17:34:23
  THE LATE MING, 1517-1598
  Although the Ming dynasty had expelled the Mongols from China in 1368, in the 16th century the main external threat still came from Mongol descendants on the northern frontier, who were intermittently united into confederations under leaders claiming descent from Chinggis Khan. The Cheng-te emperor of the Ming, who reigned from 1506 to 1521, has been judged harshly by traditional historians, in part because he showed an unseemly interest in military affairs and was not content to remain a figurehead. He achieved some success in battle against the Mongols, but under his successor, Chia-ching (1522-67), the gains were quickly thrown away. The new ruler presided over endless factional disputes at court, which prevented the development of a consistent military policy, but at the same time he was fanatically anti-Mongol and blocked all attempts at reaching an accommodation with them, punishing officials who dared to undertake negotiations.
作者:melissa_20 时间:2010-03-20 17:46:57
楼主TerminatorSUN 时间:2010-03-20 19:39:23
  作者:melissa_20 回复日期:2010-03-20 17:46:57 
楼主TerminatorSUN 时间:2010-03-20 19:57:51
  1517 Mongols defeated at Ying-chou. Arrival of the first Portuguese ambassador.
  1525 Seagoing junks ordered destroyed in an attempt to isolate China from foreign influences.
  c.1540 Construction of modern 'Great Wall' system begun.
  c.1540-c.1565 Heyday of wo-k'ou piracy in south-east China.
  1550 Siege of Peking by Altan Khan.
  1567 Ban on overseas trade lifted.
  c.1583 Rise to power of Nurhachi, future founder of the
  Manchu state.
  1593-98 War against the Japanese in Korea.
  1618-19 Major Ming offensive against the Manchus defeated.
  1626 Ming victory over Manchus at Ning-yuan. Death of
  1636 Manchus proclaim the Ch'ing dynasty.
  1644 Death of last Ming emperor. Short-lived Shun dynasty of Li Tzu-ch'eng. Manchus capture Peking.
  1661-1722 Reign of K'ang-hsi emperor.
  1664 Manchu conquest of Fukien. All of mainland China now under Ch'ing control.
  1673-81 Revolt of the 'Three Feudatories'.
  1683 Fall of the pro-Ming Cheng regime in Taiwan.
  1689 Sino-Russian border fixed by Treaty of Nerchinsk.
作者:燕大五 时间:2010-03-20 20:03:56
  Altan Khan.————
楼主TerminatorSUN 时间:2010-03-20 20:07:38
  1696 Defeat of Galdan Khan. Eastern Mongolia becomes a Ch'ing protectorate.
  1720 Tibet becomes a Chinese vassal.
  1736-96 Reign of Ch'ien-lung emperor.
  1757 Imperial decree restricts foreign trade to Canton.
  1757-59 Defeat of the Jungar Mongols and their Muslim allies.
  1792 Gurkhas of Nepal defeated by a Chinese expedition.
  1793 British embassy under Lord Macartney in Peking.
  1817-27 Muslim 'Jihad' of Jahangir in the Tarim Basin.
  1839 Outbreak of first Opium War with British.
  1842 Treaty of Nanking opens more Chinese ports to Western trade. British seize base at Hong Kong.
楼主TerminatorSUN 时间:2010-03-20 20:16:00
   Altan Khan.————
作者:chenhong90 时间:2010-03-20 21:22:54
楼主TerminatorSUN 时间:2010-03-21 16:46:49
  The same indecisiveness characterised the Chia-ching reign on other fronts. In 1513 Hami - an outpost on the Silk Road which had been controlled by the Ming since the 14th century - was occupied by the Sultan of Turfan, one of a number of independent Muslim rulers who had succeeded the Timurid and Chagatai Mongols in the Tarim Basin. The Chinese retaliated by hiring several armies of Mongol mercenaries to recapture Hami, but without success. In 1528 the city was finally written off, but the revelation of Ming weakness provoked raids from Turfan into north-west China, as well as revolts by Muslims within the empire. In 1537 a major expedition was planned against Vietnam, which had stopped paying tribute, but after three years of dithering the emperor dropped the idea. Subsequently the Burmese and Vietnamese, also scenting weakness, began to raid the southern provinces of Yunnan and Kwangsi.
楼主TerminatorSUN 时间:2010-03-21 19:26:08
  Another serious problem arose in the 1540s, when the pirates who had long plagued the south-east coast began to organise themselves into an effective military force. The main cause of this situation was the short-sightedness of the Chinese government, which from 1525 had attempted to isolate the population from foreign influences by a series of edicts restricting trade and seafaring. Local merchants seized offshore islands to use as bases for illegal trading with the Japanese and Portuguese, and soon graduated to full-scale piracy, raising large armies and even attacking cities on the coast. The pirates were initially supported by merchant families from Kyushu and Honshu, and reinforced by contingents of the Japanese pirates who had been operating for two centuries around the coasts of south-east Asia. The latter were always a minority, however; despite the name which the Ming gave to the insurgents - wo-k'ou or 'Japanese pirates' - more than two thirds of their manpower was Chinese.
楼主TerminatorSUN 时间:2010-03-21 19:55:44
  In 1547 Chu Wan was sent to suppress the insurgency, but the merchants had friends in the provincial government who engineered Chu Wan's dismissal.
  Yet more stringent restrictions on shipping prevented even fishermen from making a living and drove them to join the rebellion, so that by 1554 the wo-k'ou were stronger than ever, defeating several Ming armies on land, and threatening major coastal cities like Nanking and Hangchow.
  It was a combination of measures that finally brought the situation under control: two able generals, Hu Tsung-hsien and Ch'i Chi-kuang, intensified the military pressure, enabling the capture of the leading pirate, Wang Chih, in 1557. Then, in 1567, the ban on overseas trade was lifted. Profiting from the newly discovered route across the Pacific to the Spanish possessions in America, the region began to prosper and discontent receded.
作者:nanaUL 时间:2014-11-14 02:41:21