《中华帝国雄师晚景1520-1840》翻译的洋人的书(中译文是我自己写的)

楼主:TerminatorSUN 时间:2010-03-20 14:26:00 点击:957 回复:18
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大家好,我看到一本英文书LATE IMPERIAL CHINESE ARMIES 1520-1840,觉得很好,翻译给大家看。欢迎大家评论,拍砖轻点儿哦。
  
  SERIES EDITOR: LEE JOHNSON
  LATE IMPERIAL CHINESE
  ARMIES 1520-1840
  《中华帝国雄师晚景1520-1840》
  TEXT BY
  CHRIS PEERS
  克里斯•皮尔斯 著
  
  INTRODUCTION
  引言
  This is the fifth and final volume in a series which has attempted to outline the military history of China from the earliest historical records until the middle of the 19th century. Until recently this history has been relatively inaccessible to the general public in the West. There has, therefore, been a tendency to suppose that the art of war in China remained static over long periods of time, and that the parlous state of its armed forces at the time of the Opium Wars was their normal and unalterable condition, somehow rooted in the 'non-military' nature of the people of China and their culture. It is to be hoped that this series has gone some way to dispel that myth, and to promote some awareness of a history as varied, as interesting, and indeed as violent, as that of Europe.
  本卷是系列第五卷,也是最后一卷,旨在概要介绍从中国有最早的历史记录以来直到19世纪中叶的军事史。直到近期,这部历史仍然不为西方大众所广为熟知。因此,人们仍旧认为,中国的兵法长期以来并未长进,鸦片战争时中国军队的可怕状态就是他们无法改变的常态,中国人“不尚武”的本质,以及他们的文化,就是这种观念植根的土壤。希望本套丛书能够一定程度地驱散这种迷雾,增进人们对这段历史的意识,其实它与欧洲历史一样的异彩纷呈、妙趣横生,当然,它也充满暴力。
   This volume covers the period between the arrival of the first seaborne Europeans and the beginning of the series of 'unequal treaties' which forcibly opened China to European influence from the 1840s. During the Middle Ages, China had been in the forefront of military technology, pioneering the development of the cannon and the ocean-going ship, which foreigners were later to use against her. After the 15th century this progress was not maintained, and stagnation set in. The reasons for this remain the subject of much debate, but we can identify some of the main factors: the lack of interest in warfare shown by the scholar class; excessive government regulation, driven by the fear that improved weapons might get into the hands of rebels; bankruptcy and corruption during the declining years of the Ming dynasty; and perhaps above all the lack of local rivals of comparable strength, which bred a complacent assumption that Chinese organisation and numbers would always prevail.
  本册讲述的是从航海的欧洲人抵达中国到“不平等条约”签订这一段时期。洋人的坚船利炮迫使中国门户大开,自1840年起,中国被置于欧洲的影响之中。中世纪期间,中国位于军事技术的前沿,火炮和海上舰船的发展遥遥领先,而后来,这些武器都被洋人用来对付中国。15世纪之后,进步没有继续维持,停滞开始了。至于停滞的原因,却仍然是辩论的话题,但是我们可以找出几个主要的因素:士大夫阶层对战争缺乏兴趣;政府管控过多,害怕改进的武器落入叛党之手;明代衰落时期,国库空虚、腐败横行;可能还有一点最重要,中国长期以来在本土缺乏实力相当的对手,这使得中国对其体制和人口数量方面滋长了自满情绪,认为中国总会胜出。不管原因若何,16世纪前,欧洲的火器在设计上就已经超过了中国;而在19世纪中叶之前,中国已经远远落后于正在工业化的西方,从而事实上处于无助的地位。
  The huge size of the empire, its cultural self-confidence and its political sophistication prevented this technological imbalance from being as immediately disastrous as it had been for many other societies. There was never any question of the Chinese being subjugated by a handful of foreigners, as the Aztecs and Incas had been. In fact, as late as the end of the 18th century - following an era which had seen the world increasingly divided into colonial powers and their victims - China was still on the side of the winners. The Ch'ing dynasty of the Manchus, who had overthrown the native Ming in the 1640s, then ruled over the largest and most populous empire in the world, with territories that had doubled in size in the previous few decades.
  帝国幅员辽阔的疆土、对文化的自信,以及复杂的政治体制,使得这种技术上的不均衡并未像在别的社会中那样立刻带来灾难。中国人从未像阿兹特克人和印加人那样,面临过被一小股外国人征服的问题。实际上,晚至18世纪末,接下来的世界分化为殖民列强与受害国,而中国仍然处于赢家一方。满洲人建立的大清王朝,在17世纪40年代推翻了汉人的明王朝,统治着世界上最辽阔、人口最多的帝国,清朝的头几十年,疆土是后来的几倍。
  

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作者:kehao98513 时间:2010-03-20 14:31:02
  太少了,多翻点
作者:木鱼之木 时间:2010-03-20 16:19:00
  呵呵
  
楼主TerminatorSUN 时间:2010-03-20 16:59:12
  Under the Manchus, China reached its greatest ever extent – roughly the present boundaries of the People's Republic plus Taiwan, Mongolia and the northern part of Manchuria. In the process of gaining this territory they had finally subjugated the Central Asian nomads, the main threat to Chinese civilisation for two millennia. The period covered here also saw: the building of the present Great Wall; the forestalling of a Japanese attempt to conquer Korea; the tremendous and protracted struggle for power between the Ming and the Manchus; and successful Manchu expeditions as far afield as Siberia, Kazakhstan and Nepal.
  在满洲人治下,中国的疆域达到了顶峰——粗略地算,包括当前的中国大陆和台湾地区、蒙古、满洲地区的北部(西方Manchuria指东北。原文如此)。在开疆拓土的过程中,他们最终征服了中亚的游牧民族——两千年来华夏民族的心腹大患。这里讲的这段历史时期还会涉及到:现存长城的建造历程;挫败日本征服朝鲜的企图;明王朝与满清之间激烈而漫长的征战;满洲人对西伯利亚、哈萨克斯坦和尼泊尔的远征。
  
楼主TerminatorSUN 时间:2010-03-20 17:06:16
  Inevitably, China's increasing contact with the West provides us with a new perspective on its military system. For the first time we are able to take a detached view, and see it not just through Chinese eyes, but through those of outsiders. Perhaps equally inevitably, the picture we get is not a flattering one. When reading the accounts of people as far apart in time as de Rada in the 1570s and Huc in the 1840s, it is impossible not to be struck by the similarities. The Chinese, we are repeatedly told, are cowardly and unwarlike, and when forced to fight, do so in disorganised crowds, capering and shouting in a ridiculous manner, with the emphasis on show rather than effectiveness.
  必然地,中国与西方接触的增加让我们以一个新的视角审视它的军事体系。我们头一回能够采取一种超然的观点,从局外人的角度观察它,而不仅仅是透过中国人的眼睛审视它。同样必然的是,我们获得的图景一点也不讨好中国。当阅读人们的记述,远至16世纪70年代的马丁拉达,直到19世纪40年代的虎克,不难发现相似的地方。我们被反复告知,中国人懦弱、与世无争,当被迫战斗时,却又成了乌合之众,又跳又叫,可笑之极,简直就是更强调表演,而不是追求效力。
  
楼主TerminatorSUN 时间:2010-03-20 17:17:15
  Reconciling this picture with the real military achievements of the Ming and Ch'ing dynasties is one of the more difficult tasks attempted here. We are helped, however, by a plentiful supply of information from the Chinese. The number of official and local histories, memoirs and gazetteers containing military data is vast, although only a tiny pro-portion is yet available in translation. Contemporary military encyclopaedias, of which the most famous is Mao Yuan-i's Wu Pei Chih of 1621, are another indispensable source. And of course there is a great deal of surviving artistic evidence, weapons and armour - much of which, ironically, has found its way to museums in the United Kingdom as a result of the defeats inflicted on the Ch'ing in the 19th century.
  本书的意图之一,就在于将这样的光景与明朝和清朝真实的军事成就调和起来,难度可想而知。然而,我们从中国人浩如烟海的信息中得到了帮助。官方修订的历史和地方志、回忆录、邸报含有大量关于军事的内容,尽管这其中只有极少的部分已经过翻译。当时的最著名的军事百科全书,其中最为著名的是1621年茅元仪的《武备志》,是另一个不可或缺的资源。当然,还有大量的艺术品可以作为证据。讽刺的是,这其中有很多的兵器、盔甲,如今都存放于大英博物馆,这就是清代19世纪遭受惨败的结果。
  
楼主TerminatorSUN 时间:2010-03-20 17:20:29
  I have tried to acknowledge the outstanding contribution to this series of the curators of some of this material. Naturally, they are not responsible for any errors, nor for any of my idiosyncrasies of interpretation.
  我再次向这些资料的编纂人所作的贡献致谢。自然,他们不用对任何谬误负责,当然也不用对我的解读习惯负责。
  
楼主TerminatorSUN 时间:2010-03-20 17:34:23
  THE LATE MING, 1517-1598
  晚明1517-1598
  Although the Ming dynasty had expelled the Mongols from China in 1368, in the 16th century the main external threat still came from Mongol descendants on the northern frontier, who were intermittently united into confederations under leaders claiming descent from Chinggis Khan. The Cheng-te emperor of the Ming, who reigned from 1506 to 1521, has been judged harshly by traditional historians, in part because he showed an unseemly interest in military affairs and was not content to remain a figurehead. He achieved some success in battle against the Mongols, but under his successor, Chia-ching (1522-67), the gains were quickly thrown away. The new ruler presided over endless factional disputes at court, which prevented the development of a consistent military policy, but at the same time he was fanatically anti-Mongol and blocked all attempts at reaching an accommodation with them, punishing officials who dared to undertake negotiations.
  尽管明朝1368年将蒙古人赶出中国,在16世纪,主要的外患仍旧来自北疆的蒙元后裔,他们的头领往往自称成吉思汗苗裔,时断时续地结伙侵扰。明朝的正德皇帝,1506年-1521年在位,被传统史学家大加挞伐,部分因为他喜好武力,而不甘做名义上的君主。他对蒙古的征伐取得了一定战绩,然而在他的继任者嘉靖皇帝(1522-67)的治下,疆土得而复失。庙堂之上,这位新天子挑起了无尽的派系纷争,这扼杀了一贯的军事政策的成型。而同时,他又狂热地反对蒙古,拒绝任何与蒙古和解的企图,严惩敢于议和的官员。
  
作者:melissa_20 时间:2010-03-20 17:46:57
  加油
楼主TerminatorSUN 时间:2010-03-20 19:39:23
  作者:melissa_20 回复日期:2010-03-20 17:46:57 
    加油
  
  ______________________
  谢谢鼓励啊
楼主TerminatorSUN 时间:2010-03-20 19:57:51
  CHRONOLOGY
   年表
  1517 Mongols defeated at Ying-chou. Arrival of the first Portuguese ambassador.
  1517年蒙古于颍州被击败。首任葡萄牙使节抵华。
  1525 Seagoing junks ordered destroyed in an attempt to isolate China from foreign influences.
  1525年,下令毁禁海船,闭关锁国,使中国不受外国影响。
  c.1540 Construction of modern 'Great Wall' system begun.
  1540年,开始兴建“明长城”。
  c.1540-c.1565 Heyday of wo-k'ou piracy in south-east China.
  1540-1565年,中国东南沿海倭寇猖獗
  1550 Siege of Peking by Altan Khan.
  1550年,阿勒坛汗围困北京
  1567 Ban on overseas trade lifted.
  1567年,海外贸易解禁
  c.1583 Rise to power of Nurhachi, future founder of the
  Manchu state.
  1583年,努尔哈赤崛起,他即将成为未来满洲政权的创始人
  1593-98 War against the Japanese in Korea.
  1593-98年,在朝鲜开展对日战争
  1618-19 Major Ming offensive against the Manchus defeated.
  1618-19年,明朝发起对满洲的大规模进攻失败
  1626 Ming victory over Manchus at Ning-yuan. Death of
  Nurhachi.
  1626年,明军宁远大捷,努尔哈赤驾崩
  1636 Manchus proclaim the Ch'ing dynasty.
  1636年,满洲人宣布建立清朝
  1644 Death of last Ming emperor. Short-lived Shun dynasty of Li Tzu-ch'eng. Manchus capture Peking.
  1644年,明朝末代皇帝死亡。李自成大顺政权短祚而终。满清占领北京。
  1661-1722 Reign of K'ang-hsi emperor.
  1661-1772年,康熙帝在位。
  1664 Manchu conquest of Fukien. All of mainland China now under Ch'ing control.
  1664年,清廷攻占福建,中国大陆至此全部由清朝控制。
  1673-81 Revolt of the 'Three Feudatories'.
  1673-81年,三藩之乱。
  1683 Fall of the pro-Ming Cheng regime in Taiwan.
  1683年,支持明朝的郑氏政权在台湾瓦解。
  1689 Sino-Russian border fixed by Treaty of Nerchinsk.
  1689年,中俄边境依《尼布楚条约》划定。
  
作者:燕大五 时间:2010-03-20 20:03:56
  Altan Khan.————
  应该翻译成俺答。中国方面的资料都叫他俺答。
楼主TerminatorSUN 时间:2010-03-20 20:07:38
  1696 Defeat of Galdan Khan. Eastern Mongolia becomes a Ch'ing protectorate.
  1696年,平定噶尔丹,蒙古东部成为清朝保护领地。
  1720 Tibet becomes a Chinese vassal.
  1720,西藏归顺清朝。
  1736-96 Reign of Ch'ien-lung emperor.
  1736-96年,乾隆帝在位。
  1757 Imperial decree restricts foreign trade to Canton.
  1757,降旨限制外贸,仅限广州口岸。
  1757-59 Defeat of the Jungar Mongols and their Muslim allies.
  1757-59年,张格尔蒙古部落及其穆斯林盟友叛乱被平定。
  1792 Gurkhas of Nepal defeated by a Chinese expedition.
  1792年,清军远征尼泊尔廓尔喀并将其击败。
  1793 British embassy under Lord Macartney in Peking.
  1793年,英国马噶尔尼勋爵出使北京。
  1817-27 Muslim 'Jihad' of Jahangir in the Tarim Basin.
  1817-27年,贾汉吉尔在塔里木盆地发动穆斯林“圣战”。
  1839 Outbreak of first Opium War with British.
  1839年,与英国爆发第一次鸦片战争。
  1842 Treaty of Nanking opens more Chinese ports to Western trade. British seize base at Hong Kong.
  1842年,《南京条约》签订,更多港口对西方贸易开放。英国割占香港。
  
楼主TerminatorSUN 时间:2010-03-20 20:16:00
   Altan Khan.————
    应该翻译成俺答。中国方面的资料都叫他俺答。
  ————————————————————————————
  谢谢兄弟提醒,我也想起来了,金山词霸查的靠不住。
作者:chenhong90 时间:2010-03-20 21:22:54
  记号
楼主TerminatorSUN 时间:2010-03-21 16:46:49
  The same indecisiveness characterised the Chia-ching reign on other fronts. In 1513 Hami - an outpost on the Silk Road which had been controlled by the Ming since the 14th century - was occupied by the Sultan of Turfan, one of a number of independent Muslim rulers who had succeeded the Timurid and Chagatai Mongols in the Tarim Basin. The Chinese retaliated by hiring several armies of Mongol mercenaries to recapture Hami, but without success. In 1528 the city was finally written off, but the revelation of Ming weakness provoked raids from Turfan into north-west China, as well as revolts by Muslims within the empire. In 1537 a major expedition was planned against Vietnam, which had stopped paying tribute, but after three years of dithering the emperor dropped the idea. Subsequently the Burmese and Vietnamese, also scenting weakness, began to raid the southern provinces of Yunnan and Kwangsi.
  
  嘉靖在位期间的决策不力还体现在其他战线。1513年,自从14世纪以来一直被明朝控制的丝绸之路门户哈密,被吐鲁番的苏丹占领,这位苏丹是塔里木盆地当中那些继承了帖木儿和察合台汗国独立的穆斯林统治者的其中一位。作为报复,汉人征集了一些蒙古雇佣军企图重占哈密,却无功而返。1528年,这座城池最终被丢掉了,明朝暴露出来的软弱引起了吐鲁番更大的胃口,后者频频袭击中国西北地区,同时帝国内部的穆斯林叛乱此起彼伏。1537年,明军发起了一次针对越南的大规模远征,起因是越南停止向明朝进贡,但是经过三年的犹豫不决,皇帝最终放弃了这种想法。后来,暹罗和越南也嗅到了明朝的软弱,开始向云南、广西等南部省份侵袭。
  
楼主TerminatorSUN 时间:2010-03-21 19:26:08
  Another serious problem arose in the 1540s, when the pirates who had long plagued the south-east coast began to organise themselves into an effective military force. The main cause of this situation was the short-sightedness of the Chinese government, which from 1525 had attempted to isolate the population from foreign influences by a series of edicts restricting trade and seafaring. Local merchants seized offshore islands to use as bases for illegal trading with the Japanese and Portuguese, and soon graduated to full-scale piracy, raising large armies and even attacking cities on the coast. The pirates were initially supported by merchant families from Kyushu and Honshu, and reinforced by contingents of the Japanese pirates who had been operating for two centuries around the coasts of south-east Asia. The latter were always a minority, however; despite the name which the Ming gave to the insurgents - wo-k'ou or 'Japanese pirates' - more than two thirds of their manpower was Chinese.
  16世纪40年代出现了一个严重的问题,东南沿海倭寇肆虐,并且具有发展成武装力量的势头。导致这种局面的主因在于中国朝廷的短视,自1525年起,朝廷为了使黎民百姓不受外人影响,连续下发禁令,限制贸易与航海。地方的商人占据海盗作为基地,用于与日本人和葡萄牙人进行非法贸易,这很快就发展为全方位的海盗活动,大规模招兵买马,甚至袭击沿海城市。一开始,海盗背后有九州和本州的商人家族撑腰,而且得到了流窜于东南亚沿海长达两个世纪的小股海盗的增援。后者总是居少数,尽管明朝称这些作乱之人为“倭寇”,即“日本海盗”,然而,这其中三分之二的人是中国人。
  
楼主TerminatorSUN 时间:2010-03-21 19:55:44
  In 1547 Chu Wan was sent to suppress the insurgency, but the merchants had friends in the provincial government who engineered Chu Wan's dismissal.
  1547年,朱纨受命弹压匪乱,而那些商人在省府有内应,经过策划使朱纨被革职。
  
  Yet more stringent restrictions on shipping prevented even fishermen from making a living and drove them to join the rebellion, so that by 1554 the wo-k'ou were stronger than ever, defeating several Ming armies on land, and threatening major coastal cities like Nanking and Hangchow.
  然而,禁海令愈加严苛,甚至连渔民也无从谋生,只得加入叛乱。因此,到1554年的时候,倭寇势力日益壮大,在陆上打败了几支明军,威胁到南京、杭州这样的沿海城市。
  
  It was a combination of measures that finally brought the situation under control: two able generals, Hu Tsung-hsien and Ch'i Chi-kuang, intensified the military pressure, enabling the capture of the leading pirate, Wang Chih, in 1557. Then, in 1567, the ban on overseas trade was lifted. Profiting from the newly discovered route across the Pacific to the Spanish possessions in America, the region began to prosper and discontent receded.
  多管齐下的措施最终将局面稳住:胡宗宪和戚继光这两位才干出众的战将,加大了武力讨伐的力度,于1557年逮捕了海盗首领汪直。此后,在1567年,海外贸易的禁令解除。由于跨越太平洋到达西班牙的美洲属地的新航道的发现,该区域获利颇丰,经济开始繁荣,不满渐渐消退。
  
作者:nanaUL 时间:2014-11-14 02:41:21
  觉得不太全面,最大价值是可知一般外国人对古代中国军事的普遍印象。
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