新娘与偏见:中国跨族通婚状况(转载)[已扎口]

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  Bride and prejudice: rare ethnic marriages reflect China tensions
  新娘与偏见(小说《傲慢与偏见》的梗):
  中国跨族通婚状况
  AFP By Benjamin Haas

  Aygul (R), an ethnic Uighur, and her ethnic Han husband Xiaohe stand in the doorway to their apartment in Beijing, May 19,
  阿依古丽(右),一个维族姑娘和他的汉族丈夫小何站在他们北京公寓的门口,5月19号。




  Hotan (China) (AFP) - It was not until late on her wedding day that Aygul told her parents she was even in a relationship. And they were furious.
  和田(中国)(法新社)- 直到阿依古丽结婚那天晚上,才告诉父母,她谈朋友了。她父母暴怒了。

  A year later, her Uighur father was still so angry she had chosen a Han husband he beat her up in a Beijing train station, stamping on her throat as he hurled insults.
  一年后,她的维吾尔族父亲仍然恼怒于她选择了一个汉族丈夫。他在北京火车站打了她,掐她的脖子并辱骂她。

  "They hounded me and demanded I choose: my mother and father or my husband," said the 26-year-old website editor. "They told me I had to leave him."
  “他们逼我选择:要父母还是要丈夫”,26岁的网络编辑阿依古丽说。“他们说我必须离开他”。

  Against a backdrop of prejudice and violence, inter-ethnic marriages between Uighurs, a mostly Muslim minority who speak a Turkic language, and China's ethnic majority Han are extremely rare.
  在偏见和暴力的衬托下,维吾尔族(一个说突厥语的穆斯林少数民族)与中国的主体民族汉族的通婚极为罕见。

  Uighurs in their home region of Xinjiang have long chafed under Beijing's yoke and say they face restrictions on religion, language and culture, with some yearning for independence.
  维吾尔族在他们的老家新疆长期恼火于北京的控制,并声称他们在宗教、语言和文化各方面受到限制,一些人希望独立出去。

  China counters it has brought development and raised living standards, blaming sporadic but intensifying violence that killed more than 200 last year on Islamist separatists with overseas connections.
  中国对此表示反对,认为自己带来了发展,提高了生活水平。中国声称是与海外有联系的伊斯兰分裂分子制造了不时发生并且愈演愈烈的暴力活动,去年有超过200人丧生。

  Official media have laboured to showcase Han-Uighur marriages -- with couples singing the praises of the government and Communist Party -- as a symbol of "ethnic unity".
  官方媒体把汉维通婚的例子处理成样板戏——夫妻赞颂党和政府——以此作为“民族团结”的标志。

  The phrase is common on propaganda posters throughout Xinjiang, but such messages have to contend with centuries of division.
  印有这种宣传标语的海报遍布全疆,却与几百年的民族割裂的现实相冲突。

  Han Chinese couples dance in a square in Hotan, in China's western Xinjiang region, April 15, 20
  汉族夫妻在中国西部新疆地区和田市的一个广场跳广场舞


  "Since I was 12, my mother always told me: 'Concentrate on your studies and don't find a Han boyfriend'," said Aygul. "But I was educated in a Chinese-language school and most of my classmates and friends were Han."
  “从我12岁起,我妈就对我说:‘专心学习,不要找汉族男朋友'”,阿丽古丽说。“但我在汉校上学,我的大多数同学和朋友是汉族”。

  Her husband Xiaohe, a 30-year-old translator, had already given up pork, prohibited by Islam, and tried to make a good impression on her parents with a three-page handwritten letter in Uighur, without success.
  她的丈夫小何,一个30岁的翻译,已经放弃吃伊斯兰禁忌的猪肉,并给她父母用维吾尔文手写了三页纸的信,极力想留下个好印象,但没成功。

  Ming, a Han married to Ahman, a Uighur woman from the oil town of Karamay, got a similar reaction the first time he spoke to her parents.
  明,一个娶了来自石油城克拉玛依的维吾尔姑娘阿曼的汉族人,在他第一次与妻子父母交谈时得到了类似的反应。

  "Her father told me: 'If you are going to marry my daughter, then I'll disown her'," he said.
  “她爸对我说:‘你如果和我女儿结婚,我就和她断绝关系’”。

  His wife -- who was attacked by a group of Uighur classmates as a teenager for having a previous Han boyfriend -- added: "My parents see my marriage to a Han as a loss of face."
  他的妻子——在十几岁时就因为交了之前另一个汉族男朋友而遭到一帮维吾尔族同学的围攻——补充说:“我父母认为我和汉族结婚丢了他们的面子”。

  - 'Symbolic invasion' -
  “有象征意义的占领”

  Uighur-Han marriages are largely confined to wealthier, more educated Uighurs, who often attend Mandarin-language schools and go to university outside Xinjiang, or the very poor, mainly from tight-knit farming communities where Han residents speak Uighur and share customs.
  维汉通婚很多发生在相对富有些、受到更多教育的维吾尔族人身上,他们一般上的是汉语学校,并且在新疆之外上大学;或者是发生在赤贫阶层,在邻里关系紧密的农村地区,当地汉族往往说维语并接受维吾尔习俗。



  Both sides often cite cultural or religious differences for the divide, but Newcastle University professor Joanne Smith Finley, a Uighur culture expert, said the true but unspoken issue is politics.
  双方都经常把文化与宗教的差异作为产生隔阂的原因,但是纽卡斯尔大学教授Joanne Smith Finley,一个维吾尔文化专家,认为政治才是这一切背后说不出口的秘密。

  "The number one reason for the taboo on inter-ethnic courtship and intermarriage is inter-ethnic conflict," she said, adding that Uighur women married to Han men face the harshest ostracism due to the patriarchal nature of Islamic societies.
  “垮族恋爱以及通婚禁忌的第一条原因,就是民族冲突”,她说,并补充道,维吾尔族妇女与汉族男性结合将面对最激烈的排斥,因为伊斯兰社会的父权制天性。

  "A Han Chinese man taking a Uighur woman as his wife is seen as symbolic invasion," she explained.
  “汉族男性娶维吾尔族的女性为妻,被视为一种有象征意义的占领”,她解释道。

  "Just as China is taking the oil, natural gas, gold and jade, and has reduced the people to a marginalised, impoverished and disenfranchised section of society in Xinjiang, when a Chinese man takes a Uighur wife, Uighurs view that as the physical embodiment of what China the state is doing to the Uighur homeland."
  “中国拿走了石油,天然气,黄金和玉石,并且(把维吾尔族)挤压到边缘化,穷困和没有选举权的社会阶层;这时候一个汉族男性娶维族女性为妻,维族把这看作中国对新疆的攫取的一种象征”。

  Uighurs had the lowest intermarriage rate of China's 56 officially recognised ethnic groups at 1 percent, according to Xinjiang Academy of Social Sciences researcher Li Xiaoxia, who analysed 2000 census data. That fell to 0.6 percent for Uighur-Han unions.
  维吾尔族有中国正式承认的56个民族中最低的垮族通婚率,也就是1%,新疆社科院学者李晓霞统计了2000例调查数据后得出了这个结论。而维汉结合的比例低至0.6%。

  "There is huge difference between Uighurs and Han in terms of culture and language," she said, adding that more recent data showed little change. "People are prone to look for relationships with someone with the same ethnicity."
  “维吾尔族和汉族在文化和语言上有巨大差异”,她说,并且这个数据随着时间流逝并没有有什么改变,“人们倾向于与族群内的人发展关系。”

  Yet the Hui, who like Uighurs are Muslim, have an intermarriage rate about 13 times higher -- although they share a language and many more live in China's heartland cities.
  然而回族,与维吾尔族类似,是穆斯林,垮族通婚率则高13倍——当然他们讲汉语并且很多居住在中国内陆。



  - 'Nothing in common' -
  “没有共同点”

  The reaction of Ming's parents was typical of how many Han view Uighurs, informed by stereotypes and casual racism.
  明的父母的反应,则是汉族对维吾尔族常见的看法,来自于刻板印象和带偏见的种族歧视。

  "My parents thought all Uighurs were pickpockets or scam artists selling so-called ethnic food for inflated prices," said

  the 28-year-old, a manager at a state-owned company.
  “我父母认为维族都是小偷或者打着卖所谓民族食品的幌子讹人的骗子”,这位28岁的国企经理说。

  Xiaohe's parents, from the northern province of Hebei, were more positive. "At first my parents thought it was strange, but then they found out she graduated from Peking University" -- an elite school often called the Harvard of China -- he said.
  小何的父母,来自中国北方省份河北,看法则更正面一些。“一开始我父母觉得这有点怪,但是后来他们发现她毕业于北京大学”。

  "They said: 'Your grades were never that good and your wife is so smart, this is great'."
  “他们说:你的成绩可没这么好,你老婆很聪明,这很棒”。

  The couples who spoke to AFP requested anonymity due to the sensitivity of the issue.
  因为这个话题的敏感性,这对夫妻要求法新社匿名报道。

  Ahman, Ming, Aygul and Xiaohe are members of a mixed couples' chat group where they swap stories, tips and support. Their unions have only survived because they live in Beijing, they say.
  阿曼,明,阿依古丽和小何,是一个异族组合聊天群的成员,在群里他们交流经历,敲门,并互相支持。他们说这个团体之所以能够存在,只因为他们生活在北京。

  "It would be impossible for us to be married and live in Xinjiang," said Xiaohe. "The social pressures are just too intense."
  “在新疆我们不可能结合并生活在一起”,小何说。“社会压力太大”。

  Some believe authorities in the region -- home to around 10 million Uighurs -- should act to encourage inter-ethnic marriages.
  一些人认为地方政府——1千万维吾尔族人的家乡——应该鼓励跨族通婚。

  But an almost year-long programme in rural Qiemo county that offered couples as much as 50,000 yuan ($8,000) -- a fortune where average income is less than $3 a day -- had no effect, according to an official.
  但是一位官员透露,且末县农村地区开展奖励(跨族通婚)5万元的计划——在一个人均收入每天不到3美元的地区这是一笔巨款了——快一年下来,零成果。

  In neighbouring Hotan, many said cultural differences are insurmountable.
  在相邻的和田,很多人说文化差异是不可逾越的。

  "I would never let my son marry a Han, the only way would be if she converted to Islam," said Uighur restaurateur Mehmet Omar. "Even then, I'd be worried she wouldn't respect our traditions and wouldn't take good care of my grandchildren. She would have to be a very good Muslim before I could accept her."
  “我不会让我儿子娶一个汉人,除非她改信伊斯兰,”一个维吾尔饭馆老板买买提奥马尔说(或者译为默罕默德奥马尔)。“即使那样,我也担心她会不尊重我们的传统、不能好好照顾我们的孙辈。她必须是一个非常好的穆斯林,我才能接受她”。

  Taxi driver Xing Yongzhen said pork's central place in Chinese cuisine would be a major issue.
  出租车司机邢永真说,猪肉在中餐(汉餐)里的中心地位,也是一个大问题。

  "I would only marry a Han," he said. "If I had a Uighur wife, we'd never be able to eat together. Our lifestyles are completely different, there's nothing in common."
  “我只会找汉族”,他说。“如果我有一个维族老婆,我们就永远不能一起吃饭了。我们的生活方式是完全不同的,没有任何共同点”。

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