楼主:hequanyou 时间:2011-01-29 00:27:00 点击:3413 回复:15
脱水 打赏 看楼主 设置





译文导读:"马六甲困局 "扼住了今天中国经济和工业的咽喉。这条生命线的命名,源于马六甲王国。马六甲王国是中国的朝贡附属国,是郑和的海军基地,是中国在东南亚最重要的支点。它控制范围下的南洋诸岛——也就是后来的香料群岛——也是明王朝的势力范围。马六甲和香料群岛有什么故事?中国是怎么失去它们的?
    敬请关注明日专题马来西亚。The Melaka Sultanate
    马六甲王朝 (满剌加苏丹国)
    The Melaka Sultanate was founded by Parameswara in 1401. He was a fugitive prince from Palembang in Sumatra, and had arrived in Melaka via Temasik, the Singapore of old. According to legend, he was so impressed by a fleeing mouse-deer that had turned to kick at his hunting dogs, he decided to build a settlement on the spot where he was leaning against a Melaka tree.
    *拜里米苏拉或拜里迷苏剌 (马来语:Parameswara 1344年─1424年),著名的满剌加苏丹国(马六甲王朝)创始人。依据马来史记(Sejarah Melayu)原为室利佛逝,巨港(现今印尼苏门答腊)东南区域的王子,传统信奉印度教混合佛教。
    In 1414, Parameswara embraced Islam, changed his name to Megat Iskandar Shah, and married a Muslim princess from Pasai, Sumatra. The move attracted Muslim traders to the port, bringing it instant international fame. Maintaining good relations with Ming China, he sent mission after mission to Peking in 1415, 1416 and 1418. Upon his death in 1424, Megat Iskandar Shah was succeeded by his son Sri Maharaja (1424-1444) whose first mission was to visit Emperor Yung Lo of Ming China to inform of his father’s death, and also to pay his respects as the new ruler of Melaka.
    1414年,拜里迷苏剌皈依了伊斯兰教*,改名依斯甘达沙**,娶了苏门答腊岛上帕赛王国***的公主为妻。这些举动吸引了穆斯林商人们来到这个港口,从而很快就赢得了国际声誉。为了维持和明朝的良好关系,他在1415年1416年和1418年一次又一次地派出使团前往北京****。依斯甘达沙死于1424年,其子斯里马哈拉惹(马来文Sri Maharaja1424-1444)继位,他的首个使命就是去面见中国明朝的永乐大帝,报告其父之死,并以马六甲新任统治者的身份来朝拜致敬。
    Sultan Muzaffar Shah (1446-1456) the son of Sri Maharaja and grandson of Megat Iskandar Shah alias Parameswara, ascended the Melaka throne in 1446 succeeding his elder brother, Raja Ibrahim. He was the first Malay ruler to use the Arabian title of "Sultan", and to formulate the Melaka Laws known as Risalah Hukum Kanun in Arabic. During his reign, he forged stronger relations with Ming China in order to protect the sovereignty and prosperity of Melaka.
    斯里马哈拉惹的儿子,苏丹穆扎法沙在1446年即位,他是首个使用阿拉伯“苏丹”称呼的马来君主,并制定了马六甲法律(Risalah Hukum Kanun)。在他的统治期间,他加强深化了和明王朝的关系,以保护统治权和马六甲的繁荣。
    At its peak, Melaka became the most important port in the East, between the Mediterranean Sea and China. Over 80 languages were spoken there, and at times there were more than 4,000 traders housed in special quarters. There was the Indian quarter, the Chinese quarter, the Javanese quarter, and others. They were treated well and warehouses were made available to store their goods. The Syahbandar or the Port Authority took care of their needs, while the Melaka fleet, comprising 40 to 100 ships, guaranteed the safety of the merchants and their goods.
    马六甲在巅峰期成为间于地中海与中国之间的最重要的东方港口。有超过80种语言通行于此,而且时常有超过4000名商人驻扎在不同商馆中。这里有印度商馆,中国商馆,爪哇商馆,等等。他们被盛情接待,并有专用仓库存放货物。港主 (syahbandar)或者港口当局会照顾他们的需求,而由40到100艘舰艇组成的马六甲舰队则保证了商人和货物的安全。
    The source of food for Melaka was in Indonesia, which also had an abundant supply of spices to offer the international market at that time. Ships from Melaka regularly sailed to Demak, Grisek and Japara in Eastern Java to transport these necessary items home for use and re-sale.
    马六甲的食品来源是印度尼西亚,此外印尼还为当时的国际市场大量供应了香料。马六甲的船队定期航向东爪哇的Demak, Grisek以及 Japara,运回这些必需品以供消费和转售。
    The Straits of Melaka provided excellent shelter from the prevailing storms raging in the open ocean. In those days, prior to silting problems, the port could handle ocean-going vessels from all over the world. The Melaka Sultanate enjoyed a good relationship with the Ming Emperors of China, namely Emperor Yung Lo. The Chinese provided Melaka protection from the Siamese and other enemies. In this way, the area was safe and full of promise and prosperity.
    The government structure of the Melaka Sultanate was like a pyramid with the Sultan at the apex as the all- powerful Head of State. Under him, there was a council of 4 Ministers, namely the Bendahara, who controlled the military, defence, and royal customs and traditions. The Temenggong, as Chief of Police, controlled internal affairs relating to peace and order. The third key post was held by the Penghulu Bendahari who was the Sultan’s Treasurer cum Secretary. The Laksamana was the Admiral who controlled the fleet.
    马六甲王国的政府结构是金字塔型的,位于塔顶的苏丹集所有大权于一身。在他之下有4位大臣。首先是Bendahara,掌管了军事,防御,皇家规范和传统。第二是Temenggong,治安总管,主管国内治安和秩序。第三位是Penghulu Bendahari,是苏丹的财政大臣和秘书。最后是Laksamana,海军舰队的司令。
    Under the four Ministers, there were 8 senior directors, all bearing the title Sri. Under them were 16 junior directors with the title Raja. At the bottom of the hierarchy were 32 government officers whose job was to aid the Ministers in carrying out their duties. Some of them were district or regional chiefs.
    在四位大臣之下,有8位高级官员,官衔是Sri. 他们之下是16位中级官员,官衔是Raja. 在系统底层的是32位政府职员,任务是协助大臣们行使职权。部分职员同时即为某些地区的首领。
    This administrative system was implemented by all the states in the Malay Peninsula, which at that time were united under the Melaka Sultanate. This system came to be known as the traditional political system of the Malay states.
    The Portuguese Conquest
    This is an extremely abridged version of the Portuguese conquest. The Portuguese arrived in Malacca in 1509, under Diego Lopes de Sequeira. Afraid that the Portuguese would be a threat to their trade monopoly, the Indian Muslim merchants had persuaded the Sultan to attack Diego Lopes de Sequeira’’s fleet. That stupid act, for it provided the Portuguese an excuse to attack Malacca. And they did, two years later, with a vengence, in the form of Alfonso de Albuquerque.
    非常非常简略地介绍一下葡萄牙人的征服史。葡萄牙人是1509年在迭戈.洛佩兹Diego Lopes de Sequeira的率领下到达马六甲的。由于印度穆斯林商人担心葡萄牙人会威胁到自己对商贸的垄断,他们说服了苏丹进攻迭戈.洛佩兹的舰队。这是一个愚蠢的举动,这为葡萄牙人提供了攻击马六甲的借口。而葡萄牙人也的确用上了这个借口,两年后,葡萄牙人阿方索Alfonso de Albuquerque*来了。
    *阿方索.亚伯奎Alfonso de Albuquerque,葡萄牙驻印度总督
    When the Portuguest fled Malacca in 1509, they left behind twenty men who were taken prisoners. So when Albuquerque returned, he demanded, in addition to their release, full reimbursement for the cost of the second Portuguese voyage to Malacca, and the construction of the fortress. When the Sultan appeared to play for time, Albuquerque went on the offensive and attacked without further delay.
    Central in disarming the Sultan’’s forces was to cut his supplies across the Malacca River. To do this, the Portuguese had to capture the bridge across the river. The first attack was launched on 25 July 1511, with limited success. Although they managed to capture the bridge, they were unable to hold on to it. In the second attack, on 10 August, he employed a new strategy by sending a tall junk towards the bridge, to act as a ladder from which his army can climb on board the bridge. After much fierce battle, the city of Malacca was finally in Portuguese hands on 24 August 1511.
    The Sultan and his son fled inland, first to Pahang and then to Johor. They would not live to set foot on Malacca as its rulers again. The rest of the citizens of Malacca offered no resistence.
    The Spice Islands香料群岛
    The island region where Tim Severin and his crew will sail is known as the Spice Islands. Another name for this group is the Moluccas or Maluku. Although romantically named, the Spice Islands have a long and bloody history.
    Tim Severin(本文作者,英国探险家,历史学家)和他的船员们即将到达的岛屿叫做香料群岛。这些岛屿还有个名字就是马鲁古,虽然名字很浪漫,香料群岛的历史却是漫长而血腥的。
    Today the importance of the Spice Islands is as one of the few surviving areas of primary tropical rainforest with a rich natural history. In previous centuries the islands’’ importance lay with their name. As the source of cloves and nutmeg they were the focus of attention from traders since 300 B.C. or possibly earlier. Chinese, Indian and Arab merchants sought out these riches long before the European powers came to Maluku. The Arab connection, in particular, meant that the Muslim Influence was very strong. Individual sultans amassed great wealth and came to control the precious spice trade. Indeed, by the early 1500s, Maluku was known as Jazirat-al-Muluk or "Land of Many Kings."
    香料群岛是仅存的几个拥有丰富原生历史文化的原始热带雨林地区之一,所以拥有相当的重要性。之前的几个世纪岛的名字与她的重要程度紧密相关。因为岛上出产丁香和肉蔻,从公元前300年或者更早的时候开始商人们就把目光集中在这里,在欧洲势力到达以前,中国商人,印度商人还有阿拉伯商人都在香料群岛发财。具体来说,因为阿拉伯商人的缘故,穆斯林在岛上的影响很大,各个苏丹聚敛大量财富,控制珍贵的香料贸易。事实上,1500年以前,香料群岛被称为Jazirat-al-Muluk 或者“万王之地”。
    It was at this time that Europeans first came to the Moluccas in search of cloves and nutmeg. They were highly valued as food preservatives. Wealthy ladies used to keep spices in lockets around their necks so they could freshen their breaths easily. Gentlemen added nutmeg to food and drink. Spices were also used for medicinal purposes, especially in the relief of colic, gout and rheumatism. Such great demand meant that the prices of nutmeg and cloves soared. To offset this crisis expeditions were launched to find the source of these spices and bring them directly back to Europe.
    Christopher Columbus was searching for the fabled route to the Indies when he arrived at the Americas in 1492. Not long after this the Portuguese enforced their rule on parts of the Moluccan Islands. Along with the spice traders came military forces and missionaries keen on converting the natives of the islands. Conflict soon broke out and the Portuguese brutally crushed the islanders. The natives continued to disrupt Portuguese trade and everyday life in the islands and within a century they were replaced by the Spanish. They did not last long either and lost out to the Dutch who governed the islands between 1605 and 1945.
    The period of Dutch rule is marked by the usage of vast plantations as a means of producing vast quantities of spices for the European markets. All the land was under the control of the Dutch East Indies Company and anyone caught selling land, however small, was executed. By the early 1800s new plantations of spices in Africa and India meant that there was a greater choice of supply available to the traders. As a consequence, prices fell and the Dutch were in trouble. It was around this time that Alfred Russel Wallace arrived in the Malay Archipelago.
    Today, the Spice Islands make up Maluku Propinsi (or Maluku Province) of the Republic of Indonesia.
    今天,香料群岛成为了印尼共和国的Maluku Propinsi(马鲁古省)。


0 点赞

举报 | | 楼主 | 埋红包
楼主发言:1次 发图:0张 | 添加到话题 |
楼主hequanyou 时间:2011-01-29 00:30:23
作者:龙业 时间:2011-01-30 10:28:07
作者:毛方 时间:2011-01-30 11:43:24
作者:网上无情人 时间:2011-01-30 12:19:07
作者:lxzfn 时间:2011-01-30 13:48:48
作者:GP_9999 时间:2011-01-30 13:59:03
作者:黑黑的东西 时间:2011-01-30 14:08:43
作者:徐凸凹 时间:2011-01-30 16:25:05
作者:小阿呆xy 时间:2011-01-30 16:49:20
作者:加勒比海商人 时间:2011-01-30 16:58:11